Coordination of DNA damage responses via the Smc5/Smc6 complex.
ABSTRACT: The detection of DNA damage activates DNA repair pathways and checkpoints to allow time for repair. Ultimately, these responses must be coordinated to ensure that cell cycle progression is halted until repair is completed. Several multiprotein complexes containing members of the structural maintenance of chromosomes family of proteins have been described, including the condensin and cohesin complexes, that are critical for chromosomal organization. Here we show that the Smc5/Smc6 (Smc5/6) complex is required for a coordinated response to DNA damage and normal chromosome integrity. Fission yeast cells lacking functional Smc6 initiate a normal checkpoint response to DNA damage, culminating in the phosphorylation and activation of the Chk1 protein kinase. Despite this, cells enter a lethal mitosis, presumably without completion of DNA repair. Another subunit of the complex, Nse1, is a conserved member of this complex and is also required for this response. We propose that the failure to maintain a checkpoint response stems from the lack of ongoing DNA repair or from defective chromosomal organization, which is the signal to maintain a checkpoint arrest. The Smc5/6 complex is fundamental to genome integrity and may function with the condensin and cohesin complexes in a coordinated manner.
Project description:Meiosis, a specialized cell division with a single cycle of DNA replication round and two consecutive rounds of nuclear segregation, allows for the exchange of genetic material between parental chromosomes and the formation of haploid gametes. The structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) proteins aid manipulation of chromosome structures inside cells. Eukaryotic SMC complexes include cohesin, condensin and the Smc5-Smc6 complex. Meiotic roles have been discovered for cohesin and condensin. However, although Smc5-Smc6 is known to be required for successful meiotic divisions, the meiotic functions of the complex are not well understood. Here we show that the Smc5-Smc6 complex localizes to specific chromosome regions during meiotic prophase I. We report that meiotic cells lacking Smc5-Smc6 undergo catastrophic meiotic divisions as a consequence of unresolved linkages between chromosomes. Surprisingly, meiotic segregation defects are not rescued by abrogation of Spo11-induced meiotic recombination, indicating that at least some chromosome linkages in smc5-smc6 mutants originate from other cellular processes. These results demonstrate that, as in mitosis, Smc5-Smc6 is required to ensure proper chromosome segregation during meiosis by preventing aberrant recombination intermediates between homologous chromosomes.
Project description:The evolutionarily conserved structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) proteins forms the core structures of three multisubunit complexes as follows: cohesin, condensin, and the Smc5/6 complex. These complexes play crucial roles in different aspects of chromosomal organization, duplication, and segregation. Although the architectures of cohesin and condensin are better understood, that of the more recently identified Smc5/6 complex remains to be elucidated. We have previously shown that the Smc5/6 complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains Smc5, Smc6, and six non-SMC elements (Nse1-6). In this study, we investigated the architecture of the budding yeast Smc5/6 complex employing the yeast two-hybrid assay as well as in vitro biochemical approaches using purified recombinant proteins. These analyses revealed that Smc5 and Smc6 associate with each other at their hinge regions and constitute the backbone of the complex, whereas the Nse1-6 subunits form three distinct subcomplexes/entities that interact with different regions of Smc5 and Smc6. The Nse1, -3, and -4 subunits form a stable subcomplex that binds to the head and the adjacent coiled-coil region of Smc5. Nse2 binds to the middle of the coiled-coil region of Smc5. Nse5 and Nse6 interact with each other and, as a heterodimer, bind to the hinge regions of Smc5 and Smc6. These findings provide new insights into the structures of the Smc5/6 complex and lay the foundation for further investigations into the mechanism of its functions.
Project description:Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes (SMC) proteins are vital for a wide range of processes including chromosome structure and dynamics, gene regulation and DNA repair. Eukaryotes have three SMC complexes, consisting of heterodimeric pairs of six different SMC proteins along with several specific regulatory subunits. In addition to their other functions, all three SMC complexes play distinct roles in DNA repair. Cohesin (SMC1-SMC3) is involved in DNA double-strand break repair, condensin (SMC2-SMC4) participates in single-strand break (SSB) repair, and the SMC5-SMC6 complex functions in various DNA repair pathways. SMC proteins consist of N- and C-terminal domains that fold back onto each other to create an ATPase 'head' domain, connected to a central 'hinge' domain via long coiled-coils. The hinge domain mediates dimerization of SMC proteins and binds DNA, but it is not clear to what purpose this activity serves. We studied the structure and function of the condensin hinge domain from mouse. While the SMC hinge domain structure is largely conserved from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, its function seems to have diversified throughout the course of evolution. The condensin hinge domain preferentially binds single-stranded DNA. We propose that this activity plays a role in the SSB repair function of the condensin complex.
Project description:Chromatin structure and function are for a large part determined by the six members of the structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) protein family, which form three heterodimeric complexes: Smc1/3 (cohesin), Smc2/4 (condensin) and Smc5/6. Each complex has distinct and important roles in chromatin dynamics, gene expression and differentiation. In yeast and Drosophila, Smc6 is involved in recombinational repair, restarting collapsed replication forks and prevention of recombination in repetitive sequences such as rDNA and pericentromeric heterochromatin. Although such DNA damage control mechanisms, as well as highly dynamic changes in chromatin composition and function, are essential for gametogenesis, knowledge on Smc6 function in mammalian systems is limited. We therefore have investigated the role of Smc6 during mammalian spermatogonial differentiation, meiosis and subsequent spermiogenesis. We found that, during mouse spermatogenesis, Smc6 functions as part of meiotic pericentromeric heterochromatin domains that are initiated when differentiating spermatogonia become irreversibly committed toward meiosis. To our knowledge, we are the first to provide insight into how commitment toward meiosis alters chromatin structure and dynamics, thereby setting apart differentiating spermatogonia from the undifferentiated spermatogonia, including the spermatogonial stem cells. Interestingly, Smc6 is not essential for spermatogonial mitosis, whereas Smc6-negative meiotic cells appear unable to finish their first meiotic division. Importantly, during meiosis, we find that DNA repair or recombination sites, marked by ?H2AX or Rad51 respectively, do not co-localize with the pericentromeric heterochromatin domains where Smc6 is located. Considering the repetitive nature of these domains and that Smc6 has been previously shown to prevent recombination in repetitive sequences, we hypothesize that Smc6 has a role in the prevention of aberrant recombination events between pericentromeric regions during the first meiotic prophase that would otherwise cause chromosomal aberrations leading to apoptosis, meiotic arrest or aneuploidies.
Project description:Smc5 and Smc6 proteins form a heterodimeric SMC (structural maintenance of chromosome) protein complex like SMC1-SMC3 cohesin and SMC2-SMC4 condensin, and they associate with non-SMC proteins Nse1 and Nse2 stably and Rad60 transiently. This multiprotein complex plays an essential role in maintaining chromosome integrity and repairing DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). This study characterizes a Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutant rad62-1, which is hypersensitive to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and synthetically lethal with rad2 (a feature of recombination mutants). rad62-1 is hypersensitive to UV and gamma rays, epistatic with rhp51, and defective in repair of DSBs. rad62 is essential for viability and genetically interacts with rad60, smc6, and brc1. Rad62 protein physically associates with the Smc5-6 complex. rad62-1 is synthetically lethal with mutations in the genes promoting recovery from stalled replication, such as rqh1, srs2, and mus81, and those involved in nucleotide excision repair like rad13 and rad16. These results suggest that Rad62, like Rad60, in conjunction with the Smc5-6 complex, plays an essential role in maintaining chromosome integrity and recovery from stalled replication by recombination.
Project description:The SMC5/6 protein complex consists of the Smc5, Smc6 and Non-Smc-Element (Nse) proteins and is important for genome stability in many species. To identify novel components in the DNA repair pathway, we carried out a genetic screen to identify mutations that confer reduced resistance to the genotoxic effects of caffeine, which inhibits the ATM and ATR DNA damage response proteins. This approach identified inactivating mutations in CG5524 and MAGE, homologs of genes encoding Smc6 and Nse3 in yeasts. The fact that Smc5 mutants are also caffeine-sensitive and that Mage physically interacts with Drosophila homologs of Nse proteins suggests that the structure of the Smc5/6 complex is conserved in Drosophila. Although Smc5/6 proteins are required for viability in S. cerevisiae, they are not essential under normal circumstances in Drosophila. However, flies carrying mutations in Smc5, Smc6 and MAGE are hypersensitive to genotoxic agents such as ionizing radiation, camptothecin, hydroxyurea and MMS, consistent with the Smc5/6 complex serving a conserved role in genome stability. We also show that mutant flies are not compromised for pre-mitotic cell cycle checkpoint responses. Rather, caffeine-induced apoptosis in these mutants is exacerbated by inhibition of ATM or ATR checkpoint kinases but suppressed by Rad51 depletion, suggesting a functional interaction involving homologous DNA repair pathways that deserves further scrutiny. Our insights into the SMC5/6 complex provide new challenges for understanding the role of this enigmatic chromatin factor in multi-cellular organisms.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The SMC5/6 complex, cohesin and condensin are the three mammalian members of the structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family, large ring-like protein complexes that are essential for genome maintenance. The SMC5/6 complex is the least characterized complex in mammals; however, it is known to be involved in homologous recombination repair (HRR) and chromosome segregation. RESULTS:In this study, a yeast two-hybrid screen was used to help elucidate novel interactions of the kleisin subunit of the SMC5/6 complex, NSMCE4A. This approach discovered an interaction between NSMCE4A and GPS1, a COP9 signalosome (CSN) component, and this interaction was further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. Additionally, GPS1 and components of SMC5/6 complex colocalize during interphase and mitosis. CSN is a cullin deNEDDylase and is an important factor for HRR. Depletion of GPS1, which has been shown to negatively impact DNA end resection during HRR, caused an increase in SMC5/6 levels at sites of laser-induced DNA damage. Furthermore, inhibition of the dennedylation function of CSN increased SMC5/6 levels at sites of laser-induced DNA damage. CONCLUSION:Taken together, these data demonstrate for the first time that the SMC5/6 and CSN complexes interact and provides evidence that the CSN complex influences SMC5/6 functions during cell cycle progression and response to DNA damage.
Project description:The Schizosaccharomyces pombe SMC proteins Rad18 (Smc6) and Spr18 (Smc5) exist in a high-M(r) complex which also contains the non-SMC proteins Nse1, Nse2, Nse3, and Rad62. The Smc5-6 complex, which is essential for viability, is required for several aspects of DNA metabolism, including recombinational repair and maintenance of the DNA damage checkpoint. We have characterized Nse2 and show here that it is a SUMO ligase. Smc6 (Rad18) and Nse3, but not Smc5 (Spr18) or Nse1, are sumoylated in vitro in an Nse2-dependent manner, and Nse2 is itself autosumoylated, predominantly on the C-terminal part of the protein. Mutations of C195 and H197 in the Nse2 RING-finger-like motif abolish Nse2-dependent sumoylation. nse2.SA mutant cells, in which nse2.C195S-H197A is integrated as the sole copy of nse2, are viable, whereas the deletion of nse2 is lethal. Smc6 (Rad18) is sumoylated in vivo: the sumoylation level is increased upon exposure to DNA damage and is drastically reduced in the nse2.SA strain. Since nse2.SA cells are sensitive to DNA-damaging agents and to exposure to hydroxyurea, this implicates the Nse2-dependent sumoylation activity in DNA damage responses but not in the essential function of the Smc5-6 complex.
Project description:Efficient repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSB) requires a coordinated response at the site of lesion. Nucleolytic resection commits repair towards homologous recombination, which preferentially occurs between sister chromatids. DSB resection promotes recruitment of the Mec1 checkpoint kinase to the break. Rtt107 is a target of Mec1 and serves as a scaffold during repair. Rtt107 plays an important role during rescue of damaged replication forks, however whether Rtt107 contributes to the repair of DSBs is unknown. Here we show that Rtt107 is recruited to DSBs induced by the HO endonuclease. Rtt107 phosphorylation by Mec1 and its interaction with the Smc5-Smc6 complex are both required for Rtt107 loading to breaks, while Rtt107 regulators Slx4 and Rtt101 are not. We demonstrate that Rtt107 has an effect on the efficiency of sister chromatid recombination (SCR) and propose that its recruitment to DSBs, together with the Smc5-Smc6 complex is important for repair through the SCR pathway.
Project description:DNA damage checkpoint and recombinational repair are both important for cell survival of replication stress. Because these two processes influence each other, isolation of their respective contributions is challenging. Research in budding yeast shows that removal of the DNA helicase Mph1 improves survival of cells with defective Smc5/6 complex under replication stress. mph1 is known to reduce the levels of recombination intermediates in smc6 mutants. Here, we show that mph1 also hyperactivates the Mec1 checkpoint. We dissect the effects of recombination regulation and checkpoint hyperactivation by altering the checkpoint circuitry to enhance checkpoint signaling without reducing recombination intermediate levels. We show that these approaches, similar to mph1, lead to better survival of smc6 cells upon transient replication stress, likely by ameliorating replication and chromosomal segregation defects. Unlike mph1, however, they do not suppress smc6 sensitivity to chronic stress. Conversely, reducing the checkpoint response does not impair survival of smc6 mph1 mutants under chronic stress. These results suggest a two-phase model in which smc6 mutant survival upon transient replication stress can be improved by enhancing Mec1 checkpoint signaling, whereas smc6 sensitivity to chronic stress can be overcome by reducing recombination intermediates.