Physical and enzymological interaction of Bacillus subtilis proteins required for de novo pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthesis.
ABSTRACT: Bacillus subtilis synthesizes pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, the active form of vitamin B(6), by a poorly characterized pathway involving the yaaD and yaaE genes. The pdxS (yaaD) mutant was confirmed to be a strict B(6) auxotroph, but the pdxT (yaaE) mutant turned out to be a conditional auxotroph depending on the availability of ammonium in the growth medium. The PdxS and PdxT proteins copurified during affinity chromatography and apparently form a complex that has glutaminase activity. PdxS and PdxT appear to encode the synthase and glutaminase subunits, respectively, of a glutamine amidotransferase of as-yet-unknown specificity essential for B(6) biosynthesis.
Project description:Vitamin B? is an essential cofactor for a large number of enzymes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In this study, we characterized the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) biosynthesis pathway in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Our results revealed that S. pneumoniae possesses a de novo vitamin B? biosynthesis pathway encoded by the pdxST genes. Purified PdxS functionally displayed as PLP synthase, whereas PdxT exhibited glutaminase activity in vitro. Deletion of pdxS, but not pdxT, resulted in a vitamin B? auxotrophic mutant. The defective growth of the ?pdxS mutant in a vitamin B?-depleted medium could be chemically restored in the presence of the B? vitamers at optimal concentrations. By analyzing PdxS expression levels, we demonstrated that the expression of pdxS was repressed by PLP and activated by a transcription factor, PdxR. A pneumococcal ?pdxR mutant also exhibited as a vitamin B? auxotroph. In addition, we found that disruption of the vitamin B? biosynthesis pathway in S. pneumoniae caused a significant attenuation in a chinchilla middle ear infection model and a minor attenuation in a mouse pneumonia model, indicating that the impact of vitamin B? synthesis on virulence depends upon the bacterial infection niche.
Project description:Pyridoxal biosynthesis lyase (PdxS) is an important player in the biosynthesis of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the biologically active form of vitamin B(6). PLP is an important cofactor involved in the metabolic pathway of amine-containing natural products such as amino acids and amino sugars. PdxS catalyzes the condensation of ribulose 5-phosphate (Ru5P), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) and ammonia, while glutamine amidotransferase (PdxT) catalyzes the production of ammonia from glutamine. PdxS and PdxT form a complex, PLP synthase, and widely exist in eubacteria, archaea, fungi and plants. To facilitate further structural comparisons among PdxS proteins, the structural analysis of PdxS from Pyrococcus horikoshii encoded by the Ph1355 gene was initiated. PdxS from P. horikoshii was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized at 296 K using 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol as a precipitant. Crystals of P. horikoshii PdxS diffracted to 2.61 Å resolution and belonged to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 59.30, b = 178.56, c = 109.23 Å, ? = 102.97°. The asymmetric unit contained six monomers, with a corresponding V(M) of 2.54 Å(3) Da(-1) and a solvent content of 51.5% by volume.
Project description:Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is the biologically active form of vitamin B(6) and is de novo synthesized from three substrates, dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), riburose 5-phosphate (RBP), and ammonia hydrolysed from glutamine. Glutamine amidotransferase (PdxT) catalyzes the production of ammonia from glutamine, while PdxS catalyzes the following condensation of ribulose 5-phosphate (Ru5P), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P), and ammonia. PdxS exists as a hexamer or dodecamer depending on species and makes a 1:1 complex with PdxT. Pyrococcus horikoshii PdxS has a 37 amino acids insertion region, which is found in some archaeal PdxS proteins, but its structure and function are unknown. To provide further structural information on the role of the insertion region, the oligomeric state, and ligand binding mode of P. horikoshii PdxS, the crystal structure of PdxS from P. horikoshii was solved in two forms: (i) apo form, (ii) r ibose 5-phosphate (R5P) complex and the quaternary structure of PdxS in solution was determined by analytical gel filtration. P. horikoshii PdxS forms hexamer in solution based on analytical gel filtration data. When we superimpose the structure of P. horikoshii PdxS with other dodecamer structures of PdxS, the additional insertion is located apart from the active site and induces a steric clash on the hexamer-hexamer interface of PdxS proteins. Our results suggest that the additional insertion perturbs dodecamer formation of P. horikoshii PdxS.
Project description:Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is an essential cofactor for numerous enzymes involved in a diversity of cellular processes in living organisms. Previous analysis of the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae S-8 genome sequence revealed the presence of pdxS and pdxT genes, which are implicated in deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate (DXP)-independent pathway of PLP biosynthesis; however, little is known about their roles in A. pleuropneumoniae pathogenicity. Our data demonstrated that A. pleuropneumoniae could synthesize PLP by PdxS and PdxT enzymes. Disruption of the pdxS and pdxT genes rendered the pathogen auxotrophic for PLP, and the defective growth as a result of these mutants was chemically compensated by the addition of PLP, suggesting the importance of PLP production for A. pleuropneumoniae growth and viability. Additionally, the pdxS and pdxT deletion mutants displayed morphological defects as indicated by irregular and aberrant shapes in the absence of PLP. The reduced growth of the pdxS and pdxT deletion mutants under osmotic and oxidative stress conditions suggests that the PLP synthases PdxS/PdxT are associated with the stress tolerance of A. pleuropneumoniae. Furthermore, disruption of the PLP biosynthesis pathway led to reduced colonization and attenuated virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae in the BALB/c mouse model. The data presented in this study reveal the critical role of PLP synthases PdxS/PdxT in viability, stress tolerance, and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae.
Project description:Tuberculosis is a widespread and deadly infectious disease, and one third of the human population is already infected. Vitamin B6 is known to be synthesized through consecutive reactions mediated by pyridoxal biosynthesis lyase (PdxS) and glutamine amidotransferase (PdxT). The gene product Rv2606c, the PdxS pyridoxal biosynthesis lyase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of 8%(w/v) PEG 8000, 0.1?M 3-(cyclohexylamino)-1-propanesulfonic acid pH 10.5 and 0.2?M sodium chloride at 295?K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 1.7?Å on a synchrotron beamline. The crystal belonged to space group I222 or I212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 110.75, b = 126.08, c = 180.82?Å, ? = ? = ? = 90°. With three molecules per asymmetric unit, the crystal volume per unit protein weight (VM) was 3.79?Å(3)?Da(-1).
Project description:Vitamin B6 is an essential metabolic cofactor that has more functions in humans than any other single nutrient. Its de novo biosynthesis occurs through two mutually exclusive pathways that are absent in animals. The predominant pathway found in most prokaryotes, fungi, and plants has only recently been discovered. It is distinguished by a glutamine amidotransferase, which is remarkable in that it alone can synthesize the cofactor form, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), directly from a triose and a pentose saccharide and glutamine. Here we report the 3D structure of the PLP synthase complex with substrate glutamine bound as well as those of the individual synthase and glutaminase subunits Pdx1 and Pdx2, respectively. The complex is made up of 24 protein units assembled like a cogwheel, a dodecameric Pdx1 to which 12 Pdx2 subunits attach. In contrast to the architecture of previously determined glutamine amidotransferases, macromolecular assembly is directed by an N-terminal alpha-helix on the synthase. Interaction with the synthase subunit leads to glutaminase activation, resulting in formation of an oxyanion hole, a prerequisite for catalysis. Mutagenesis permitted identification of the remote glutaminase and synthase catalytic centers and led us to propose a mechanism whereby ammonia shuttles between these active sites through a methionine-rich hydrophobic tunnel.
Project description:Although the routes of de novo pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) biosynthesis have been well described, studies of the engineering of an intracellular PLP supply are limited, and the effects of cellular PLP levels on PLP-dependent enzyme-based whole-cell biocatalyst activity have not been described. To investigate the effects of PLP cofactor availability on whole-cell biocatalysis, the ribose 5-phosphate (R5P)-dependent pathway genes pdxS and pdxT of Bacillus subtilis were introduced into the lysine decarboxylase (CadA)-overexpressing Escherichia coli strain BL-CadA. This strain was then used as a whole-cell biocatalyst for cadaverine production from L-lysine. Co-expression strategies were evaluated, and the culture medium was optimised to improve the biocatalyst performance. As a result, the intracellular PLP concentration reached 1144?nmol/gDCW, and a specific cadaverine productivity of 25?g/gDCW/h was achieved; these values were 2.4-fold and 2.9-fold higher than those of unmodified BL-CadA, respectively. Additionally, the resulting strain AST3 showed a cadaverine titre (p?=?0.143, ??=?0.05) similar to that of the BL-CadA strain with the addition of 0.1?mM PLP. These approaches for improving intracellular PLP levels to enhance whole-cell lysine bioconversion activity show great promise for the engineering of a PLP cofactor to optimise whole-cell biocatalysis.
Project description:PLP synthase (PLPS) is a remarkable single-enzyme biosynthetic pathway that produces pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) from glutamine, ribose 5-phosphate, and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The intact enzyme includes 12 synthase and 12 glutaminase subunits. PLP synthesis occurs in the synthase active site by a complicated mechanism involving at least two covalent intermediates at a catalytic lysine. The first intermediate forms with ribose 5-phosphate. The glutaminase subunit is a glutamine amidotransferase that hydrolyzes glutamine and channels ammonia to the synthase active site. Ammonia attack on the first covalent intermediate forms the second intermediate. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate reacts with the second intermediate to form PLP. To investigate the mechanism of the synthase subunit, crystal structures were obtained for three intermediate states of the Geobacillus stearothermophilus intact PLPS or its synthase subunit. The structures capture the synthase active site at three distinct steps in its complicated catalytic cycle, provide insights into the elusive mechanism, and illustrate the coordinated motions within the synthase subunit that separate the catalytic states. In the intact PLPS with a Michaelis-like intermediate in the glutaminase active site, the first covalent intermediate of the synthase is fully sequestered within the enzyme by the ordering of a generally disordered 20-residue C-terminal tail. Following addition of ammonia, the synthase active site opens and admits the Lys-149 side chain, which participates in formation of the second intermediate and PLP. Roles are identified for conserved Asp-24 in the formation of the first intermediate and for conserved Arg-147 in the conversion of the first to the second intermediate.
Project description:The prevalent de novo biosynthetic pathway of vitamin B6 involves only two enzymes (Pdx1 and Pdx2) that form an ornate multisubunit complex functioning as a glutamine amidotransferase. The synthase subunit, Pdx1, utilizes ribose 5-phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, as well as ammonia derived from the glutaminase activity of Pdx2 to directly form the cofactor vitamer, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Given the fact that a single enzyme performs the majority of the chemistry behind this reaction, a complicated mechanism is anticipated. Recently, the individual steps along the reaction co-ordinate are beginning to be unraveled. In particular, the binding of the pentose substrate and the first steps of the reaction have been elucidated but it is not known if the latter part of the chemistry, involving the triose sugar, takes place in the same or a disparate site. Here, we demonstrate through the use of enzyme assays, enzyme kinetics, and mutagenesis studies that indeed a second site is involved in binding the triose sugar and moreover, is the location of the final vitamin product, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Furthermore, we show that product release is triggered by the presence of a PLP-dependent enzyme. Finally, we provide evidence that a single arginine residue of the C terminus of Pdx1 is responsible for coordinating co-operativity in this elaborate protein machinery.
Project description:Vitamin B(6) is essential in all organisms, due to its requirement as a cofactor in the form of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) for key metabolic enzymes. It can be synthesized de novo by either of two pathways known as deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate (DXP)-dependent and DXP-independent. The DXP-independent pathway is the predominant pathway and is found in most microorganisms and plants. A glutamine amidotransferase consisting of the synthase Pdx1 and its glutaminase partner, Pdx2, form a complex that directly synthesizes PLP from ribose 5-phosphate, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, and glutamine. The protein complex displays an ornate architecture consisting of 24 subunits, two hexameric rings of 12 Pdx1 subunits to which 12 Pdx2 subunits attach, with the glutaminase and synthase active sites remote from each other. The multiple catalytic ability of Pdx1, the remote glutaminase and synthase active sites, and the elaborate structure suggest regulation of activity on several levels. A missing piece in deciphering this intricate puzzle has been information on the Pdx1 C-terminal region that has thus far eluded structural characterization. Here we use fluorescence spectrophotometry and protein chemistry to demonstrate that the Pdx1 C terminus is indispensable for PLP synthase activity and mediates intersubunit cross-talk within the enzyme complex. We provide evidence that the C terminus can act as a flexible lid, bridging as well as shielding the active site of an adjacent protomer in Pdx1. We show that ribose 5-phosphate binding triggers strong cooperativity in Pdx1, and the affinity for this substrate is substantially enhanced upon interaction with the Michaelis complex of Pdx2 and glutamine.