Role of the DELSEED loop in torque transmission of F1-ATPase.
ABSTRACT: F(1)-ATPase is an ATP-driven rotary motor that generates torque at the interface between the catalytic ?-subunits and the rotor ?-subunit. The ?-subunit inwardly rotates the C-terminal domain upon nucleotide binding/dissociation; hence, the region of the C-terminal domain that is in direct contact with ?-termed the DELSEED loop-is thought to play a critical role in torque transmission. We substituted all the DELSEED loop residues with alanine to diminish specific DELSEED loop-? interactions and with glycine to disrupt the loop structure. All the mutants rotated unidirectionally with kinetic parameters comparable to those of the wild-type F(1), suggesting that the specific interactions between DELSEED loop and ? is not involved in cooperative interplays between the catalytic ?-subunits. Glycine substitution mutants generated half the torque of the wild-type F(1), whereas the alanine mutant generated comparable torque. Fluctuation analyses of the glycine/alanine mutants revealed that the ?-subunit was less tightly held in the ?(3)?(3)-stator ring of the glycine mutant than in the wild-type F(1) and the alanine mutant. Molecular dynamics simulation showed that the DELSEED loop was disordered by the glycine substitution, whereas it formed an ?-helix in the alanine mutant. Our results emphasize the importance of loop rigidity for efficient torque transmissions.
Project description:F1-ATPase (F1) is an ATP-driven rotary motor in which the three catalytic ? subunits in the stator ring sequentially induce the unidirectional rotation of the rotary ? subunit. Many lines of evidence have revealed open-to-closed conformational transitions in the ? subunit that swing the C-terminal domain inward. This conformational transition causes a C-terminal protruding loop with conserved sequence DELSEED to push the ? subunit. Previous work, where all residues of DELSEED were substituted with glycine to disrupt the specific interaction with ? and introduce conformational flexibility, showed that F1 still rotated, but that the torque was halved, indicating a remarkable impact on torque transmission. In this study, we conducted a stall-and-release experiment on F1 with a glycine-substituted DELSEED loop to investigate the impact of the glycine substitution on torque transmission upon ATP binding and ATP hydrolysis. The mutant F1 showed a significantly reduced angle-dependent change in ATP affinity, whereas there was no change in the equilibrium for ATP hydrolysis. These findings indicate that the DELSEED loop is predominantly responsible for torque transmission upon ATP binding but not for that upon ATP hydrolysis.
Project description:ATP synthase uses a unique rotational mechanism to convert chemical energy into mechanical energy and back into chemical energy. The helix-turn-helix structure in the C-terminal domain of the β subunit containing the conserved DELSEED motif, termed "DELSEED-loop," was suggested to be involved in coupling between catalysis and rotation. If this is indeed the role of the loop, it must have a critical length, the minimum length required to sustain its function. Here, the critical length of the DELSEED-loop was determined by functional analysis of mutants of Bacillus PS3 ATP synthase that had 7-14 amino acids within the loop deleted. A 10 residue deletion lost the ability to catalyze ATP synthesis, but was still an active ATPase. Deletion of 14 residues abolished any enzymatic activity. Modeling indicated that in both deletion mutants the DELSEED-loop was shortened by ∼10 Å; fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments confirmed the modeling results. This appears to define the minimum length for DELSEED-loop required for coupling of catalysis and rotation. In addition, we could demonstrate that the loss of high-affinity binding to the catalytic site(s) that had been observed previously in two deletion mutants with 3-4 residues removed was not due to the loss of negative charged residues of the DELSEED motif in these mutants. An AALSAAA mutant in which all negative charges of the DELSEED motif were removed showed a normal pattern for MgATP binding to the catalytic sites, with a clearly present high-affinity site.
Project description:ATP synthase uses a unique rotational mechanism to convert chemical energy into mechanical energy and back into chemical energy. The helix-turn-helix motif, termed "DELSEED-loop," in the C-terminal domain of the beta subunit was suggested to be involved in coupling between catalysis and rotation. Here, the role of the DELSEED-loop was investigated by functional analysis of mutants of Bacillus PS3 ATP synthase that had 3-7 amino acids within the loop deleted. All mutants were able to catalyze ATP hydrolysis, some at rates several times higher than the wild-type enzyme. In most cases ATP hydrolysis in membrane vesicles generated a transmembrane proton gradient, indicating that hydrolysis occurred via the normal rotational mechanism. Except for two mutants that showed low activity and low abundance in the membrane preparations, the deletion mutants were able to catalyze ATP synthesis. In general, the mutants seemed less well coupled than the wild-type enzyme, to a varying degree. Arrhenius analysis demonstrated that in the mutants fewer bonds had to be rearranged during the rate-limiting catalytic step; the extent of this effect was dependent on the size of the deletion. The results support the idea of a significant involvement of the DELSEED-loop in mechanochemical coupling in ATP synthase. In addition, for two deletion mutants it was possible to prepare an alpha(3)beta(3)gamma subcomplex and measure nucleotide binding to the catalytic sites. Interestingly, both mutants showed a severely reduced affinity for MgATP at the high affinity site.
Project description:The cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of connexins has been implicated in multiple aspects of gap junction function, including connexin trafficking/assembly and channel gating. A synthetic peptide corresponding to the first 23 amino acids of human connexin37 was prepared, and circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance studies showed that this N-terminal peptide was predominantly alpha-helical between glycine 5 and glutamate 16. The importance of this structure for localization of the protein at appositional membranes and channel function was tested by expression of site-directed mutants of connexin37 in which amino acids leucine 10 and glutamine 15 were replaced with prolines or alanines. Wild type connexin37 and both substitution mutants localized to appositional membranes between transfected HeLa cells. The proline mutant did not allow intercellular transfer of microinjected neurobiotin; the alanine mutant allowed transfer, but less extensively than wild type connexin37. When expressed alone in Xenopus oocytes, wild type connexin37 produced hemichannel currents, but neither of the double substitution mutants produced detectable currents. The proline mutant (but not the alanine mutant) inhibited co-expressed wild type connexin37. Taken together, our data suggest that the alpha-helical structure of the connexin37 N terminus may be dispensable for protein localization, but it is required for channel and hemichannel function.
Project description:Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a homotrimeric protein that functions as a sliding clamp during DNA replication. Several mutant forms of PCNA that block translesion DNA synthesis have been identified in genetic studies in yeast. One such mutant protein (encoded by the rev6-1 allele) is a glycine to serine substitution at residue 178, located at the subunit interface of PCNA. To improve our understanding of how this substitution interferes with translesion synthesis, we have determined the X-ray crystal structure of the PCNA G178S mutant protein. This substitution has little effect on the structure of the domain in which the substitution occurs. Instead, significant, local structural changes are observed in the adjacent subunit. The most notable difference between mutant and wild-type structures is in a single, extended loop (comprising amino acid residues 105-110), which we call loop J. In the mutant protein structure, loop J adopts a very different conformation in which the atoms of the protein backbone have moved by as much as 6.5 A from their positions in the wild-type structure. To improve our understanding of the functional consequences of this structural change, we have examined the ability of this mutant protein to stimulate nucleotide incorporation by DNA polymerase eta (pol eta). Steady state kinetic studies show that while wild-type PCNA stimulates incorporation by pol eta opposite an abasic site, the mutant PCNA protein actually inhibits incorporation opposite this DNA lesion. These results show that the position of loop J in PCNA plays an essential role in facilitating translesion synthesis.
Project description:The HI loop is a prominent domain on the adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid surface that extends from each viral protein (VP) subunit overlapping the neighboring fivefold VP. Despite the highly conserved nature of the residues at the fivefold pore, the HI loops surrounding this critical region vary significantly in amino acid sequence between the AAV serotypes. In order to understand the role of this unique capsid domain, we ablated side chain interactions between the HI loop and the underlying EF loop in the neighboring VP subunit by generating a collection of deletion, insertion, and substitution mutants. A mutant lacking the HI loop was unable to assemble particles, while a substitution mutant (10 glycine residues) assembled particles but was unable to package viral genomes. Substitution mutants carrying corresponding regions from AAV1, AAV4, AAV5, and AAV8 yielded (i) particles with titers and infectivity identical to those of AAV2 (AAV2 HI1 and HI8), (ii) particles with a decreased virus titer (1 log) but normal infectivity (HI4), and (iii) particles that synthesized VPs but were unable to assemble into intact capsids (HI5). AAV5 HI is shorter than all other HI loops by one amino acid. Replacing the missing residue (threonine) in AAV2 HI5 resulted in a moderate particle assembly rescue. In addition, we replaced the HI loop with peptides varying in length and amino acid sequence. This region tolerated seven-amino-acid peptide substitutions unless they spanned a conserved phenylalanine at amino acid position 661. Mutation of this highly conserved phenylalanine to a glycine resulted in a modest decrease in virus titer but a substantial decrease (1 log order) in infectivity. Subsequently, confocal studies revealed that AAV2 F661G is incapable of efficiently completing a key step in the infectious pathway nuclear entry, hinting at a possible perturbation of VP1 phospholipase activity. Molecular modeling studies with the F661G mutant suggest that disruption of interactions between F661 and an underlying P373 residue in the EF loop of the neighboring subunit might adversely affect incorporation of the VP1 subunit at the fivefold axis. Western blot analysis confirmed inefficient incorporation of VP1, as well as a proteolytically processed VP1 subunit that could account for the markedly reduced infectivity. In summary, our studies show that the HI loop, while flexible in amino acid sequence, is critical for AAV capsid assembly, proper VP1 subunit incorporation, and viral genome packaging, all of which implies a potential role for this unique surface domain in viral infectivity.
Project description:We have determined the nucleotide sequences of eight ethyl methanesulphonate-induced mutants in Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), of which six were previously characterized by Hollocher and Place [(1988) Genetics 116, 253-263 and 265-274]. Four of these ADH mutants contain a single amino acid change: glycine-17 to arginine, glycine-93 to glutamic acid, alanine-159 to threonine, and glycine-184 to aspartic acid. Although these mutants are inactive, three mutants (Gly17Arg, Gly93Glu and Gly184Asp) form stable homodimers, as well as heterodimers with wild-type ADH, in which the wild-type ADH subunit retains full enzyme activity [Hollocher and Place (1988) Genetics 116, 265-274]. Interestingly, the Ala159Thr mutant does not form either stable homodimers or heterodimers with wild-type ADH, suggesting that alanine-159 is important in stabilizing ADH dimers. The mutations were analysed in terms of a three-dimensional model of ADH using bacterial 20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and rat dihydropteridine reductase as templates. The model indicates that mutations in glycine-17 and glycine-93 affect the binding of NAD+. It also shows that alanine-159 is part of a hydrophobic anchor on the dimer interface of ADH. Replacement of alanine-159 with threonine, which has a larger side chain and can hydrogen bond with water, is likely to reduce the strength of the hydrophobic interaction. The three-dimensional model shows that glycine-184 is close to the substrate binding site. Replacement of glycine-184 with aspartic acid is likely to alter the position of threonine-186, which we propose hydrogen bonds to the carboxamide moiety of NAD+. Also, the negative charge on the aspartic acid side chain may interact with the substrate and/or residues in the substrate binding site. These mutations provide information about ADH catalysis and the stability of dimers, which may also be useful in understanding homologous dehydrogenases, which include the human 17 beta-hydroxysteroid, 11 beta-hydroxysteroid and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenases.
Project description:Hyperekplexia or startle disease is a serious neurological condition affecting newborn children and usually involves dysfunctional glycinergic neurotransmission. Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are major mediators of inhibition in the spinal cord and brainstem. A missense mutation, replacing asparagine (N) with lysine (K), at position 46 in the GlyR α1 subunit induced hyperekplexia following a reduction in the potency of the transmitter glycine; this resulted from a rapid deactivation of the agonist current at mutant GlyRs. These effects of N46K were rescued by mutating a juxtaposed residue, N61 on binding Loop D, suggesting these two asparagines may interact. Asparagine 46 is considered to be important for the structural stability of the subunit interface and glycine binding site, and its mutation represents a new mechanism by which GlyR dysfunction induces startle disease.Dysfunctional glycinergic inhibitory transmission underlies the debilitating neurological condition, hyperekplexia, which is characterised by exaggerated startle reflexes, muscle hypertonia and apnoea. Here we investigated the N46K missense mutation in the GlyR α1 subunit gene found in the ethylnitrosourea (ENU) murine mutant, Nmf11, which causes reduced body size, evoked tremor, seizures, muscle stiffness, and morbidity by postnatal day 21. Introducing the N46K mutation into recombinant GlyR α1 homomeric receptors, expressed in HEK cells, reduced the potencies of glycine, β-alanine and taurine by 9-, 6- and 3-fold respectively, and that of the competitive antagonist strychnine by 15-fold. Replacing N46 with hydrophobic, charged or polar residues revealed that the amide moiety of asparagine was crucial for GlyR activation. Co-mutating N61, located on a neighbouring β loop to N46, rescued the wild-type phenotype depending on the amino acid charge. Single-channel recording identified that burst length for the N46K mutant was reduced and fast agonist application revealed faster glycine deactivation times for the N46K mutant compared with the WT receptor. Overall, these data are consistent with N46 ensuring correct alignment of the α1 subunit interface by interaction with juxtaposed residues to preserve the structural integrity of the glycine binding site. This represents a new mechanism by which GlyR dysfunction induces startle disease.
Project description:Ligand-binding of Cys-loop receptors results in rearrangements of extracellular loop structures which are further translated into the tilting of membrane spanning helices, and finally opening of the ion channels. The cryo-EM structure of the homopentameric α1 glycine receptor (GlyR) demonstrated an involvement of the extracellular β8-β9 loop in the transition from ligand-bound receptors to the open channel state. Recently, we identified a functional role of the β8-β9 loop in a novel startle disease mouse model shaky. The mutation of residue GlyRα1Q177 to lysine present in shaky mice resulted in reduced glycine potency, reduced synaptic expression, and a disrupted hydrogen network at the structural level around position GlyRα1Q177. Here, we investigated the role of amino acid volume, side chain length, and charge at position Q177 to get deeper insights into the functional role of the β8-β9 loop. We used a combined approach of in vitro expression analysis, functional electrophysiological recordings, and GlyR modeling to describe the role of Q177 for GlyR ion channel function. GlyRα1Q177 variants do not disturb ion channel transport to the cellular surface of transfected cells, neither in homomeric nor in heteromeric GlyR configurations. The EC50 values were increased for all GlyRα1Q177 variants in comparison to the wild type. The largest decrease in glycine potency was observed for the variant GlyRα1Q177R. Potencies of the partial agonists β-alanine and taurine were also reduced. Our data are further supported by homology modeling. The GlyRα1Q177R variant does not form hydrogen bonds with the surrounding network of residue Q177 similar to the substitution with a basic lysine present in the mouse mutant shaky. Among all investigated Q177 mutants, the neutral exchange of glutamine to asparagine as well as the introduction of the closely related amino acid glutamic acid preserve the hydrogen bond network. Introduction of amino acids with small side chains or larger volume resulted in a loss of their hydrogen bonds to neighboring residues. The β8-β9 loop is thus an important structural and functional determinant of the inhibitory GlyR.
Project description:This study demonstrates the requirement of Asp-380 and Asp-386 in the ?DELSEED-motif of Escherichia coli ATP synthase for peptide binding and inhibition. We studied the inhibition profiles of wild-type and mutant E. coli ATP synthase in presence of c-terminal amide bound melittin and melittin related peptide. Melittin and melittin related peptide inhibited wild-type ATPase almost completely while only partial inhibition was observed in single mutations with replacement of Asp to Ala, Gln, or Arg. Additionally, very little or no inhibition occurred among double mutants ?D380A/?D386A, ?D380Q/?D386Q, or ?D380R/?D386R signifying that removal of one Asp residue allows limited peptide binding. Partial or substantial loss of oxidative phosphorylation among double mutants demonstrates the functional requirement of ?D380 and ?D386 Asp residues. Moreover, abrogation of wild-type E. coli cell growth and normal growth of mutant cells in presence of peptides provides strong evidence for the requirement of ?DELSEED-motif Asp residues for peptide binding. It is concluded that while presence of one Asp residue may allow partial peptide binding, both Asp residues, ?D380 and ?D386, are essential for proper peptide binding and inhibition of ATP synthase.