Molecular epidemiology of multiresistant Streptococcus pneumoniae with both erm(B)- and mef(A)-mediated macrolide resistance.
ABSTRACT: Of a total of 1043 macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates collected from 24 countries as part of PROTEKT 1999-2000, 71 isolates tested positive for both the mef(A) and erm(B) genes. Of 69 isolates subjected to further molecular investigations, all were resistant to tetracycline, 63 (91.3%) were resistant to penicillin, and 57 (82.6%) were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. One isolate was also fluoroquinolone resistant, and another was resistant to quinupristin-dalfopristin. The ketolide telithromycin retained activity against all of the isolates. Of the 69 of these 71 isolates viable for further testing, 46 were from South Korea, 13 were from the United States, 8 came from Japan, and 1 each came from Mexico and Hungary. One major clonal complex (59 [85.5%] of 69 isolates) was identified by serotyping (with 85.5% of the isolates being 19A or 19F), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence typing. The remaining isolates were less clonal in nature. Representative isolates were shown to carry the mobile genetic elements Tn1545 and mega, were negative for Tn1207.1, had tetracycline resistance mediated by tet(M), and contained the mef(E) variant of mef(A). All isolates were positive for mel, a homologue of the msr(A) efflux gene. These clones are obviously very efficient at global dissemination, and hence it will be very important to monitor their progress through continued surveillance. Telithromycin demonstrated high levels of activity (MIC for 90% of the strains tested, 0.5 micro g/ml; MIC range, 0.06 to 1 micro g/ml) against all isolates.
Project description:The molecular genetics of macrolide resistance were analyzed in 49 clinical pneumococci (including an "atypical" bile-insoluble strain currently assigned to the new species Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae) with efflux-mediated erythromycin resistance (M phenotype). All test strains had the mef gene, identified as mef(A) in 30 isolates and mef(E) in 19 isolates (including the S. pseudopneumoniae strain) on the basis of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Twenty-eight of the 30 mef(A) isolates shared a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) type corresponding to the England14-9 clone. Of those isolates, 27 (20 belonging to serotype 14) yielded multilocus sequence type ST9, and one isolate yielded a new sequence type. The remaining two mef(A) isolates had different PFGE types and yielded an ST9 type and a new sequence type. Far greater heterogeneity was displayed by the 19 mef(E) isolates, which fell into 11 PFGE types, 12 serotypes (though not serotype 14), and 12 sequence types (including two new ones and an undetermined type for the S. pseudopneumoniae strain). In all mef(A) pneumococci, the mef element was a regular Tn1207.1 transposon, whereas of the mef(E) isolates, 17 carried the mega element and 2 exhibited a previously unreported organization, with no PCR evidence of the other open reading frames of mega. The mef gene of these two isolates, which did not match with the mef(E) gene of the mega element (93.6% homology) and which exhibited comparable homology (91.4%) to the mef(A) gene of the Tn1207.1 transposon, was identified as a novel mef gene variant and was designated mef(I). While penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates (three resistant isolates and one intermediate isolate) were all mef(E) strains, tetracycline resistance was also detected in three mef(A) isolates, due to the tet(M) gene carried by a Tn916-like transposon. A similar mechanism accounted for resistance in four of the five tetracycline-resistant isolates carrying mef(E), in three of which mega was inserted in the Tn916-like transposon, giving rise to the composite element Tn2009. In the fifth mef(E)-positive tetracycline-resistant isolate (the S. pseudopneumoniae strain), tetracycline resistance was due to the presence of the tet(O) gene, apparently unlinked to mef(E).
Project description:Erythromycin-resistant isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from blood cultures and noninvasive sites were studied over a 3-year period. The prevalence of erythromycin resistance was 11.9% (19 of 160) in blood culture isolates but 4.2% (60 of 1,435) in noninvasive-site isolates. Sixty-two of the 79 resistant isolates were available for study. The M phenotype was responsible for 76% (47 of 62) of resistance, largely due to a serotype 14 clone, characterized by multilocus sequence typing as ST9, which accounted for 79% (37 of 47) of M phenotype resistance. The ST9 clone was 4.8 times more common in blood than in noninvasive sites. All M phenotype isolates were PCR positive for mef(A), but sequencing revealed that the ST9 clone possessed the mef(A) sequence commonly associated with Streptococcus pyogenes. All M phenotype isolates with this mef(A) sequence also had sequences consistent with the presence of the Tn1207.1 genetic element inserted in the celB gene. In contrast, isolates with the mef(E) sequence normally associated with S. pneumoniae contained sequences consistent with the presence of the mega insertion element. All MLS(B) isolates carried erm(B), and two isolates carried both erm(B) and mef(E). Fourteen of the 15 MLS(B) isolates were tetracycline resistant and contained tet(M). However, six M phenotype isolates of serotypes 19 (two isolates) and 23 (four isolates) were also tetracycline resistant and contained tet(M). MICs for isolates with the mef(A) sequence were significantly higher than MICs for isolates with the mef(E) sequence (P < 0.001). Thus, the ST9 clone of S. pneumoniae is a significant cause of invasive pneumococcal disease in northeast Scotland and is the single most important contributor to M phenotype erythromycin resistance.
Project description:We screened 615 gram-positive isolates from 150 healthy children for the presence of the erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(F), and mef(A) genes. The mef(A) genes were found in 20 (9%) of the macrolide-resistant isolates, including Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp. Sixteen of the 19 gram-positive isolates tested carried the other seven open reading frames (ORFs) described in Tn1207.1, a genetic element carrying mef(A) recently described in Streptococcus pneumoniae. The three Staphylococcus spp. did not carry orf1 to orf3. A gram-negative Acinetobacter junii isolate also carried the other seven ORFs described in Tn1207.1. A Staphylococcus aureus isolate, a Streptococcus intermedius isolate, a Streptococcus sp. isolate, and an Enterococcus sp. isolate had their mef(A) genes completely sequenced and showed 100% identity at the DNA and amino acid levels with the mef(A) gene from S. pneumoniae.
Project description:Macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae has emerged as an important clinical problem worldwide over the past decade. The aim of this study was to analyze the phenotypes (serotype and antibiotic susceptibility), genotypes (multilocus sequence type [MLST] and antibiotic resistance gene/transposon profiles) among the 31% (102/328) of invasive isolates from children in New South Wales, Australia, in 2005 that were resistant to erythromycin. Three serotypes--19F (47 isolates [46%]), 14 (27 isolates [26%]), and 6B (12 isolates [12%])--accounted for 86 (84%) of these 102 isolates. Seventy four (73%) isolates had the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B)) resistance phenotype and carried Tn916 transposons (most commonly Tn6002); of these, 73 (99%) contained the erythromycin ribosomal methylase gene [erm(B)], 34 (47%) also carried the macrolide efflux gene [mef(E)], and 41 (55%) belonged to serotype 19F. Of 28 (27%) isolates with the M phenotype, 22 (79%) carried mef(A), including 16 (57%) belonging to serotype 14, and only six (19%) carried Tn916 transposons. Most (84%) isolates which contained mef also contained one of the msr(A) homologues, mel or msr(D); 38 of 40 (95%) isolates with mef(E) (on mega) carried mel, and of 28 (39%) isolates with mef(A), 10 (39%) carried mel and another 11(39%) carried msr(D), on Tn1207.1. Two predominant macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae clonal clusters (CCs) were identified in this population. CC-271 contained 44% of isolates, most of which belonged to serotype 19F, had the MLS(B) phenotype, were multidrug resistant, and carried transposons of the Tn916 family; CC-15 contained 23% of isolates, most of which were serotype 14, had the M phenotype, and carried mef(A) on Tn1207.1. Erythromycin resistance among S. pneumoniae isolates in New South Wales is mainly due to the dissemination of multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae strains or horizontal spread of the Tn916 family of transposons.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori is a gastric pathogen that causes several gastroduodenal disorders such as peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Eradication efforts of H. pylori are often hampered by antimicrobial resistance in many countries, including Vietnam. Here, the study aimed to investigate the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among H. pylori clinical isolates across 13 hospitals in Vietnam. The study further evaluated the clarithromycin resistance patterns of H. pylori strains. In order to address the study interests, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, epsilometer test and PCR-based sequencing were performed on a total of 193 strains isolated from patients, including 136 children (3-15 years of age) and 57 adults (19-69 years of age). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that the overall resistance to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, metronidazole, and tetracycline was 10.4%, 85.5%, 24.4%, 37.8%, and 23.8% respectively. The distribution of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of clarithromycin-resistant strains was 85.5% with MIC >0.5 ?g/mL. The majority of the clarithromycin resistant isolates (135 of 165 subjects) have MICs ranging from 2 ?g/mL to 16 ?g/mL. Furthermore, sequencing detection of mutations in 23S rRNA gene revealed that strains resistant and susceptible to clarithromycin contained both A2143G and T2182C mutations. Of all isolates, eight clarithromycin-resistant isolates (MIC >0.5 ?g/mL) had no mutations in the 23S rRNA gene. Collectively, these results demonstrated that a proportion of clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori strains, which are not related to the 23S rRNA gene mutations, could be potentially related to other mechanisms such as the presence of an efflux pump or polymorphisms in the CYP2C19 gene. Therefore, the present study suggests that providing susceptibility testing prior to treatment or alternative screening strategies for antimicrobial resistance is important for future clinical practice. Further studies on clinical guidelines and treatment efficacy are pivotal for successful eradication of H. pylori infection.
Project description:The mef(A) gene was originally identified as the resistance determinant responsible for type M resistance to macrolides, a phenotype frequently found in clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. MefA was defined as a secondary transporter of the major facilitator superfamily driven by proton-motive force. However, when characterizing the mef(A)-carrying elements Tn1207.1 and ?1207.3, another macrolide resistance gene, msr(D), was found adjacent to mef(A). To define the respective contribution of mef(A) and msr(D) to macrolide resistance, three isogenic deletion mutants were constructed by transformation of a S. pneumoniae strain carrying ?1207.3: (i) ?mef(A)-?msr(D); (ii) ?mef(A)-msr(D); and (iii) mef(A)-?msr(D). Susceptibility testing of mutants clearly showed that msr(D) is required for macrolide resistance, while deletion of mef(A) produced only a twofold reduction in the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for erythromycin. The contribution of msr(D) to macrolide resistance was also studied in S. pyogenes, which is the original host of ?1207.3. Two isogenic strains of S. pyogenes were constructed: (i) FR156, carrying ?1207.3, and (ii) FR155, carrying ?1207.3/?msr(D). FR155 was susceptible to erythromycin, whereas FR156 was resistant, with an MIC value of 8 ?g/ml. Complementation experiments showed that reintroduction of the msr(D) gene could restore macrolide resistance in ?msr(D) mutants. Radiolabeled erythromycin was retained by strains lacking msr(D), while msr(D)-carrying strains showed erythromycin efflux. Deletion of mef(A) did not affect erythromycin efflux. This data suggest that type M resistance to macrolides in streptococci is due to an efflux transport system of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily, in which mef(A) encodes the transmembrane channel, and msr(D) the two ATP-binding domains.
Project description:Two homosexual men were colonized in the urethra with Haemophilus parainfluenzae nonsusceptible to ampicillin (MIC, 8 ?g/ml), amoxicillin-clavulanate (MIC, 4 ?g/ml), cefotaxime (MIC, 1.5 ?g/ml), cefepime (MIC, 3 ?g/ml), meropenem (MIC, 0.5 ?g/ml), cefuroxime, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol (all MICs, ? 32 ?g/ml). Repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) showed that the strains were indistinguishable. The isolates had amino acid substitutions in PBP3, L4, GyrA, and ParC and possessed Mef(A), Tet(M), and CatS resistance mechanisms. This is the first report of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) H. parainfluenzae.
Project description:Telithromycin has been reported to possess robust <i>in vitro</i> antibacterial activity against many species of gram-positive bacteria, and telithromycin is also effective against <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> biofilms. However, the <i>in vitro</i> antimicrobial susceptibility of telithromycin against clinical enterococci isolates in China is rarely reported and the impacts of telithromycin on the biofilm formation and eradication of enterococci remain elusive. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the inhibitory effects of telithromycin on planktonic cells and biofilms of <i>Enterococcus</i> strains. A total of 280 <i>Enterococcus faecalis</i> and 122 <i>Enterococcus faecium</i> isolates were collected from individual inpatients in China. The 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC<sub>50</sub>) values of telithromycin against the <i>E. faecalis</i> and <i>E. faecium</i> strains carrying erythromycin-resistant methylase (<i>erm</i>) genes such as the <i>ermA</i>, <i>ermB</i>, or <i>ermC</i>, were 2 and 4 ?g/mL, respectively. In addition, these isolates were typed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) based on housekeeping genes. The predominant sequence types (STs) of <i>E. faecalis</i> were ST16, ST30, and ST179, and the main STs of <i>E. faecium</i> isolates were ST18, ST78, and ST80. Among these major STs, 87.1% (135/158) of <i>E. faecalis</i> and 80.4% (41/51) of <i>E. faecium</i> carried <i>erm</i> genes. Furthermore, at the subinhibitory concentrations (1/4 and 1/8 × MIC) of telithromycin, the biofilm formation of 16 <i>E. faecalis</i> isolates were inhibited by approximately 35%. Moreover, treatment with 8 × MIC of telithromycin or ampicillin led to an almost 40% reduction in the established biofilms of <i>E. faecalis</i> isolates, whereas vancomycin or linezolid with 8 × MIC had minimal effects. The combination of telithromycin and ampicillin resulted in an almost 70% reduction in the established biofilms of <i>E. faecalis</i>. In conclusion, these results revealed that telithromycin significantly decreased the planktonic cells of both <i>E. faecalis</i> and <i>E. faecium</i>. In addition, the data further demonstrated that telithromycin has the robust ability to inhibit <i>E. faecalis</i> biofilms and the combination of telithromycin and ampicillin improved antibiofilm activity. These <i>in vitro</i> antibacterial and antibiofilm activities suggest that telithromycin could be a potential candidate for the treatment of enterococcal infections.
Project description:One hundred and seven clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes, 80 susceptible to macrolides and 27 resistant to erythromycin A (MIC >0.5 microgram/ml), were examined. The erythromycin A-lincomycin double-disk test assigned 7 resistant strains to the M-phenotype, 8 to the inducible macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B resistance (iMLS(B)) phenotype, and 12 to the constitutive MLS(B) resistance (cMLS(B)) phenotype. MICs of erythromycin A, clarithromycin, azithromycin, roxithromycin, and clindamycin were determined by a broth microdilution method. MICs of telithromycin were determined by three different methods (broth microdilution, agar dilution, and E-test methods) in an ambient air atmosphere and in a 5 to 6% CO(2) atmosphere. Erythromycin A resistance genes were investigated by PCR in the 27 erythromycin A-resistant isolates. MICs of erythromycin A and clindamycin showed six groups of resistant strains, groups A to F. iMLS(B) strains (A, B, and D groups) are characterized by two distinct patterns of resistance correlated with genotypic results. A- and B-group strains were moderately resistant to 14- and 15-membered ring macrolides and highly susceptible to telithromycin. All A- and B-group isolates harbored erm TR gene, D-group strains, highly resistant to macrolides and intermediately resistant to telithromycin (MICs, 1 to 16 microgram/ml), were all characterized by having the ermB gene. All M-phenotype isolates (C group), resistant to 14- and 15-membered ring macrolides and susceptible to clindamycin and telithromycin, harbored the mefA gene. All cMLS(B) strains (E and F groups) with high level of resistance to macrolides, lincosamide, and telithromycin had the ermB gene. The effect of 5 to 6% CO(2) was remarkable on resistant strains, by increasing MICs of telithromycin from 1 to 6 twofold dilutions against D-E- and F-group isolates.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The clinical management of community-acquired respiratory tract infections (RTIs) is complicated by the increasing worldwide prevalence of antibacterial resistance, in particular, beta-lactam and macrolide resistance, among the most common causative bacterial pathogens. This study aimed to determine the mechanisms and molecular- and sero-epidemiology of antibacterial resistance among the key paediatric respiratory pathogens in Japan.<h4>Methods</h4>Isolates were collected at 18 centres in Japan during 2002 and 2003 from children with RTIs as part of the PROTEKT surveillance programme. A proportion of Haemophilus influenzae isolates was subjected to sequencing analysis of the ftsI gene; phylogenetic relatedness was assessed using multilocus sequence typing. Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were screened for macrolide-resistance genotype by polymerase chain reaction and serotyped using the capsular swelling method. Susceptibility of isolates to selected antibacterials was performed using CLSI methodology.<h4>Results and discussion</h4>Of the 557 H. influenzae isolates collected, 30 (5.4%) were beta-lactamase-positive [BL+], 115 (20.6%) were BL-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR; MIC >or= 4 mg/L) and 79 (14.2%) were BL-nonproducing ampicillin-intermediate (BLNAI; MIC 2 mg/L). Dabernat Group III penicillin binding protein 3 (PBP3) amino acid substitutions in the ftsI gene were closely correlated with BLNAR status but phylogenetic analysis indicated marked clonal diversity. PBP mutations were also found among BL+ and BL-nonproducing ampicillin-sensitive isolates. Of the antibacterials tested, azithromycin and telithromycin were the most active against H. influenzae (100% and 99.3% susceptibility, respectively). A large proportion (75.2%) of the 468 S. pneumoniae isolates exhibited macrolide resistance (erythromycin MIC >or= 1 mg/L); erm(B) was the most common macrolide resistance genotype (58.8%), followed by mef(A) (37.2%). The most common pneumococcal serotypes were 6B (19.7%), 19F (13.7%), 23F (13.5%) and 6A (12.8%). Telithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate were the most active antibacterials against S. pneumoniae (99.8% and 99.6% susceptibility, respectively).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Approximately one-third of H. influenzae isolates from paediatric patients in Japan are BLNAI/BLNAR, mainly as a result of clonally diverse PBP3 mutations. Together with the continued high prevalence of pneumococcal macrolide resistance, these results may have implications for the clinical management of paediatric RTIs in Japan.