Properties and usefulness of aggregates of synovial mesenchymal stem cells as a source for cartilage regeneration.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from synovium is a promising therapy for cartilage regeneration. For clinical application, improvement of handling operation, enhancement of chondrogenic potential, and increase of MSCs adhesion efficiency are needed to achieve a more successful cartilage regeneration with a limited number of MSCs without scaffold. The use of aggregated MSCs may be one of the solutions. Here, we investigated the handling, properties and effectiveness of aggregated MSCs for cartilage regeneration. METHODS: Human and rabbit synovial MSCs were aggregated using the hanging drop technique. The gene expression changes after aggregation of synovial MSCs were analyzed by microarray and real time RT-PCR analyses. In vitro and in vivo chondrogenic potential of aggregates of synovial MSCs was examined. RESULTS: Aggregates of MSCs cultured for three days became visible, approximately 1 mm in diameter and solid and durable by manipulation; most of the cells were viable. Microarray analysis revealed up-regulation of chondrogenesis-related, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic genes in aggregates of MSCs. In vitro studies showed higher amounts of cartilage matrix synthesis in pellets derived from aggregates of MSCs compared to pellets derived from MSCs cultured in a monolayer. In in vivo studies in rabbits, aggregates of MSCs could adhere promptly on the osteochondral defects by surface tension, and stay without any loss. Transplantation of aggregates of MSCs at relatively low density achieved successful cartilage regeneration. Contrary to our expectation, transplantation of aggregates of MSCs at high density failed to regenerate cartilage due to cell death and nutrient deprivation of aggregates of MSCs. CONCLUSIONS: Aggregated synovial MSCs were a useful source for cartilage regeneration considering such factors as easy preparation, higher chondrogenic potential and efficient attachment.
Project description:Lubricin expression in the superficial cartilage will be a crucial factor in the success of cartilage regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive cell source and the use of aggregates of MSCs has some advantages in terms of chondrogenic potential and efficiency of cell adhesion. Lubricin expression in transplanted MSCs has not been fully elucidated so far. Our goals were to determine (1) whether cartilage pellets of human MSCs expressed lubricin in vitro chondrogenesis, (2) whether aggregates of human MSCs promoted lubricin expression, and (3) whether aggregates of MSCs expressed lubricin in the superficial cartilage after transplantation into osteochondral defects in rats.For in vitro analysis, human bone marrow (BM) MSCs were differentiated into cartilage by pellet culture, and also aggregated using the hanging drop technique. For an animal study, aggregates of BM MSCs derived from GFP transgenic rats were transplanted to the osteochondral defect in the trochlear groove of wild type rat knee joints. Lubricin expression was mainly evaluated in differentiated and regenerated cartilages.In in vitro analysis, lubricin was detected in the superficial zone of the pellets and conditioned medium. mRNA expression of Proteoglycan4 (Prg4), which encodes lubricin, in pellets was significantly higher than that of undifferentiated MSCs. Aggregates showed different morphological features between the superficial and deep zone, and the Prg4 mRNA expression increased after aggregate formation. Lubricin was also found in the aggregate. In a rat study, articular cartilage regeneration was significantly better in the MSC group than in the control group as shown by macroscopical and histological analysis. The transmission electron microscope showed that morphology of the superficial cartilage in the MSC group was closer to that of the intact cartilage than in the control group. GFP positive cells remained in the repaired tissue and expressed lubricin in the superficial cartilage.Cartilage derived from MSCs expressed lubricin protein both in vitro and in vivo. Aggregation promoted lubricin expression of MSCs in vitro and transplantation of aggregates of MSCs regenerated cartilage including the superficial zone in a rat osteochondral defect model. Our results indicate that aggregated MSCs could be clinically relevant for therapeutic approaches to articular cartilage regeneration with an appropriate superficial zone in the future.
Project description:One of strategies to regenerate cartilage defect is transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Improvements of therapeutic potential of MSCs are needed to achieve successful cartilage regeneration by transplantation of a limited number of cells. Aggregated culture is a popular method in ES and iPS cells to maintain or enhance their potentials. Here we investigated gene expression profile of aggregated MSCs. 621 genes were up-regulated and 409 genes were down-regulated more than 5-fold in MSC-aggregates compared with the number in MSCs in a monolayer culture. The most up-regulated gene was BMP2, which is one of the genes involved in chondrogenesis. Anti-inflammatory genes were also up-regulated in MSC-aggregates. The microarray data for selected genes were confirmed by real-time PCR. Human synovial MSCs was isolated from synovium of 3 distinct donors. The gene expression profile of MSC-aggregates cultured in hanging drop for 3days was compared with that of MSCs in a monolayer culture.
Project description:Synovial mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a candidate cell source for cartilage and meniscus regeneration. If we can proliferate synovial MSCs more effectively, we can expand clinical applications to patients with large cartilage and meniscus lesions. TNF? is a pleiotropic cytokine that can affect the growth and differentiation of cells in the body. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of TNF? on proliferation, chondrogenesis, and other properties of human synovial MSCs. Passage 1 human synovial MSCs from 2 donors were cultured with 2.5 x 10-12~10-7 g/ml, 10 fold dilution series of TNF? for 14 days, then the cell number and colony number was counted. The effect of the optimum dose of TNF? on proliferation was also examined in synovial MSCs from 6 donors. Chondrogenic potential of synovial MSCs pretreated with TNF? was evaluated in 6 donors. The expressions of 12 surface antigens were also examined in 3 donors.2.5 ng/ml and higher concentration of TNF? significantly increased cell number/dish and cell number/colony in both donors. The effect of 25 ng/ml TNF? was confirmed in all 6 donors. There was no significant difference in the weight, or amount of glycosaminoglycan and DNA of the cartilage pellets between the MSCs untreated and MSCs pretreated with 25 ng/ml TNF?. TNF? decreased expression rate of CD 105 and 140b in all 3 donors. TNF? promoted proliferation of synovial MSCs with increase of cell number/ colony. Pretreatment with TNF? did not affect chondrogenesis of synovial MSCs. However, TNF? affected some properties of synovial MSCs.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cell- (MSC-) based therapy is a promising treatment for cartilage. However, repair tissue in general fails to regenerate an original hyaline-like tissue. In this study, we focused on increasing the expression levels for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) to improve repair tissue quality. The IGF-1 gene was introduced into human synovial MSCs with a lentiviral vector and examined the levels of gene expression and morphological status of MSCs under chondrogenic differentiation condition using pellet cultures. The size of the pellets derived from IGF-1-MSCs were significantly larger than those of the control group. The abundance of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) was also significantly higher in the IGF-1-MSC group. The histology of the IGF-1-induced pellets demonstrated similarities to hyaline cartilage without exhibiting features of a hypertrophic chondrocyte phenotype. Expression levels for the Col2A1 gene and protein were significantly higher in the IGF-1 pellets than in the control pellets, but expression levels for Col10, MMP-13, ALP, and Osterix were not higher. Thus, IGF-1 gene transfer to human synovial MSCs led to an improved chondrogenic differentiation capacity without the detectable induction of a hypertrophic or osteogenic phenotype.
Project description:BACKGROUND AIMS: Transplantation of synovial mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) may induce repair of cartilage defects. We transplanted synovial MSCs into cartilage defects using a simple method and investigated its usefulness and repair process in a pig model. METHODS: The chondrogenic potential of the porcine MSCs was compared in vitro. Cartilage defects were created in both knees of seven pigs, and divided into MSCs treated and non-treated control knees. Synovial MSCs were injected into the defect, and the knee was kept immobilized for 10 min before wound closure. To visualize the actual delivery and adhesion of the cells, fluorescence-labeled synovial MSCs from transgenic green fluorescent protein (GFP) pig were injected into the defect in a subgroup of two pigs. In these two animals, the wounds were closed before MSCs were injected and observed for 10 min under arthroscopic control. The defects were analyzed sequentially arthroscopically, histologically and by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for 3 months. RESULTS: Synovial MSCs had a higher chondrogenic potential in vitro than the other MSCs examined. Arthroscopic observations showed adhesion of synovial MSCs and membrane formation on the cartilage defects before cartilage repair. Quantification analyses for arthroscopy, histology and MRI revealed a better outcome in the MSC-treated knees than in the non-treated control knees. CONCLUSIONS: Leaving a synovial MSC suspension in cartilage defects for 10 min made it possible for cells to adhere in the defect in a porcine cartilage defect model. The cartilage defect was first covered with membrane, then the cartilage matrix emerged after transplantation of synovial MSCs.
Project description:Synovial fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SF-MSCs) represent a superior source of stem cells and have great potential for autologous transplantation for cartilage regeneration. Transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3) has been demonstrated to stimulate the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. Recently, the small molecule kartogenin (KGN) was reported to enhance chondrogenic differentiation and cartilage regeneration. The effects of KGN and TGF-β3 on the in vitro chondrogenic differentiation of rabbit SF-MSCs were studied. The monolayer and pellet cultures of rabbit SF-MSCs were stimulated in vitro using either KGN or TGF-β3 alone or in combination for 21 days. The in vivo therapeutic effects of KGN combined with TGF-β3 were studied using an intra-articular delivery of autologous rabbit SF-MSCs to cartilage defects in a rabbit model. Compared to a single treatment, the in vitro results demonstrated that the combination of KGN and TGF-β3 resulted in significantly increased protein expression levels of type II collagen (COL II) and SRY-box 9 (SOX9) and decreased the expression level of type X collagen (COL X). Compared with the regenerated cartilage in the single treatment groups, the intra-articular injection of rabbit SF-MSCs mixed with TGF-β3 and KGN exhibited substantial amounts of regenerated cartilage in the defective areas in the medial femoral condyles. We noted that the thicker, hyaline-like cartilaginous tissue contained abundant levels of extracellular matrix, which is characteristic of cartilage. This study demonstrated that TGF-β3 and KGN exhibit synergistic effects for the promotion of the chondrogenesis of rabbit SF-MSCs and can effectively repair cartilage defects through the regeneration of hyaline cartilage.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells derived from the synovial membrane (synovial MSCs) are a candidate cell source for regenerative medicine of cartilage and menisci due to their high chondrogenic ability. Regenerative medicine can be expected for RA patients with the inflammation well-controlled as well as OA patients and transplantation of synovial MSCs would also be a possible therapeutic treatment. Some properties of synovial MSCs vary dependent on the diseases patients have, and whether or not the pathological condition of RA affects the chondrogenesis of synovial MSCs remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare the properties of primary synovial MSCs between RA and OA patients.Human synovial tissue was harvested during total knee arthroplasty from the knee joints of eight patients with RA and OA respectively. Synovial nucleated cells were cultured for 14 days. Total cell yields, surface markers, and differentiation potentials were analyzed for primary synovial MSCs.Nucleated cell number per 1 mg synovium was 8.4?±?3.9 thousand in RA and 8.0?±?0.9 thousand in OA. Total cell number after 14-day culture/1 mg synovium was 0.7?±?0.4 million in RA and 0.5?±?0.3 million in OA, showing no significant difference between in RA and OA. Cells after 14-day culture were mostly positive for CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, negative for CD45 both in RA and OA. There was no significant difference for the cartilage pellet weight and sGAG content per pellet between in RA and OA. Both oil red O-positive colony rate and alizarin red-positive colony rate were similar in RA and OA.Yields, surface markers and chondrogenic potential of primary synovial MSCs in RA were comparable to those in OA. Synovium derived from RA patients can be the cell source of MSCs for cartilage and meniscus regeneration.
Project description:Direct intra-articular injection (DIAI) of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a promising technique for cartilage repair. However, the repair process was hindered by the absence of scaffold and poor cell-matrix interactions.In this study, we developed a pericellular collagen I coating (PCC) on MSCs. The overall performances of MSC-PCC homing, chondrogenic differentiation, and cartilage regeneration have been comprehensively evaluated in a New Zealand rabbit model. Firstly, we examined the morphology and physical characteristics of PCC. Secondly, MSC ex-vivo cartilage slice adhesion and in-vivo cartilage defect homing were observed using multiscale methods. Thirdly, the precartilage condensation of cell pellets formed by aggregation of MSCs was examined to evaluate the cartilage-inducing potential of PCC. Finally, the cartilage regeneration by DIAI of PCC-coated MSCs was observed and scored macroscopically and histologically.In general, the cell adhesion and homing assay revealed that PCC facilitated MSC adhesion on cartilage slices, enhancing MSC homing and retention to cartilage defect. This increased homing ratio was accompanied by an increasing cell-cell contact. Compared with naked MSCs, the cell pellets formed by PCC-coated MSCs exhibited more evident appearance of condensation. In pellets, cell-cell interaction has been significantly stimulated, inducing the expression of condensation marker N-cadherin, and subsequent chondrogenic marker collagen II and aggrecan. By 12 weeks after DIAI, cartilage defects have been repaired by MSCs to varying degrees. Overall, PCC significantly enhances the quality of cartilage regeneration judging from macroscopic observation, ICRS score, histological examination, and collagen type I, II, and X immunohistochemical staining.The capacity and viability of MSCs can be enhanced by collagen I coating, which provides cues for enhancing cell homing and differentiation. Our method provides a novel strategy for stem cell therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Synovial mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive cell source for cartilage and meniscus regeneration. The optimum cryopreservation medium has not been determined, but dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) should be excluded, if possible, because of its toxicity. The purposes of our study were to examine the possible benefits of higher concentrations of serum and the effectiveness of 100% serum (without DMSO) for the cryopreservation of synovial MSCs. METHODS:Human synovium was harvested from the knees of four donors with osteoarthritis during total knee arthroplasty. Synovial MSCs (8 × 105 cells) were suspended in 400 μL medium and used as a Time 0 control. The same number of synovial MSCs was also suspended in 400 μL α-MEM medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) (5% DMSO, and 1% antibiotic), 95% FBS (and 5% DMSO), or 100% FBS (no DMSO) and cryopreserved at - 80 °C for 7 days. After thawing, the cell suspensions (1.5 μL; 3 × 103 cells) were cultured in 60 cm2 dishes for 14 days for colony formation assays. Additional 62.5 μL samples of cell suspensions (1.25 × 105 cells) were added to tubes and cultured for 21 days for chondrogenesis assays. RESULTS:Colony numbers were significantly higher in the Time 0 and 95% FBS groups than in the 10% FBS group (n = 24). Colony numbers were much lower in the 100% FBS group than in the other three groups. The cell numbers per dish reflected the colony numbers. Cartilage pellet weights were significantly heavier in the 95% FBS group than in the 10% FBS group, whereas no difference was observed between the Time 0 and the 95% FBS groups (n = 24). No cartilage pellets formed at all in the 100% FBS group. CONCLUSION:Synovial MSCs cryopreserved in 95% FBS with 5% DMSO maintained their colony formation and chondrogenic abilities to the same levels as observed in the cells before cryopreservation. Synovial MSCs cryopreserved in 100% FBS lost their colony formation and chondrogenic abilities.
Project description:Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has emerged as an alternative strategy to treat knee osteoarthritis. In this context, MSCs derived from synovial fluid could provide higher chondrogenic and cartilage regeneration, presenting synovial fluid as an appropriate MSCs source. An allogeneic and biomimetic bioscaffold composed of Platelet Rich Plasma and synovial fluid that preserve and mimics the natural environment of MSCs isolated from knee has also been developed. We have optimized the cryopreservation of knee-isolated MSCs embedded within the aforementioned biomimetic scaffold, in order to create a reserve of young autologous embedded knee MSCs for future clinical applications. We have tested several cryoprotectant solutions combining dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), sucrose and human serum and quantifying the viability and functionality of the embedded MSCs after thawing. MSCs embedded in bioscaffolds cryopreserved with DMSO 10% or the combination of DMSO 10% and Sucrose 0,2?M displayed the best cell viabilities maintaining the multilineage differentiation potential of MSCs after thawing. In conclusion, embedded young MSCs within allogeneic biomimetic bioscaffold can be cryopreserved with the cryoprotectant solutions described in this work, allowing their future clinical use in patients with cartilage defects.