TLT-1s, alternative transcripts of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell-like transcript-1 (TLT-1), Inhibits the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell-2 (TREM-2)-mediated signaling pathway during osteoclastogenesis.
ABSTRACT: Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-like transcript-1 (TLT-1) is an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-baring TREM family protein. In this study, we identified an alternative transcript form of TLT-1, namely TLT-1s, which has very short extracellular immunoglobulin domain consisting of only 202 amino acids. TLT-1s was mainly expressed in macrophages and osteoclast precursor cells. Upon receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand stimulation, TLT-1s mRNA and protein levels were gradually decreased in BMMs. We also showed the TLT-1s is localized to the cytoplasmic membrane in osteoclast precursor cells. TLT-1s silencing strongly enhanced the formation and resorption activity of osteoclast. In addition, forced expression of TLT-1s showed reduced formation of osteoclast. Because ITIM-baring proteins inhibit immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-mediated receptor signaling, we tested whether TLT-1s physically interacted with TREM-2, the ITAM-associated co-stimulatory receptor essential for osteoclast differentiation. We showed that TLT-1s is associated with TREM-2 in osteoclast precursor cells. TLT-1s is also associated with tyrosine Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 and SH2 domain-containing inositol phosphatase-1 and recruited them to the TREM2-ITAM signaling complex. In addition, knockdown of TLT-1s markedly elevated the intracellular calcium concentration and oscillation in osteoclast precursor cells. In addition, calcium-mediated induction of nuclear factor of activated T cells was also increased by TLT-1s silencing. Furthermore, TREM-2-mediated Akt activation and proliferation of osteoclast precursor cells were also enhanced in TLT-1s silenced cells. In this paper, we found the noble ITIM-baring inhibitory membrane protein; TLT-1s, which regulates ITAM-mediated signaling on osteoclastogenesis.
Project description:In addition to their CD1d-restricted T cell receptor (TCR), natural killer T (NKT) cells express various receptors normally associated with NK cells thought to act, in part, as modulators of TCR signaling. Immunoreceptor-tyrosine activation (ITAM) and inhibition (ITIM) motifs associated with NK receptors may augment or attenuate perceived TCR signals respectively, potentially influencing NKT cell development and function. ITIM-containing Ly49 family receptors expressed by NKT cells are proposed to play a role in their development and function. We have produced mice transgenic for the ITAM-associated Ly49D and ITIM-containing Ly49A receptors and their common ligand H2-Dd to determine the importance of these signaling interplays in NKT cell development. Ly49D/H2-Dd transgenic mice had selectively and severely reduced numbers of thymic and peripheral NKT cells, whereas both ligand and Ly49D transgenics had normal numbers of NKT cells. CD1d tetramer staining revealed a blockade of NKT cell development at an early precursor stage. Coexpression of a Ly49A transgene partially rescued NKT cell development in Ly49D/H2-Dd transgenics, presumably due to attenuation of ITAM signaling. Thus, Ly49D-induced ITAM signaling is incompatible with the early development of cells expressing semi-invariant CD1d-restricted TCRs and appropriately harmonized ITIM-ITAM signaling is likely to play an important role in the developmental program of NKT cells.
Project description:Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-containing receptors inhibit cellular responsiveness to immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-linked receptors. Although tyrosine phosphorylation is central to the initiation of both inhibitory ITIM and stimulatory ITAM signaling, the events that regulate receptor phosphorylation are incompletely understood. Previous studies have shown that ITAM tyrosines engage in structure-inducing interactions with the plasma membrane that must be relieved for phosphorylation to occur. Whether ITIM phosphorylation is similarly regulated and the mechanisms responsible for release from plasma membrane interactions to enable phosphorylation, however, have not been defined. PECAM-1 is a dual ITIM-containing receptor that inhibits ITAM-dependent responses in hematopoietic cells. We found that the PECAM-1 cytoplasmic domain is unstructured in an aqueous environment but adopts an α-helical conformation within a localized region on interaction with lipid vesicles that mimic the plasma membrane. The lipid-interacting segment contains the C-terminal ITIM tyrosine and a serine residue that undergo activation-dependent phosphorylation. The N-terminal ITIM is excluded from the lipid-interacting segment, and its phosphorylation is secondary to phosphorylation of the membrane-interacting C-terminal ITIM. On the basis of these findings, we propose a novel model for regulation of inhibitory signaling by ITIM-containing receptors that relies on reversible plasma membrane interactions and sequential ITIM phosphorylation.
Project description:The activation state of many blood and vascular cells is tightly controlled by a delicate balance between receptors that contain immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) and those that contain immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs). Precisely how the timing of cellular activation by ITAM-coupled receptors is regulated by ITIM-containing receptors is, however, poorly understood. Using platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1) as a prototypical ITIM-bearing receptor, we demonstrate that initiation of inhibitory signaling occurs via a novel, sequential process in which Src family kinases phosphorylate the C-terminal ITIM, thereby enabling phosphorylation of the N-terminal ITIM of PECAM-1 by other Src homology 2 domain-containing nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs). NRTKs capable of mediating the second phosphorylation event include C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk). Btk and Csk function downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation during ITAM-dependent platelet activation. In ITAM-activated platelets that were treated with a PI3K inhibitor, PECAM-1 was phosphorylated but did not bind the tandem SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, indicating that it was not phosphorylated on its N-terminal ITIM. Csk bound to and phosphorylated PECAM-1 more efficiently than did Btk and required its SH2 domain to perform these functions. Additionally, the phosphorylation of the N-terminal ITIM of Siglec-9 by Csk is enhanced by the prior phosphorylation of its C-terminal ITIM, providing evidence that the ITIMs of other dual ITIM-containing receptors are also sequentially phosphorylated. On the basis of these findings, we propose that sequential ITIM phosphorylation provides a general mechanism for precise temporal control over the recruitment and activation of tandem SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatases that dampen ITAM-dependent signals.
Project description:Ab-dependent enhancement (ADE) of dengue virus (DENV) infection is mediated through the interaction of viral immune complexes with FcγRs, with notable efficiency of FcγRII. Most human dengue target cells coexpress activating (FcγRIIa) and inhibitory (FcγRIIb) isoforms, but their relative roles in ADE are not well understood. We studied the effects of FcγRIIa and FcγRIIb by transfecting cells to express each individual receptor isoform or through coexpression of both isoforms. We showed that although both isoforms similarly bind dengue-immune complexes, FcγRIIa efficiently internalized virus leading to productive cellular infection, unlike FcγRIIb. We next focused on the main discriminating feature of these isoforms: their distinct intracytoplasmic tails (FcγRIIa with an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif [ITAM] and FcγRIIb with an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif [ITIM]). We engineered cells to express "swapped" versions of their FcγRII by switching the cytoplasmic tails containing the ITAM/ITIM motifs, leaving the remainder of the receptor intact. Our data show that both FcγRIIa and FcγRIIb comparably bind dengue immune complexes. However, wild type FcγRIIa facilitates DENV entry by virtue of the ITAM motif, whereas the swapped version FcγRIIa-ITIM significantly inhibited ADE. Similarly, replacing the inhibitory motif in FcγRIIb with an ITAM (FcγRIIb-ITAM) reconstituted ADE capacity to levels of the wild type activating counterpart, FcγRIIa. Our data suggest that FcγRIIa and FcγRIIb isoforms, as the most abundantly distributed class II Fcγ receptors, differentially influence Ab-mediated DENV infection under ADE conditions both at the level of cellular infection and viral production.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells (Trem) proteins are a family of cell surface receptors used to control innate immune responses such as proinflammatory cytokine production in mice. Trem genes belong to a rapidly expanding family of receptors that include activating and inhibitory paired-isoforms. RESULTS:By comparative genomic analysis, we found that Trem4, Trem5 and Trem-like transcript-6 (Treml6) genes typically paired receptors. These paired Trem genes were murine-specific and originated from an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM)-containing gene. Treml6 encoded ITIM, whereas Trem4 and Trem5 lacked the ITIM but possessed positively-charged residues to associate with DNAX activating protein of 12 kDa (DAP12). DAP12 was directly associated with Trem4 and Trem5, and DAP12 coupling was mandatory for their expression on the cell surface. In bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and macrophages (BMDMs), and splenic DC subsets, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) followed by type I interferon (IFN) production induced Trem4 and Treml6 whereas polyI:C or other TLR agonists failed to induce the expression of Trem5. PolyI:C induced Treml6 and Trem4 more efficiently in BMDMs than BMDCs. Treml6 was more potentially up-regulated in conventional DC (cDCs) and plasmacytoid DC (pDCs) than Trem4 in mice upon in vivo stimulation with polyI:C. DISCUSSION:Treml6-dependent inhibitory signal would be dominant in viral infection compared to resting state. Though no direct ligands of these Trem receptors have been determined, the results infer that a set of Trem receptors are up-regulated in response to viral RNA to regulate myeloid cell activation through modulation of DAP12-associated Trem4 and ITIM-containing Treml6.
Project description:The Fc receptor-like protein 5 (FCRL5) on B cells has both an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-like sequence and two consensus immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIM) in its cytoplasmic region. To evaluate its signaling potential, we expressed constructs for chimeric molecules composed of the cytoplasmic region of FCRL5 and the extracellular and transmembrane regions of the IgG Fc receptor FcgammaRIIB in a B cell line lacking an endogenous Fc receptor. Coligation of this fusion protein with the B cell receptor (BCR) inhibited BCR-mediated calcium mobilization, intracellular tyrosine phosphorylation, and Erk kinase activation. Our mutational analysis indicated that, whereas tyrosines in both the inhibitory and activation motifs are phosphorylated after ligation, only those in ITIMs influence BCR-mediated signaling. This FCRL5 inhibitory effect was mediated through dual ITIM recruitment of the SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-1, which in turn dephosphorylates the ITAM-based tyrosines in BCR Igalpha/Igbeta heterodimers. An FCRL5 inhibitory effect on BCR signaling was likewise demonstrable for primary B cells. Although its ligand is presently unknown, we conclude that FCRL5 has the functional potential to serve as an inhibitory coreceptor on mature B cells in humans.
Project description:Induction of effective osteoclastogenesis by RANK (receptor activator of NF-kappaB) requires costimulation by ITAM-coupled receptors. In humans, the TREM-2 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2) ITAM-coupled receptor plays a key role in bone remodeling, as patients with TREM-2 mutations exhibit defective osteoclastogenesis and bone lesions. We have identified a new rapidly induced costimulatory pathway for RANK signaling that is dependent on TREM-2 and mediated by calcium signaling. TREM-2-dependent calcium signals are required for RANK-mediated activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK)II and downstream MEK and ERK MAPKs that are important for osteoclastogenesis. IL-10 inhibited RANK-induced osteoclastogenesis and selectively inhibited calcium signaling downstream of RANK by inhibiting transcription of TREM-2. Down-regulation of TREM-2 expression resulted in diminished RANKL-induced activation of the CaMK-MEK-ERK pathway and decreased expression of the master regulator of osteoclastogenesis NFATc1. These findings provide a new mechanism of inhibition of human osteoclast differentiation. The results also yield insights into crosstalk between ITAM-coupled receptors and heterologous receptors such as RANK, and they identify a mechanism by which IL-10 can suppress cellular responses to TNFR family members.
Project description:The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 plays a crucial role during the onset of sepsis by amplifying the host immune response. The TREM-like transcript-1 (TLT-1) belongs to the TREM family, is selectively expressed on activated platelets, and is known to facilitate platelet aggregation through binding to fibrinogen. In this study, we show that a soluble form of TLT-1 is implicated in the regulation of inflammation during sepsis by dampening leukocyte activation and modulating platelet-neutrophil crosstalk. A 17-aa sequence of the TLT-1 extracellular domain (LR17) is responsible for this activity through competition with the TREM-1 ligand. Whereas early or late LR17 treatment of septic mice improves survival, treml-1(-/-) animals are highly susceptible to polymicrobial infection. The present findings identify platelet-derived soluble TLT-1 as a potent endogenous regulator of sepsis-associated inflammation and open new therapeutic perspectives. We anticipate soluble TLT-1 to be important in regulating leukocyte activation during other noninfectious inflammatory disorders.
Project description:Osteoclasts, cells of myeloid lineage, play a unique role in bone resorption, maintaining skeletal homeostasis in concert with bone-producing osteoblasts. Osteoclast development and maturation (osteoclastogenesis) is driven by receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand and macrophage-colony stimulating factor and invariably requires a signal initiated by immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-harboring Fc receptor common gamma chain or DNAX-activating protein (DAP)12 (also referred to as KARAP or TYROBP) that associates with the cognate immunoreceptors. Here, we show that a third adaptor, YINM costimulatory motif-harboring DAP10, triggers osteoclastogenesis and bone remodeling. DAP10-deficient (DAP10(-/-)) mice become osteopetrotic with age, concomitant with a reduction in osteoclasts. The DAP10-associating receptor was identified as myeloid DAP12-associating lectin-1 (MDL-1), whose physiologic function has not been found. MDL-1-mediated stimulation of osteoclast precursor cells resulted in augmented osteoclastogenesis in vitro. MDL-1 associates with both DAP12 and DAP10 in osteoclasts and bone marrow-derived macrophages, where DAP10 association depends almost entirely on DAP12, suggesting a formation of MDL-1-DAP12/DAP10 trimolecular complexes harboring ITAM/YINM stimulatory/costimulatory motifs within a complex that could be a novel therapeutic target for skeletal and inflammatory diseases.
Project description:Src family kinases (SFKs) coordinate the initiating and propagating activation signals in platelets, but it remains unclear how they are regulated. Here, we show that ablation of C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and receptor-like protein tyrosine-phosphatase CD148 in mice results in a dramatic increase in platelet SFK activity, demonstrating that these proteins are essential regulators of platelet reactivity. Paradoxically, Csk/CD148-deficient mice exhibit reduced in vivo and ex vivo thrombus formation and increased bleeding following injury rather than a prothrombotic phenotype. This is a consequence of multiple negative feedback mechanisms, including downregulation of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)- and hemi-ITAM-containing receptors glycoprotein VI (GPVI)-Fc receptor (FcR) ?-chain and CLEC-2, respectively and upregulation of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM)-containing receptor G6b-B and its interaction with the tyrosine phosphatases Shp1 and Shp2. Results from an analog-sensitive Csk mouse model demonstrate the unconventional role of SFKs in activating ITIM signaling. This study establishes Csk and CD148 as critical molecular switches controlling the thrombotic and hemostatic capacity of platelets and reveals cell-intrinsic mechanisms that prevent pathological thrombosis from occurring.