A branched kinetic scheme describes the mechanochemical coupling of Myosin Va processivity in response to substrate.
ABSTRACT: Myosin Va is a double-headed cargo-carrying molecular motor that moves processively along cellular actin filaments. Long processive runs are achieved through mechanical coordination between the two heads of myosin Va, which keeps their ATPase cycles out of phase, preventing both heads detaching from actin simultaneously. The biochemical kinetics underlying processivity are still uncertain. Here we attempt to define the biochemical pathways populated by myosin Va by examining the velocity, processive run-length, and individual steps of a Qdot-labeled myosin Va in various substrate conditions (i.e., changes in ATP, ADP, and P(i)) under zero load in the single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy assay. These data were used to globally constrain a branched kinetic scheme that was necessary to fit the dependences of velocity and run-length on substrate conditions. Based on this model, myosin Va can be biased along a given pathway by changes in substrate concentrations. This has uncovered states not normally sampled by the motor, and suggests that every transition involving substrate binding and release may be strain-dependent.
Project description:Myosin Va (myoVa) is an actin-based intracellular cargo transporter. In vitro experiments have established that a single myoVa moves processively along actin tracks, but less is known about how this motor operates within cells. Here we track the movement of a quantum dot (Qdot)-labeled myoVa HMM in COS-7 cells using total internal reflectance fluorescence microscopy. This labeling approach is unique in that it allows myoVa, instead of its cargo, to be tracked. Single-particle analysis showed short periods (</=0.5 s) of ATP-sensitive linear motion. The mean velocity of these trajectories was 604 nm/s and independent of the number of myoVa molecules attached to the Qdot. With high time (16.6 ms) and spatial (15 nm) resolution imaging, Qdot-labeled myoVa moved with sequential 75 nm steps per head, at a rate of 16 s(-1), similarly to myoVa in vitro. Monte Carlo modeling suggests that the random nature of the trajectories represents processive myoVa motors undergoing a random walk through the dense and randomly oriented cortical actin network.
Project description:Myosin Va (myoVa) is a processive, actin-based molecular motor essential for intracellular cargo transport. When a cargo is transported by an ensemble of myoVa motors, each motor faces significant physical barriers and directional challenges created by the complex actin cytoskeleton, a network of actin filaments and actin bundles. The principles that govern the interaction of multiple motors attached to the same cargo are still poorly understood. To understand the mechanical interactions between multiple motors, we developed a simple in vitro model in which two individual myoVa motors labeled with different-colored Qdots are linked via a third Qdot that acts as a cargo. The velocity of this two-motor complex was reduced by 27% as compared to a single motor, whereas run length was increased by only 37%, much less than expected from multimotor transport models. Therefore, at low ATP, which allowed us to identify individual motor steps, we investigated the intermotor dynamics within the two-motor complex. The randomness of stepping leads to a buildup of tension in the linkage between motors-which in turn slows down the leading motor-and increases the frequency of backward steps and the detachment rate. We establish a direct relationship between the velocity reduction and the distribution of intermotor distances. The analysis of run lengths and dwell times for the two-motor complex, which has only one motor engaged with the actin track, reveals that half of the runs are terminated by almost simultaneous detachment of both motors. This finding challenges the assumptions of conventional multimotor models based on consecutive motor detachment. Similar, but even more drastic, results were observed with two-motor complexes on actin bundles, which showed a run length that was even shorter than that of a single motor.
Project description:Ventricular myosin (?Mys) is the motor protein in cardiac muscle generating force using ATP hydrolysis free energy to translate actin. In the cardiac muscle sarcomere, myosin and actin filaments interact cyclically and undergo rapid relative translation facilitated by the low duty cycle motor. It contrasts with high duty cycle processive myosins for which persistent actin association is the priority. The only pharmaceutical ?Mys activator, omecamtive mecarbil (OM), upregulates cardiac contractility in vivo and is undergoing testing for heart failure therapy. In vitro ?Mys step-size, motility velocity, and actin-activated myosin ATPase were measured to determine duty cycle in the absence and presence of OM. A new parameter, the relative step-frequency, was introduced and measured to characterize ?Mys motility due to the involvement of its three unitary step-sizes. Step-size and relative step-frequency were measured using the Qdot assay. OM decreases motility velocity 10-fold without affecting step-size, indicating a large increase in duty cycle converting ?Mys to a near processive myosin. The OM conversion dramatically increases force and modestly increases power over the native ?Mys. Contrasting motility modification due to OM with that from the natural myosin activator, specific ?Mys phosphorylation, provides insight into their respective activation mechanisms and indicates the boilerplate screening characteristics desired for pharmaceutical ?Mys activators. New analytics introduced here for the fast and efficient Qdot motility assay create a promising method for high-throughput screening of motor proteins and their modulators.
Project description:Myosin Va transports intracellular cargoes along actin filaments in cells. This processive, two-headed motor takes multiple 36-nm steps in which the two heads swing forward alternately towards the barbed end of actin driven by ATP hydrolysis. The ability of myosin Va to move processively is a function of its long lever arm, the high duty ratio of its kinetic cycle and the gating of the kinetics between the two heads such that ADP release from the lead head is greatly retarded. Mechanical studies at the multiple- and the single-molecule level suggest that there is tight coupling (that is, one ATP is hydrolysed per power stroke), but this has not been directly demonstrated. We therefore investigated the coordination between the ATPase mechanism of the two heads of myosin Va and directly visualized the binding and dissociation of single fluorescently labelled nucleotide molecules, while simultaneously observing the stepping motion of the fluorescently labelled myosin Va as it moved along an actin filament. Here we show that preferential ADP dissociation from the trail head of mouse myosin Va is followed by ATP binding and a synchronous 36-nm step. Even at low ATP concentrations, the myosin Va molecule retained at least one nucleotide (ADP in the lead head position) when moving. Thus, we directly demonstrate tight coupling between myosin Va movement and the binding and dissociation of nucleotide by simultaneously imaging with near nanometre precision.
Project description:Complex forms of cellular motility, including cell division, organelle trafficking or signal amplification in the auditory system, require strong coordination of the myosin motors involved. The most basic mechanism of coordination is via direct mechanical interactions of individual motor heads leading to modification of their mechanochemical cycles. Here we used an optical trap-based assay to investigate the reversibility of the force-generating conformational change (power stroke) of single myosin-Va motor heads. By applying load to the head shortly after binding to actin, we found that, at a certain load, the power stroke could be reversed, and the head fluctuated between an actin-bound pre- and a post-power stroke conformation. This load-dependent mechanical instability might be critical to coordinate the heads of processive, dimeric myosin-Va. Nonlinear response to load leading to coordination or oscillations amongst motors might be relevant for many cellular functions.
Project description:Myosin powers contraction in heart and skeletal muscle and is a leading target for mutations implicated in inheritable muscle diseases. During contraction, myosin transduces ATP free energy into the work of muscle shortening against resisting force. Muscle shortening involves relative sliding of myosin and actin filaments. Skeletal actin filaments were fluorescently labeled with a streptavidin conjugate quantum dot (Qdot) binding biotin-phalloidin on actin. Single Qdots were imaged in time with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and then spatially localized to 1-3 nm using a super-resolution algorithm as they translated with actin over a surface coated with skeletal heavy meromyosin (sHMM) or full-length ?-cardiac myosin (MYH7). The average Qdot-actin velocity matches measurements with rhodamine-phalloidin-labeled actin. The sHMM Qdot-actin velocity histogram contains low-velocity events corresponding to actin translation in quantized steps of ~5 nm. The MYH7 velocity histogram has quantized steps at 3 and 8 nm in addition to 5 nm and larger compliance compared to that of sHMM depending on the MYH7 surface concentration. Low-duty cycle skeletal and cardiac myosin present challenges for a single-molecule assay because actomyosin dissociates quickly and the freely moving element diffuses away. The in vitro motility assay has modestly more actomyosin interactions, and methylcellulose inhibited diffusion to sustain the complex while preserving a subset of encounters that do not overlap in time on a single actin filament. A single myosin step is isolated in time and space and then characterized using super-resolution. The approach provides a quick, quantitative, and inexpensive step size measurement for low-duty cycle muscle myosin.
Project description:Cytoskeletal filaments assemble into dense parallel, antiparallel, or disordered networks, providing a complex environment for active cargo transport and positioning by molecular motors. The interplay between the network architecture and intrinsic motor properties clearly affects transport properties but remains poorly understood. Here, by using surface micropatterns of actin polymerization, we investigate stochastic transport properties of colloidal beads in antiparallel networks of overlapping actin filaments. We found that 200-nm beads coated with myosin Va motors displayed directed movements toward positions where the net polarity of the actin network vanished, accumulating there. The bead distribution was dictated by the spatial profiles of local bead velocity and diffusion coefficient, indicating that a diffusion-drift process was at work. Remarkably, beads coated with heavy-mero-myosin II motors showed a similar behavior. However, although velocity gradients were steeper with myosin II, the much larger bead diffusion observed with this motor resulted in less precise positioning. Our observations are well described by a 3-state model, in which active beads locally sense the net polarity of the network by frequently detaching from and reattaching to the filaments. A stochastic sequence of processive runs and diffusive searches results in a biased random walk. The precision of bead positioning is set by the gradient of net actin polarity in the network and by the run length of the cargo in an attached state. Our results unveiled physical rules for cargo transport and positioning in networks of mixed polarity.
Project description:Myosin in muscle transduces ATP free energy into the mechanical work of moving actin. It has a motor domain transducer containing ATP and actin binding sites, and, mechanical elements coupling motor impulse to the myosin filament backbone providing transduction/mechanical-coupling. The mechanical coupler is a lever-arm stabilized by bound essential and regulatory light chains. The lever-arm rotates cyclically to impel bound filamentous actin. Linear actin displacement due to lever-arm rotation is the myosin step-size. A high-throughput quantum dot labeled actin in vitro motility assay (Qdot assay) measures motor step-size in the context of an ensemble of actomyosin interactions. The ensemble context imposes a constant velocity constraint for myosins interacting with one actin filament. In a cardiac myosin producing multiple step-sizes, a "second characterization" is step-frequency that adjusts longer step-size to lower frequency maintaining a linear actin velocity identical to that from a shorter step-size and higher frequency actomyosin cycle. The step-frequency characteristic involves and integrates myosin enzyme kinetics, mechanical strain, and other ensemble affected characteristics. The high-throughput Qdot assay suits a new paradigm calling for wide surveillance of the vast number of disease or aging relevant myosin isoforms that contrasts with the alternative model calling for exhaustive research on a tiny subset myosin forms. The zebrafish embryo assay (Z assay) performs single myosin step-size and step-frequency assaying in vivo combining single myosin mechanical and whole muscle physiological characterizations in one model organism. The Qdot and Z assays cover "bottom-up" and "top-down" assaying of myosin characteristics.
Project description:In this work, we analysed processive sliding and breakage of actin filaments at various heavy meromyosin (HMM) densities and ATP concentrations in IVMA. We observed that with addition of ATP solution, the actin filaments fragmented stochastically; we then determined mean length and velocity of surviving actin filaments post breakage. Average filament length decreased with increase in HMM density at constant ATP, and increased with increase in ATP concentration at constant HMM density. Using density of HMM molecules and length of actin, we estimated the number of HMM molecules per actin filament (N) that participate in processive sliding of actin. N is solely a function of ATP concentration: 88?±?24 and 54?±?22 HMM molecules (mean?±?S.D.) at 2?mM and 0.1?mM ATP respectively. Processive sliding of actin filament was observed only when N lay within a minimum lower limit (Nmin) and a maximum upper limit (Nmax) to the number of HMM molecules. When N?<?Nmin the actin filament diffused away from the surface and processivity was lost and when N?>?Nmax the filament underwent breakage eventually and could not sustain processive sliding. We postulate this maximum upper limit arises due to increased number of strongly bound myosin heads.
Project description:In vitro motility assays, where purified myosin and actin move relative to one another, are used to better understand the mechanochemistry of the actomyosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) cycle. We examined the relationship between the relative velocity (V) of actin and myosin and the number of available myosin heads (N) or [ATP] for smooth (SMM), skeletal (SKM), and cardiac (CMM) muscle myosin filaments moving over actin as well as V from actin filaments moving over a bed of monomeric SKM. These data do not fit well to a widely accepted model that predicts that V is limited by myosin detachment from actin (d/ton), where d equals step size and ton equals time a myosin head remains attached to actin. To account for these data, we have developed a mixed-kinetic model where V is influenced by both attachment and detachment kinetics. The relative contributions at a given V vary with the probability that a head will remain attached to actin long enough to reach the end of its flexible S2 tether. Detachment kinetics are affected by L/ton, where L is related to the tether length. We show that L is relatively long for SMM, SKM, and CMM filaments (59 ± 3 nm, 22 ± 9 nm, and 22 ± 2 nm, respectively). In contrast, L is shorter (8 ± 3 nm) when myosin monomers are attached to a surface. This suggests that the behavior of the S2 domain may be an important mechanical feature of myosin filaments that influences unloaded shortening velocities of muscle.