Allelic sequence heterozygosity in single Giardia parasites.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Genetic heterogeneity has become a major inconvenience in the genotyping and molecular epidemiology of the intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis, in particular for the major human infecting genotype, assemblage B. Sequence-based genotyping of assemblage B Giardia from patient fecal samples, where one or several of the commonly used genotyping loci (beta-giardin, triosephosphate isomerase and glutamate dehydrogenase) are implemented, is often hampered due to the presence of sequence heterogeneity in the sequencing chromatograms. This can be due to allelic sequence heterozygosity (ASH) and /or co-infections with parasites of different assemblage B sub-genotypes. Thus, two important questions have arisen; i) does ASH occur at the single cell level, and/or ii) do multiple sub-genotype infections commonly occur in patients infected with assemblage B, G. intestinalis isolates? RESULTS: We used micromanipulation in order to isolate single Giardia intestinalis, assemblage B trophozoites (GS isolate) and cysts from human patients. Molecular analysis at the tpi loci of trophozoites from the GS lineage indicated that ASH is present at the single cell level. Analyses of assemblage B Giardia cysts from clinical samples at the bg and tpi loci also indicated ASH at the single cell level. Additionally, alignment of sequence data from several different cysts that originated from the same patient yielded different sequence patterns, thus suggesting the presence of multiple sub-assemblage infections in congruence with ASH within the same patient. CONCLUSIONS: Our results conclusively show that ASH does occur at the single cell level in assemblage B Giardia. Furthermore, sequence heterogeneity generated during sequence-based genotyping of assemblage B isolates may possess the complexity of single cell ASH in concurrence with co-infections of different assemblage B sub-genotypes. These findings explain the high abundance of sequence heterogeneity commonly found when performing sequence based genotyping of assemblage B Giardia, and illuminates the necessity of developing new G. intestinalis genotyping tools.
Project description:To obtain information about the occurrence and genotype distribution of G. intestinalis and C. parvum in Austrian cattle, faecal samples from diarrhoeic calves younger than 180 days of age originating from 70 farms were examined. Of the 177 faecal samples, 27.1% were positive for Giardia cysts (immunofluorescence microscopy) and 55.4% for Cryptosporidium oocysts (phase-contrast microscopy). Positive samples were characterized by nested PCR for Giardia, 83.3% (triosephosphate isomerase; tpi) and 89.6% (?-giardin; bg) were positive, while the Cryptosporidium nested PCR returned 92.5% (60-kDa glycoprotein) positive results. Sequence analysis revealed one assemblage A-positive sample and 30 (bg) respectively 29 (tpi) assemblage E-positive samples for G. intestinalis. For C. parvum four subtypes within the IIa family (IIaA15G2R1, n?=?29; IIaA19G2R2, n?=?3; IIaA21G2R1, n?=?2; IIaA14G1R1, n?=?1) could be differentiated. Validation of two immunochromatographic point-of-care tests resulted in a sensitivity of 29.2% and 77.6%; a specificity of 98.4% and 91.1% for the detection of Giardia intestinalis and Cryptosporidium parvum, respectively. Results confirm the widespread occurrence of both protozoa in diarrhoeic calves in Austria.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Giardia intestinalis is one of the most common diarrhea-related parasites in humans, where infection ranges from asymptomatic to acute or chronic disease. G. intestinalis consists of eight genetically distinct genotypes or assemblages, designated A-H, and assemblages A and B can infect humans. Giardiasis has been classified as a possible zoonotic disease but the role of animals in human disease transmission still needs to be proven. We tried to link different assemblages and sub-assemblages of G. intestinalis isolates from Swedish human patients to clinical symptoms and zoonotic transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Multilocus sequence-based genotyping of 207 human Giardia isolates using three gene loci: ß-giardin, glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) was combined with assemblage-specific tpi PCRs. This analysis identified 73 patients infected with assemblage A, 128 with assemblage B, and six with mixed assemblages A+B. Multilocus genotypes (MLGs) were easily determined for the assemblage A isolates, and most patients with this genotype had apparently been infected through anthroponotic transmission. However, we also found evidence of limited zoonotic transmission of Giardia in Sweden, since a few domestic human infections involved the same assemblage A MLGs previously reported in Swedish cats and ruminants. Assemblage B was detected more frequently than assemblage A and it was also more common in patients with suspected treatment failure. However, a large genetic variability made determination of assemblage B MLGs problematic. Correlation between symptoms and assemblages was found only for flatulence, which was significantly more common in children less than six years of age infected with assemblage B. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study shows that certain assemblage A subtypes are potentially zoonotic and that flatulence is connected to assemblage B infections in young children. Determination of MLGs from assemblages A and B can be a valuable tool in outbreak situations and to help identify possible zoonotic transmission.
Project description:Giardiasis is considered the most common intestinal parasitic disease in humans worldwide. In Cuba, this infection has particularly a strong clinical impact on the child population. Giardia duodenalis is a highly diverse protozoan, which comprises a complex of eight morphologically identical genetic assemblages, further divided into sub-assemblages. The present study used triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes as genetic markers for the identification of G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages in correlation with clinical and epidemiological data in children attended at the Paediatric Hospital "William Soler" and at Pedro Kouri Institute, between 2015 and 2016. A prevalence of 8% of G. duodenalis infection was recorded in stool samples after concentration techniques from 68 children out of 847 analysed. A 100% detection of Giardia DNA was achieved by a SSU-rRNA PCR, whereas DNA from 63 of 68 (92.6%) was successfully amplified by tpi-PCR. By this assemblage-specific tpi-PCR 32 (50.8%) assemblage B, 17 (27.0%) assemblage A and 14 (22.2%) mixed infection (A + B) were identified. Assemblage B was significantly (P < 0.02) more frequently found in children with diarrhoea. Sequence analysis of the tpi gene of Giardia isolates from symptomatic children showed that assemblage A belonged to the sub-assemblage AII, and 4 sub assemblages BIV and 1 sub assemblage BIII were also recorded. Only 2 discordant genotyping results were observed by phylogenetic comparison of SSU-rRNA and tpi sequences. Further studies with novel molecular tools for a better discrimination at the sub-assemblage level are needed to identify the dynamics of spread of giardiasis and to verify possible correlations between Giardia genetic diversity and clinical manifestation.
Project description:Giardia intestinalis, the only causative agent of human giardiasis, can infect a wide range of animals. As no information concerning the prevalence and genotyping of G. intestinalis in raccoon dogs in China is available, examination of 305 faecal samples from raccoon dogs in Jilin Province (n?=?110), Heilongjiang Province (n?=?40), Liaoning Province (n?=?72), Hebei Province (n?=?54) and Shandong Province (n?=?29) was conducted to estimate the prevalence of G. intestinalis in raccoon dogs in northern China and identify their genotypes using a genetic approach.Of 305 faecal samples from farmed raccoon dogs, 22 (7.21 %) were detected G. intestinalis-positive by nested PCR amplification of the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene. The prevalence of G. intestinalis was strongly related to the region and season of sampling. All 22 samples were analysed at the tpi, the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and the beta giardin (bg) gene loci, showing 13, 3, 2 subtypes, respectively. The results also demonstrated that two raccoon dogs harboured mixed infections of assemblage C and assemblage D (or mixed C/D), whereas only assemblage C was detected in the remaining 20 samples. Moreover, five new multilocus genotypes, named as MLGs C1-C5, were observed in the assemblage C in the present study.This is the first report of G. intestinalis infection in raccoon dogs in China. DNA sequence analysis of the tpi, gdh and bg gene indicated that 13, 3, 2 subtypes were found at these loci, respectively. Furthermore, this is also the first report of five new multilocus genotypes (MLGs C1-C5) in farmed raccoon dogs, which provides baseline data for further studies of the distribution of G. duodenalis in different hosts.
Project description:Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia intestinalis or Giardia lamblia) infSAects over 280?million people each year and numerous animals. G. duodenalis can be subdivided into eight assemblages with different host specificity. Unculturable assemblages have so far resisted genome sequencing efforts. In this study, we isolated single and pooled cysts of assemblages C and D from dog faeces by FACS, and sequenced them using multiple displacement amplification and Illumina paired-end sequencing. The genomes of assemblages C and D were compared with genomes of assemblages A and B from humans and assemblage E from ruminants and pigs. The genomes obtained from the pooled cysts and from the single cysts were considered complete (>99?% marker genes observed) and the allelic sequence heterozygosity (ASH) values of assemblages C and D were 0.89 and 0.74?%, respectively. These ASH values were slightly higher than for assemblage B (>0.43?%) and much higher than for assemblages A and E, which ranged from 0.002 to 0.037?%. The flavohaemoglobin and 4Fe-4S binding domain family encoding genes involved in O2 and NO detoxification were only present in assemblages A, B and E. Cathepsin B orthologs were found in all genomes. Six clades of cathepsin B orthologs contained one gene of each genome, while in three clades not all assemblages were represented. We conclude that whole-genome sequencing from a single Giardia cyst results in complete draft genomes, making the genomes of unculturable Giardia assemblages accessible. Observed differences between the genomes of assemblages C and D on one hand and the assemblages A, B and E on the other hand are possibly associated with host specificity.
Project description:Giardia intestinalis is one of the most important zoonotic enteric parasites. As no information regarding prevalence and genotype of G. intestinalis in donkeys (Equus asinus) in China is available, 181 faecal samples from 48 donkeys from Jilin Province, from 104 from Shandong Province and from 29 from Liaoning Province were examined between May and December 2015.Twenty-eight (15.47%) out of 181 donkey samples were tested G. intestinalis-positive by nested amplification of the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene. The prevalence in different regional groups varied from 10.42 to 18.27%. The prevalence in adult and young donkeys was 14.29 and 22.92%, respectively. Otherwise, the prevalence was 11.69% in summer and 18.27% in winter. However, no statistically significant differences were found in relation to region or age group. Sequence analysis of the tpi, glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and beta giardin (bg) loci identified 4, 1 and 3 subtypes of assemblage B, respectively. Moreover, four novel multilocus genotypes (MLGs novel-1 to novel-4) were identified in assemblage B.This first report of G. intestinalis in donkeys in China indicates that further studies of nation-wide molecular epidemiology and geographical distribution of Giardia in donkeys are warranted. Effective strategies should be implemented to control G. intestinalis infection in donkeys, other animals and humans.
Project description:Giardia duodenalis is an important intestinal protozoan in humans worldwide with high infection rates occurring in densely populated and low resource settings. The parasite has been recorded to cause diarrhea in children. This study was carried out to identify G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages in children presenting with diarrhea in Kenya.A total of 2112 faecal samples were collected from children aged ? 5 years and screened for the presence of Giardia cysts using microscopy. A total of 96 (4.5%) samples were identified as Giardia positive samples and were genotyped using glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and ?-giardin loci.The three markers successfully genotyped 72 isolates and grouped 2 (1.4) isolates as Assemblage A, 64 (88.9) as Assemblage B and 7 (9.7%) consisted of mixed infections with assemblage A and B. A further analysis of 50 isolates using GDH Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) categorized 2 assemblage A isolates as sub-assemblage AII while 6 and 14 assemblage B isolates were categorized into sub-assemblage BIII and BIV respectively. A mixed infection with sub-assemblage BIII and BIV was recorded in 28 isolates. Over half (55.6%) of Giardia infections were recorded among the children between 13 to 48 months old.This paper reports the first data on the assemblages and sub-assemblages of Giardia duodenalis in children representing with diarrhea in Kenya.
Project description:Giardia duodenalis is one of the main enteric pathogens associated with diarrheal disease. In developing countries, giardiasis is a major public health concern, particularly in children under five years of age. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis causing human infections in Shushtar County, Southwestern Iran. Individual faecal specimens were collected from 1,163 individuals (male/female ratio: 0.9; age range 2-75 years) with (n = 258) and without (n = 905) gastrointestinal symptoms living in rural and urban settings during the period 2017-2018. Conventional (sucrose flotation and microscopy) methods were used for the initial detection of G. duodenalis cysts in faecal specimens. Microscopy-positive samples were confirmed by PCR amplification and sequencing of the small subunit rRNA (ssu rRNA) gene of the parasite. A multilocus genotyping (MLG) scheme targeting the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), and the beta-giardin (bg) genes was used for genotyping purposes. Giardia duodenalis cysts were detected in 7.7% (90/1,163) of samples by microscopy, of which 82 were confirmed by ssu-PCR. Successful amplification and sequencing results were obtained for 23.2% (19/82), 9.8% (8/82), and 8.5% (7/82) of the confirmed samples at the tpi, gdh, and bg loci, respectively. MLG data for the three loci were available for two samples only. Out of the 24 samples genotyped at any loci, 50% (12/24) were identified as assemblage A and the remaining half as assemblage B. Overall, AII was the most prevalent sub-assemblage detected (41.7%, 10/24), followed by BIII (25.0%, 6/24), discordant BIII/BIV (5/24) or AII/AIII (2/24) sequences, and BIV (1/24). No significant correlation was demonstrated between a given assemblage/sub-assemblage and the occurrence of clinical symptoms. No genotypes adapted to animal hosts other than humans (e.g. assemblages C-F) were found circulating in the investigated human population, suggesting that transmission of human giardiasis in this Iranian region is primarily of anthroponotic nature. Further molecular-based studies are needed to confirm and expand these results, and to ascertain the presence and public health relevance of the parasite in environmental (e.g. drinking water) samples.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis and the pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori are well known for their high prevalences in human hosts worldwide. The prevalence of both organisms is known to peak in densely populated, low resource settings and children are infected early in life. Different Giardia genotypes/assemblages have been associated with different symptoms and H. pylori with induction of cancer. Despite this, not much data are available from sub-Saharan Africa with regards to the prevalence of different G. intestinalis assemblages and their potential association with H. pylori infections. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fecal samples from 427 apparently healthy children, 0-12 years of age, living in urban Kampala, Uganda were analyzed for the presence of H. pylori and G. intestinalis. G. intestinalis was found in 86 (20.1%) out of the children and children age 1<5 years had the highest rates of colonization. H. pylori was found in 189 (44.3%) out of the 427 children and there was a 3-fold higher risk of concomitant G. intestinalis and H. pylori infections compared to non-concomitant G. intestinalis infection, OR?=?2.9 (1.7-4.8). No significant association was found in the studied population with regard to the presence of Giardia and gender, type of toilet, source of drinking water or type of housing. A panel of 45 G. intestinalis positive samples was further analyzed using multi-locus genotyping (MLG) on three loci, combined with assemblage-specific analyses. Giardia MLG analysis yielded a total of five assemblage AII, 25 assemblage B, and four mixed assemblage infections. The assemblage B isolates were highly genetically variable but no significant association was found between Giardia assemblage type and H. pylori infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study shows that Giardia assemblage B dominates in children in Kampala, Uganda and that the presence of H. pylori is an associated risk factor for G. intestinalis infection.
Project description:Objectives:The present study reports the multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis isolates from cats maintained in breeding catteries in Japan and discusses their potential for zoonotic transmission. Methods:A total of 41 faecal samples positive for Giardia-specific antigen were procured from cats maintained in five breeding catteries and subjected to PCR to amplify four gene loci, namely small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), beta-giardin (bg) and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi?). The PCR-amplified DNA fragments were sequenced to determine the G duodenalis genotypes (synonym for assemblages). Results:The most commonly occurring single assemblage was assemblage F (68.3%; n = 28/41), followed by assemblage A (12.2%; n = 5/41) and assemblage C (2.4%; n = 1/41). The mixed assemblages were identified as follows: assemblages F and A (9.8%; n = 4/41), assemblages F and C (4.9%; n = 2/41) and assemblages C and D (2.4%; n = 1/41). Additional sub-genotyping of assemblage A isolates based on three of the sequenced loci (gdh, bg and tpi?) revealed that all eight isolates were identified as sub-assemblage AI and/or AII. Conclusions and relevance:The present study is the first to report the detection of dog-adapted assemblages C and D in feline isolates from Japan. In addition, zoonotic sub-assemblage AI and human-adapted sub-assemblage AII were also identified. Thus, we concluded that the risk of transmission of G duodenalis from breeding cattery cats to humans is considerable and cannot be ignored.