Structure and assembly of a paramyxovirus matrix protein.
ABSTRACT: Many pleomorphic, lipid-enveloped viruses encode matrix proteins that direct their assembly and budding, but the mechanism of this process is unclear. We have combined X-ray crystallography and cryoelectron tomography to show that the matrix protein of Newcastle disease virus, a paramyxovirus and relative of measles virus, forms dimers that assemble into pseudotetrameric arrays that generate the membrane curvature necessary for virus budding. We show that the glycoproteins are anchored in the gaps between the matrix proteins and that the helical nucleocapsids are associated in register with the matrix arrays. About 90% of virions lack matrix arrays, suggesting that, in agreement with previous biological observations, the matrix protein needs to dissociate from the viral membrane during maturation, as is required for fusion and release of the nucleocapsid into the host's cytoplasm. Structure and sequence conservation imply that other paramyxovirus matrix proteins function similarly.
Project description:The paramyxovirus family comprises major human and animal pathogens such as measles virus (MeV), mumps virus (MuV), the parainfluenzaviruses, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and the highly pathogenic zoonotic hendra (HeV) and nipah (NiV) viruses. Paramyxovirus particles are pleomorphic, with a lipid envelope, nonsegmented RNA genomes of negative polarity, and densely packed glycoproteins on the virion surface. A number of crystal structures of different paramyxovirus proteins and protein fragments were solved, but the available information concerning overall virion organization remains limited. However, recent studies have reported cryo-electron tomography-based reconstructions of Sendai virus (SeV), MeV, NDV, and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) particles and a surface assessment of NiV-derived virus-like particles (VLPs), which have yielded innovative hypotheses concerning paramyxovirus particle assembly, budding, and organization. Following a summary of the current insight into paramyxovirus virion morphology, this review will focus on discussing the implications of these particle reconstructions on the present models of paramyxovirus assembly and infection.
Project description:Members of the Paramyxoviridae such as measles, mumps, and parainfluenza viruses have pleomorphic, enveloped virions that contain negative-sense unsegmented RNA genomes. This is encapsidated by multiple copies of a viral nucleocapsid protein N to form a helical ribonucleoprotein complex (termed the nucleocapsid), which acts as the template for both transcription and replication. Structure analysis of these viruses has proven challenging, owing to disordered regions in important constituent proteins, conformational flexibility in the nucleocapsid and the pleomorphic nature of virus particles. We conducted a low-resolution ultrastructural analysis of Sendai virus, a prototype paramyxovirus, using cryo-electron tomography. Virions are highly variable in size, ranging approximately from 110 to 540 nm in diameter. Envelope glycoproteins are densely packed on the virion surface, while nucleocapsids are clearly resolved in the virion interior. Subtomogram segmentation and filament tracing allowed us to define the path of many nucleocapsids and in some cases to determine the number of putative genomes within a single virus particle. Our findings indicate that these viruses may contain between one and six copies of their genome per virion and that there is no discernible order to nucleocapsid packaging.
Project description:Enveloped viruses are released from infected cells after coalescence of viral components at cellular membranes and budding of membranes to release particles. For some negative-strand RNA viruses (e.g., vesicular stomatitis virus and Ebola virus), the viral matrix (M) protein contains all of the information needed for budding, since virus-like particles (VLPs) are efficiently released from cells when the M protein is expressed from cDNA. To investigate the requirements for budding of the paramyxovirus simian virus 5 (SV5), its M protein was expressed in mammalian cells, and it was found that SV5 M protein alone could not induce vesicle budding and was not secreted from cells. Coexpression of M protein with the viral hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) or fusion (F) glycoproteins also failed to result in significant VLP release. It was found that M protein in the form of VLPs was only secreted from cells, with an efficiency comparable to authentic virus budding, when M protein was coexpressed with one of the two glycoproteins, HN or F, together with the nucleocapsid (NP) protein. The VLPs appeared similar morphologically to authentic virions by electron microscopy. CsCl density gradient centrifugation indicated that almost all of the NP protein in the cells had assembled into nucleocapsid-like structures. Deletion of the F and HN cytoplasmic tails indicated an important role of these cytoplasmic tails in VLP budding. Furthermore, truncation of the HN cytoplasmic tail was found to be inhibitory toward budding, since it prevented coexpressed wild-type (wt) F protein from directing VLP budding. Conversely, truncation of the F protein cytoplasmic tail was not inhibitory and did not affect the ability of coexpressed wt HN protein to direct the budding of particles. Taken together, these data suggest that multiple viral components, including assembled nucleocapsids, have important roles in the paramyxovirus budding process.
Project description:Paramyxovirus particles are formed by a budding process coordinated by viral matrix (M) proteins. M proteins coalesce at sites underlying infected cell membranes and induce other viral components, including viral glycoproteins and viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs), to assemble at these locations from which particles bud. M proteins interact with the nucleocapsid (NP or N) components of vRNPs, and these interactions enable production of infectious, genome-containing virions. For the paramyxoviruses parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) and mumps virus, M-NP interaction also contributes to efficient production of virus-like particles (VLPs) in transfected cells. A DLD sequence near the C-terminal end of PIV5 NP protein was previously found to be necessary for M-NP interaction and efficient VLP production. Here, we demonstrate that 15-residue-long, DLD-containing sequences derived from either the PIV5 or Nipah virus nucleocapsid protein C-terminal ends are sufficient to direct packaging of a foreign protein, Renilla luciferase, into budding VLPs. Mumps virus NP protein harbors DWD in place of the DLD sequence found in PIV5 NP protein, and consequently, PIV5 NP protein is incompatible with mumps virus M protein. A single amino acid change converting DLD to DWD within PIV5 NP protein induced compatibility between these proteins and allowed efficient production of mumps VLPs. Our data suggest a model in which paramyxoviruses share an overall common strategy for directing M-NP interactions but with important variations contained within DLD-like sequences that play key roles in defining M/NP protein compatibilities.Paramyxoviruses are responsible for a wide range of diseases that affect both humans and animals. Paramyxovirus pathogens include measles virus, mumps virus, human respiratory syncytial virus, and the zoonotic paramyxoviruses Nipah virus and Hendra virus. Infectivity of paramyxovirus particles depends on matrix-nucleocapsid protein interactions which enable efficient packaging of encapsidated viral RNA genomes into budding virions. In this study, we have defined regions near the C-terminal ends of paramyxovirus nucleocapsid proteins that are important for matrix protein interaction and that are sufficient to direct a foreign protein into budding particles. These results advance our basic understanding of paramyxovirus genome packaging interactions and also have implications for the potential use of virus-like particles as protein delivery tools.
Project description:Beginning in July 2011, 31 green anaconda (Eunectes murinus) juveniles from an oceanarium in Hong Kong died over a 12-month period. Necropsy revealed at least two of the following features in 23 necropsies: dermatitis, severe pan-nephritis, and/or severe systemic multiorgan necrotizing inflammation. Histopathological examination revealed severe necrotizing inflammation in various organs, most prominently the kidneys. Electron microscopic examination of primary tissues revealed intralesional accumulations of viral nucleocapsids with diameters of 10 to 14 nm, typical of paramyxoviruses. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR results were positive for paramyxovirus (viral loads of 2.33 × 10(4) to 1.05 × 10(8) copies/mg tissue) in specimens from anaconda juveniles that died but negative in specimens from the two anaconda juveniles and anaconda mother that survived. None of the other snakes in the park was moribund, and RT-PCR results for surveillance samples collected from other snakes were negative. The virus was isolated from BHK21 cells, causing cytopathic effects with syncytial formation. The virus could also replicate in 25 of 27 cell lines of various origins, in line with its capability for infecting various organs. Electron microscopy with cell culture material revealed enveloped virus with the typical "herringbone" appearance of helical nucleocapsids in paramyxoviruses. Complete genome sequencing of five isolates confirmed that the infections originated from the same clone. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses and mRNA editing experiments revealed a novel paramyxovirus in the genus Ferlavirus, named anaconda paramyxovirus, with a typical Ferlavirus genomic organization of 3'-N-U-P/V/I-M-F-HN-L-5'. Epidemiological and genomic analyses suggested that the anaconda juveniles acquired the virus perinatally from the anaconda mother rather than from other reptiles in the park, with subsequent interanaconda juvenile transmission.
Project description:Enveloped virus budding has been linked to both the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and the vacuolar protein-sorting pathway of cells. We show here for the paramyxovirus SV5 that proteasome inhibitors and expression of dominant-negative VPS4(E228Q) ATPase blocks budding. The SV5 matrix (M) protein lacks previously defined late domains (e.g., P[T/S]AP, PPxY, YPDL) that recruit cellular factors. We identified a new motif for budding (core sequence FPIV) that can compensate functionally for lack of a PTAP late domain in budding human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virus-like particles (VLPs). Mutagenesis experiments suggest the more general sequence O-P-x-V. The proline residue was found to be critically important for function of this sequence, as substitution of this proline in the SV5 M protein resulted in poor budding of SV5 VLPs and failure of recombinant SV5 virus to replicate normally. Adaptation of mutant virus occurred rapidly, resulting in new proline residues elsewhere in the M protein. We hypothesize that these proline residues act to partially restore virus budding by generation of new motifs that act as suboptimal late domains.
Project description:The paramyxoviruses define a diverse group of enveloped RNA viruses that includes a number of important human and animal pathogens. Examples include human respiratory syncytial virus and the human parainfluenza viruses, which cause respiratory illnesses in young children and the elderly; measles and mumps viruses, which have caused recent resurgences of disease in developed countries; the zoonotic Hendra and Nipah viruses, which have caused several outbreaks of fatal disease in Australia and Asia; and Newcastle disease virus, which infects chickens and other avian species. Like other enveloped viruses, paramyxoviruses form particles that assemble and bud from cellular membranes, allowing the transmission of infections to new cells and hosts. Here, we review recent advances that have improved our understanding of events involved in paramyxovirus particle formation. Contributions of viral matrix proteins, glycoproteins, nucleocapsid proteins, and accessory proteins to particle formation are discussed, as well as the importance of host factor recruitment for efficient virus budding. Trafficking of viral structural components within infected cells is described, together with mechanisms that allow for the selection of specific sites on cellular membranes for the coalescence of viral proteins in preparation of bud formation and virion release.
Project description:The highly pathogenic enveloped Marburg virus (MARV) is composed of seven structural proteins and the nonsegmented negative-sense viral RNA genome. Four proteins (NP, VP35, VP30, and L) make up the helical nucleocapsid, which is surrounded by a matrix that is composed of the viral proteins VP40 and VP24. VP40 is functionally homologous to the matrix proteins of other nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. As yet, the function of VP24 remains elusive. In the present study we found that VP24 colocalized with inclusions in MARV-infected cells that contain preformed nucleocapsids and with nucleocapsids outside the inclusions. Coexpression studies revealed that VP24 is recruited into the inclusions by the presence of NP. Furthermore, VP24 displayed membrane-binding properties and was recruited into filamentous virus-like particles (VLPs) that are induced by VP40. The incorporation of VP24 altered neither the morphology of VLPs nor the budding efficiency of VLPs. When VP24 was silenced in MARV-infected cells by small interfering RNA technology, the release of viral particles was significantly reduced while viral transcription and replication were unimpaired. Our data support the idea that VP24 is essential for a process that takes place after replication and transcription and before budding of virus progeny. It is presumed that VP24 is necessary for the formation of transport-competent nucleocapsids and/or the interaction between the nucleocapsids and the budding sites at the plasma membrane.
Project description:Many enveloped viruses encode a matrix protein. In the influenza A virus, the matrix protein M1 polymerizes into a rigid protein layer underneath the viral envelope to help enforce the shape and structural integrity of intact viruses. The influenza virus M1 is also known to mediate virus budding as well as the nuclear export of the viral nucleocapsids and their subsequent packaging into nascent viral particles. Despite extensive studies on the influenza A virus M1 (FLUA-M1), only crystal structures of its N-terminal domain are available. Here we report the crystal structure of the full-length M1 from another orthomyxovirus that infects fish, the infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV). The structure of ISAV-M1 assumes the shape of an elbow, with its N domain closely resembling that of the FLUA-M1. The C domain, which is connected to the N domain through a flexible linker, is made of four ?-helices packed as a tight bundle. In the crystal, ISAV-M1 monomers form infinite 2D arrays with a network of interactions involving both the N and C domains. Results from liposome flotation assays indicated that ISAV-M1 binds membrane via electrostatic interactions that are primarily mediated by a positively charged surface loop from the N domain. Cryoelectron tomography reconstruction of intact ISA virions identified a matrix protein layer adjacent to the inner leaflet of the viral membrane. The physical dimensions of the virion-associated matrix layer are consistent with the 2D ISAV-M1 crystal lattice, suggesting that the crystal lattice is a valid model for studying M1-M1, M1-membrane, and M1-RNP interactions in the virion.
Project description:Caveolin 1 (Cav-1) is an integral membrane protein that forms the coat structure of plasma membrane caveolae and regulates caveola-dependent functions. Caveolae are enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids and are related to lipid rafts. Many studies implicate rafts as sites of assembly and budding of enveloped virus. We show that Cav-1 colocalizes with the paramyxovirus parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV-5) nucleocapsid (NP), matrix (M), and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) proteins. Moreover, electron microscopy shows that Cav-1 is clustered at sites of viral budding. HN, M, and F(1)/F(2) are associated with detergent-resistant membranes, and these proteins float on sucrose gradients with Cav-1-rich fractions. A complex containing Cav-1 with M, NP, and HN from virus-infected cells and a complex containing Cav-1 and M from M-transfected cells were found on coimmunoprecipitation. A role of Cav-1 in the PIV-5 life cycle was investigated by utilizing MCF-7 human breast cancer cells that stably express Cav-1 (MCF-7/Cav-1). PIV-5 entry into MCF-7 and MCF-7/Cav-1 was found to be Cav-1 independent. However, the interaction between HN and M proteins was dramatically reduced in the Cav-1 null MCF-7 cells, and PIV-5 grown in MCF-7 cells had a reduced infectivity. Similarly, when PIV-5 was grown in MDCK cells that stably expressed dominant negative Cav-1 (MDCK/P132LCav-1), the virus showed a reduced infectivity. Virions lacking Cav-1 were defective and contained high levels of host cellular proteins and reduced levels of HN and M. These data suggest that Cav-1 affects assembly and/or budding, and this is supported by the finding that Cav-1 is incorporated into mature viral particles.