Effects of antidepressants, but not psychopathology, on cardiac sympathetic control: a longitudinal study.
ABSTRACT: Increased sympathetic activity has been hypothesized to have a role in the elevated somatic disease risk in persons with depressive or anxiety disorders. However, it remains unclear whether increased sympathetic activity reflects a direct effect of anxiety or depression or an indirect effect of antidepressant medication. The aim of this study was to test longitudinally whether cardiac sympathetic control, measured by pre-ejection period (PEP), was increased by depression/anxiety status and by antidepressant use. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data were from a depression and anxiety cohort: the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Baseline data of 2838 NESDA subjects (mean age 41.7 years, 66.7% female) and 2-year follow-up data of 2226 subjects were available for analyses. Included were subjects with and without depressive/anxiety disorders, using or not using different antidepressants at baseline or follow-up. The PEP was measured non-invasively by 1.5 h of ambulatory impedance cardiography. Cross-sectional analyses compared PEP across psychopathology and antidepressant groups. Longitudinal analyses compared 2-year changes in PEP in relation to changes in psychopathology and antidepressant use. Cross-sectional analyses showed that antidepressant-naïve depressive/anxious subjects had comparable PEP as controls, whereas subjects using tricyclic (TCA) or combined serotonergic/noradrenergic antidepressants (SNRI) had significantly shorter PEP compared with controls. In contrast, subjects using selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) had longer PEP than controls. Longitudinal results confirmed these findings: compared with 2-year change in PEP in continuous non-users (+2 ms), subjects who started TCA or SNRI treatment showed significantly shortened PEP (-11 ms, p=0.005 and p<0.001), whereas subjects who started SSRI treatment showed significant prolongation of PEP (+9 ms, p=0.002). Reversed findings were observed among those who stopped antidepressant use. These findings suggest that depressive and anxiety disorders are not associated with increased cardiac sympathetic control. However, results pose that TCA and SNRI use increases sympathetic control, whereas SSRI use decreases sympathetic control.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The aim of the study was to examine whether anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with an adverse cardiac autonomic profile among midlife women with hot flashes. METHODS:Anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated by validated self-administered questionnaires among peri- and postmenopausal women in a randomized trial of slow-paced respiration for hot flashes. Pre-ejection period (PEP), a marker of sympathetic activation, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a marker of parasympathetic activation, were measured at baseline and 12 weeks using impedance cardiography and electocardiography. Multivariable repeated measures linear regression models examined associations between anxiety and depression symptoms and autonomic markers, corrected for multiple comparisons with Benjamini-Hochberg procedure, and adjusted for age and body mass index. RESULTS:Among the 121 participants, greater state anxiety was associated with shorter PEP, reflecting higher sympathetic activity (??=?-0.24, P?=?0.02). Greater trait anxiety and cognitive anxiety were associated with lower RSA, reflecting decreased parasympathetic activity (??=?-0.03, P?<?0.01 for Spielberger Trait Anxiety; ??=?-0.06, P?=?0.02 for Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS] Anxiety Subscale). Greater depressive symptoms were associated with lower RSA (??=?-0.06, P?=?0.03 for HADS Depression Subscale; ??=?-0.03, P?=?0.04 for Beck Depression Inventory). CONCLUSIONS:Among peri- and postmenopausal women with hot flashes, greater self-reported anxiety and depressive symptoms were associated with lower levels of resting cardiac parasympathetic activity, and greater state anxiety was associated with higher levels of cardiac sympathetic activity. Findings suggest that midlife women with increased anxiety and depressive symptoms may have an unfavorable cardiac autonomic profile with potential implications for their overall cardiovascular risk.
Project description:People with depression are usually managed in primary care and antidepressants are often the first-line treatment, but only one third of patients respond fully to a single antidepressant. This paper describes the protocol for a randomised controlled trial (MIR) to investigate the extent to which the addition of the antidepressant mirtazapine is effective in reducing the symptoms of depression compared with placebo in patients who are still depressed after they have been treated with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) for at least 6 weeks in primary care.MIR is a two-parallel group, multi-centre, pragmatic, placebo controlled, randomised trial with allocation at the level of the individual. Eligible participants are those who: are aged 18 years or older; are currently taking an SSRI/SNRI antidepressant (for at least 6 weeks at an adequate dose); score ≥ 14 on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II); have adhered to their medication; and meet ICD-10 criteria for depression (assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised version). Participants who give written, informed consent, will be randomised to receive either oral mirtazapine or matched placebo, starting at 15 mg daily for 2 weeks and increasing to 30 mg daily thereafter, for up to 12 months (to be taken in addition to their usual antidepressant). Participants, their GPs, and the research team will all be blind to the allocation. The primary outcome will be depression symptoms at 12 weeks post randomisation, measured as a continuous variable using the BDI-II. Secondary outcomes (measured at 12, 24 and 52 weeks) include: response (reduction in depressive symptoms (BDI-II score) of at least 50% compared to baseline); remission of depression symptoms (BDI-II <10); change in anxiety symptoms; adverse effects; quality of life; adherence to antidepressant medication; health and social care use, time off work and cost-effectiveness. All outcomes will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. A qualitative study will explore patients' views and experiences of either taking two antidepressants, or an antidepressant and a placebo; and GPs' views on prescribing a second antidepressant in this patient group.The MIR trial will provide evidence on the clinical and cost-effectiveness of mirtazapine as an adjunct to SSRI/SNRI antidepressants for patients in primary care who have not responded to monotherapy.EudraCT Number: 2012-000090-23 (Registered January 2012); ISRCTN06653773 (Registered September 2012).
Project description:Depression and antidepressant use, especially selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are common in Parkinson disease (PD). The objective of this clinical trial was to assess the efficacy of atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), for the treatment of clinically significant depressive symptoms and common comorbid neuropsychiatric symptoms in PD.A total of 55 subjects with PD and an Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Clinician (IDS-C) score > or = 22 were randomized to 8 weeks of atomoxetine or placebo treatment (target dosage = 80 mg/day). Depression response (> 50% decrease in IDS-C score or Clinical Global Impression-Improvement [CGI-I] score of 1 or 2) was assessed using intention-to-treat modeling procedures. Secondary outcomes included global cognition, daytime sleepiness, anxiety, apathy, and motor function.There were no between-groups differences in a priori-defined response rates. Using a more liberal response criterion of > 40% decrease in IDS score from baseline, there was a trend (p = 0.08) favoring atomoxetine. Patients receiving atomoxetine experienced significantly greater improvement in global cognition (p = 0.003) and daytime sleepiness (p = 0.001), and atomoxetine was well-tolerated.Atomoxetine treatment was not efficacious for the treatment of clinically significant depressive symptoms in PD, but was associated with improvement in global cognitive performance and daytime sleepiness. Larger studies of SNRIs in PD for disorders of mood, cognition, and wakefulness are appropriate.This interventional study provides Class II evidence that atomoxetine (target dosage = 80 mg/day) is not efficacious in improving clinically significant depression in PD.
Project description:A previous study suggested an increased risk of preeclampsia among women treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Using population-based health-care utilization databases from British Columbia (1997-2006), the authors conducted a study of 69,448 pregnancies in women with depression. They compared risk of preeclampsia in women using SSRIs, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), or tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) between gestational weeks 10 and 20 with risk in depressed women not using antidepressants. Among prepregnancy antidepressant users, the authors compared the risk in women who continued antidepressants between gestational weeks 10 and 24 with the risk in those who discontinued. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated. The risk of preeclampsia in depressed women not treated with antidepressants (2.4%) was similar to that in women without depression (2.3%). Compared with women with untreated depression, women treated with SSRI, SNRI, and TCA monotherapy had adjusted relative risks of 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97, 1.54), 1.95 (95% CI: 1.25, 3.03), and 3.23 (95% CI: 1.87, 5.59), respectively. Within prepregnancy antidepressant users, the relative risk for preeclampsia among continuers compared with discontinuers was 1.32 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.84) for SSRI, 3.43 (95% CI: 1.77, 6.65) for SNRI, and 3.26 (95% CI: 1.04, 10.24) for TCA monotherapy. Study results suggest that women who use antidepressants during pregnancy, especially SNRIs and TCAs, have an elevated risk of preeclampsia. These associations may reflect drug effects or more severe depression.
Project description:Adaptive social functioning is severely impeded in depressive and anxiety disorders, even after remission. However, a comprehensive overview is still lacking.Using data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), behavioural (network size, social activities, social support) and affective (loneliness, affiliation, perceived social disability) indicators of social functioning were analyzed in patients with anxiety (N = 540), depressive (N = 393), comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders ('comorbid', N = 748), remitted participants (N = 621), and healthy control subjects (N = 650).Analyses revealed an increasing trend of social dysfunction among patient groups, in patients with comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders, showing the most severe impairments, followed by depressed and anxious patients (P's < 0.001 for all social functioning indicators). Affective indicators showed the largest effect sizes (Cohen's d range from 0.13 to 1.76). We also found impairments in social functioning among remitted patients. Furthermore, perceived social disability among patients was predictive of still having a depressive and/or anxiety diagnosis 2 years later (P < 0.01).Behavioural but especially affective indicators of social functioning are impaired in patients with anxiety or depressive disorders and most in patients with comorbid disorders. After remission of affective psychopathology, residual impairments tend to remain, while social dysfunction in patients seems predictive of future psychopathology.
Project description:Metabolic syndrome components-waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides, systolic blood pressure and fasting glucose-are cross-sectionally associated with depression and anxiety with differing strength. Few studies examine the relationships over time or whether antidepressants have independent effects.Participants were from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA; N = 2,776; 18-65 years; 66% female). At baseline, 2- and 6-year follow-up, participants completed diagnostic interviews, depression and anxiety symptom inventories, antidepressant use assessment, and measurements of the five metabolic syndrome components. Data were analyzed for the consistency of associations between psychopathology indicators and metabolic syndrome components across the three assessment waves, and whether psychopathology or antidepressant use at one assessment predicts metabolic dysregulation at the next and vice versa.Consistently across waves, psychopathology was associated with generally poorer values of metabolic syndrome components, particularly waist circumference and triglycerides. Stronger associations were observed for psychopathology symptom severity than diagnosis. Antidepressant use was independently associated with higher waist circumference, triglycerides and number of metabolic syndrome abnormalities, and lower HDL-C. Symptom severity and antidepressant use were associated with subsequently increased number of abnormalities, waist circumference, and glucose after 2 but not 4 years. Conversely, there was little evidence that metabolic syndrome components were associated with subsequent psychopathology outcomes.Symptom severity and antidepressant use were independently associated with metabolic dysregulation consistently over time and also had negative consequences for short-term metabolic health. This is of concern given the chronicity of depression and anxiety and prevalence of antidepressant treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To assess use of antidepressants by class in relation to cardiology practice recommendations, and the association of antidepressant use with the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including death. METHODS:This is a historical cohort study of all patients who completed cardiac rehabilitation (CR) between 2002 and 2012 in a major CR center. Participants completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) at the start and end of the program. A linkage system enabled ascertainment of antidepressant use and MACE through 2014. RESULTS:There were 1,694 CR participants, 1,266 (74.7%) of whom completed the PHQ-9 after the program. Depressive symptoms decreased significantly from pre- (4.98 ± 5.20) to postprogram (3.57 ± 4.43) (p < 0.001). Overall, 433 (34.2%) participants were on antidepressants, most often selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI; n = 299; 23.6%). The proportion of days covered was approximately 70% for all 4 major antidepressant classes; discontinuation rates ranged from 37.3% for tricyclics to 53.2% for serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI). Antidepressant use was significantly associated with lower depressive symptoms after CR (before, 7.33 ± 5.94 vs. after, 4.69 ± 4.87; p < 0.001). After a median follow-up of 4.7 years, 264 (20.9%) participants had a MACE. After propensity matching based on pre-CR depressive symptoms among other variables, participants taking tricyclics had significantly more MACE than those not taking tricyclics (HR = 2.46; 95% CI 1.37-4.42), as well as those taking atypicals versus not (HR = 1.59; 95% CI 1.05-2.41) and those on SSRI (HR = 1.45; 95% CI 1.07-1.97). There was no increased risk with use of SNRI (HR = 0.89; 95% CI 0.43-1.82). CONCLUSION:The use of antidepressants was associated with lower depression, but the use of all antidepressants except SNRI was associated with more adverse events.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Variation in genes implicated in homocysteine and lipid metabolism systems may influence antidepressant response for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This study aimed to investigate whether association of polymorphisms on the MTHFR, ApoE and ApoA4 genes with the treatment response in MDD subjects. METHODS:A total of 281 Han Chinese MDD patients received a single antidepressant drug (SSRI or SNRI) for at least 6?weeks, among whom 275 were followed up for 8?weeks. Their response to 6?weeks' treatment and remission to 8?weeks' treatment with antidepressant drugs was determined by changes in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HARS-17) score. Single SNP and haplotype associations with treatment response were analyzed by UNPHASED 3.0.13. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the interactions between genotypes and gender or drug type on treatment outcome, only those SNPs that had interactional association with gender or drug type were subjected to further stratified analysis. RESULTS:In total group, the haplotype (C-A) in MTHFR (rsl801133 and rs1801131) and the ApoE rs405509 AA genotype were significantly associated with better efficacy of antidepressants; In gender subgroups, only haplotype (C-A) in MTHFR (rsl801133 and rs1801131) was significantly associated with better efficacy of antidepressants in male subgroup; In drug type subgroup, the haplotype (C-A) in MTHFR (rsl801133 and rs1801131) and haplotype (G-C) in ApoE (rs7412 and rs405509) were associated with better efficacy of antidepressants in SNRI treated subgroup; The ApoA4 rs5092 G allele and GG genotype were associated with worse efficacy of antidepressants in SNRI treated subgroup. CONCLUSIONS:Genetic polymorphisms in homocysteine and lipid metabolism systems are associated with antidepressant response, particularly for the interactions of the certain genetic with gender or drug type.
Project description:This randomised, double-blind, 12-week study compared efficacy and tolerability of flexible-dose treatment with vortioxetine(10-20 mg/day) versus agomelatine (25-50 mg/day) in major depressive disorder patients with inadequate response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)/serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) monotherapy.Patients were switched directly from SSRI/SNRI to vortioxetine or agomelatine. Primary endpoint was change from baseline to week 8 in the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score analysed by mixed model for repeated measurements, using a noninferiority test followed by a superiority test. Secondary endpoints included response and remission rates, anxiety symptoms(Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale), Clinical Global Impression, overall functioning (Sheehan Disability Scale), health-related quality of life(EuroQol 5 Dimensions), productivity (work limitation questionnaire) and family functioning (Depression and Family Functioning Scale).Primary endpoint noninferiority was established and vortioxetine (n = 252) was superior to agomelatine (n = 241) by 2.2 MADRS points (p<0.01). Vortioxetine was also significantly superior in response and remission rates at weeks 8 and 12; MADRS, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression, Sheehan Disability Scale and EuroQol 5 Dimensions scores at week 4 onwards; work limitation questionnaire at week 8 and Depression and Family Functioning Scale at weeks 8 and 12. Fewer patients withdrew because of adverse events with vortioxetine (5.9% vs 9.5%). Adverse events (incidence ?5%) were nausea, headache, dizziness and somnolence.Vortioxetine was noninferior and significantly superior to agomelatine in major depressive disorder patients with previous inadequate response to a single course of SSRI/SNRI monotherapy. Vortioxetine was safe and well tolerated.
Project description:It remains unclear why many patients with depression do not respond to antidepressant treatment. In three cohorts of individuals with depression and treated with serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (N=424) we show that responders, but not non-responders, display an increase of GPR56 mRNA in the blood. In a small group of subjects we also show that GPR56 is also downregulated in the PFC of individuals with depression that died by suicide. In mice, we show that chronic stress induced Gpr56 downregulation in the blood and prefrontal cortex (PFC), which is accompanied by depression-like behaviour, and can be reversed by antidepressant treatment. Gpr56 knockdown in mouse PFC was is associated with depressive-like behaviors, executive dysfunction and poor response to antidepressant treatment. GPR56 peptide agonists had antidepressant-like effects and up-regulated AKT/GSK3/EIF4 pathways. Our findings uncover a potential role of GPR56 in antidepressant response. Overall design: Analysis of changes in gene expression over 8 weeks in patients with MDD treated with duloxetine or placebo Please note that the 'characteristics: response' values 1 and 0 represent True (1) and False (0), respectively, indicating whether the subjects responded (1) or not (0) to the treatment.