Platelet-derived growth factor-BB induces cystathionine ?-lyase expression in rat mesangial cells via a redox-dependent mechanism.
ABSTRACT: So far, there is only limited information about the regulation of the endogenous synthesis of hydrogen sulfide (H(2) S), an important gaseous signalling molecule. This study was done to evaluate the redox-dependent signalling events that regulate the expression of the H(2) S synthesising enzyme cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE) in rat mesangial cells.The effects of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB and antioxidants on CSE expression and activity in cultured rat renal mesangial cells were assessed. Activity of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) was measured as the binding capacity to a radiolabelled consensus element by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Furthermore, CSE and Nrf2 expression was analysed in a rat model of anti-Thy-1-induced glomerulonephritis by immunohistochemistry.Treatment of mesangial cells with PDGF-BB resulted in a marked time- and dose-dependent up-regulation of CSE mRNA and protein levels, as well as CSE activity accompanied with increased formation of reactive oxygen species. Remarkably, co-administration of antioxidants, such as N-acetylcysteine, ebselen or diphenylene iodonium chloride, drastically reduced PDGF-BB-induced CSE expression. PDGF-BB induced binding of Nrf2 to a corresponding consensus antioxidant element in a redox-dependent manner. Furthermore, PDGF-BB-induced CSE expression in mouse mesangial cells was completely abolished in Nrf2 knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. In a rat model of anti-Thy-1-induced proliferative glomerulonephritis, we observed a marked up-regulation of CSE protein paralleled by a stabilization of Nrf2 protein.PDGF-BB regulated CSE via a redox-mediated activation of Nrf2. Such action would aid the resolution of glomerular inflammatory diseases.This article is commented on by Gallyas, pp. 2228-2230 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01976.x.
Project description:Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) plays critical roles in mesangial cell (MC) proliferation in mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis. We showed previously that Smad1 contributes to PDGF-dependent proliferation of MCs, but the mechanism by which Smad1 is activated by PDGF is not precisely known. Here we examined the role of c-Src tyrosine kinase in the proliferative change of MCs. Experimental mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (Thy1 GN) was induced by a single intravenous injection of anti-rat Thy-1.1 monoclonal antibody. In Thy1 GN, MC proliferation and type IV collagen (Col4) expression peaked on day 6. Immunohistochemical staining for the expression of phospho-Src (pSrc), phospho-Smad1 (pSmad1), Col4, and smooth muscle ?-actin (SMA) revealed that the activation of c-Src and Smad1 signals in glomeruli peaked on day 6, consistent with the peak of mesangial proliferation. When treated with PP2, a Src inhibitor, both mesangial proliferation and sclerosis were significantly reduced. PP2 administration also significantly reduced pSmad1, Col4, and SMA expression. PDGF induced Col4 synthesis in association with increased expression of pSrc and pSmad1 in cultured MCs. In addition, PP2 reduced Col4 synthesis along with decreased pSrc and pSmad1 protein expression in vitro. Moreover, the addition of siRNA against c-Src significantly reduced the phosphorylation of Smad1 and the overproduction of Col4. These results provide new evidence that the activation of Src/Smad1 signaling pathway plays a key role in the development of glomerulosclerosis in experimental glomerulonephritis.
Project description:Recent evidence indicates that cytokines are potent inducers of nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in peripheral tissues and in brain. Cultured rat glomerular mesangial cells respond to interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by increased NGF synthesis. We found that co-stimulation of rat glomerular mesangial cells with platelet-derived growth factor (PGDF-BB) and IL-1 beta/TNF-alpha significantly augments the IL-1 beta/TNF-alpha-induced NGF mRNA levels and NGF synthesis. In contrast, preincubation with PDGF-BB drastically reduces NGF gene expression and NGF protein synthesis in response to IL-1 beta/TNF-alpha stimulation. Thus our results indicate that PDGF-BB is a potent modulator of cytokine-induced NGF expression; its precise action is critically depending on the time at which the PDGF receptor is activated.
Project description:The proliferation of glomerular mesangial cells (GMC) and secretion of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in rat with Thy-1 nephritis (Thy-1N) resembling human mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis have been explored for many years; however, the molecular mechanisms of GMC proliferation and ECM production remain unclear. Our previous studies have demonstrated that the thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) gene was involved in mediating rat GMC proliferation and ECM synthesis induced by sublytic C5b-9 in vitro. In the present study, the roles of the TSP-1 gene in GMC proliferation, ECM production, and urinary protein secretion in Thy-1N rats were determined by using TSP-1 small hairpin RNA, and the results revealed that silencing of the TSP-1 gene in rat renal tissues could diminish GMC proliferation (P < 0.01) and ECM secretion (P < 0.01) as well as urinary protein secretion (P < 0.05) in Thy-1N rats. Together, the current findings suggested that TSP-1 gene expression was required for GMC proliferation and ECM production in Thy-1N rats.
Project description:The adult kidney is derived from the interaction between the metanephric blastema and the ureteric bud. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor ? is essential for the development of the mature glomerular tuft, as mice deficient for this receptor lack mesangial cells. This study investigated the role of Src tyrosine kinase in PDGF-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and migration of metanephric mesenchymal cells (MMCs). Cultured embryonic MMCs from wild-type and PDGF receptor-deficient embryos were established. Migration was determined via wound-healing assay. Unlike PDGF AA, PDGF BB-induced greater migration in MMCs with respect to control. This was abrogated by neutralizing an antibody to PDGF BB. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors suppressed PDGF BB-induced migration. Conversely, mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) inhibitors had no effect. Src inhibitors inhibited PDGF-induced cell migration, PI3K activity, and Akt phosphorylation. Adenoviral dominant negative Src (AD DN Src) abrogated PDGF BB-induced Akt phosphorylation. Hydrogen peroxide stimulated cell migration. PDGF BB-induced wound closure was inhibited by the antioxidants N-acetyl-l-cysteine, tiron, and the flavoprotein inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium. These cells express the NADPH oxidase homolog Nox4. Inhibiting Nox4 with antisense oligonucleotides or small interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed PDGF-induced wound closure. Inhibition of Src with siRNA reduced PDGF BB-induced ROS generation as assessed by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate fluorescence. Furthermore, PDGF BB-stimulated ROS generation and migration were similarly suppressed by Ad DN Src. In MMCs, PDGF BB-induced migration is mediated by PI3K and Src in a redox-dependent manner involving Nox4. Src may be upstream to PI3K and Nox4.
Project description:Rat Thy-1 nephritis (Thy-1N) is an experimental mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN) for studying human MsPGN. Although sublytic C5b-9 complex formation on glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) and renal MCP-1 and RANTES production in rats with Thy-1N have been proved, the role and mechanism of MCP-1 or RANTES synthesis in GMCs induced by sublytic C5b-9 are poorly elucidated. In this study, we first found the expression of transcription factor (KLF6), co-activator (KAT7) and chemokines (MCP-1 and RANTES) was all up-regulated both in renal tissue of Thy-1N rats (in vivo) and in sublytic C5b-9-induced GMCs (in vitro). Further in vitro experiments revealed that KLF6 bound to MCP-1 promoter (-297 to -123 nt) and RANTES promoter (-343 to -191 nt), leading to MCP-1 and RANTES gene transcription. Meanwhile, KAT7 also bound to the same region of MCP-1 and RANTES promoter in a KLF6-dependent manner, and KLF6 was acetylated by KAT7 at lysine residue 100, which finally promoted MCP-1 and RANTES expression. Moreover, our in vivo experiments discovered that knockdown of renal KAT7 or KLF6 gene obviously reduced MCP-1 and RANTES production, GMCs proliferation, ECM accumulation, and proteinuria secretion in Thy-1N rats. Collectively, our study indicates that sublytic C5b-9-induced MCP-1 and RANTES synthesis is associated with KAT7-mediated KLF6 acetylation and elevated KLF6 transcriptional activity, which might provide a new insight into the pathogenesis of rat Thy-1N and human MsPGN.
Project description:Mesangial cells express platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) A- and B-chain mRNA and release PDGF. Several polypeptide growth factors, including PDGF itself, induce PDGF A- and B- chain mRNA abundance. To understand the molecular mechanisms associated with the changes in mRNA abundance, we measured the effects of PDGF BB homodimer on PDGF A- and B-chain gene transcription in cultured mesangial cells. The data demonstrate 2- and 4-fold increases in PDGF A-chain gene transcription in response to PDGF BB homodimer at 5 and 24 h time points respectively. PDGF B-chain gene transcription was also induced approximately 3-fold at 2, 5 and 24 h time points in response to treatment with PDGF BB homodimer. The effect of PDGF BB on the half-life of PDGF A- as well as PDGF B-chain mRNA was measured directly by the pulse-chase method. There was no effect on PDGF A-chain mRNA half-life whereas PDGF B-chain mRNA half-life was increased 1.5-fold. These studies indicate that, in human mesangial cells, the increase in the levels of PDGF A- and B-chain mRNA in response to PDGF- receptor(s) activation is mediated at the level of gene transcription. In addition, the regulation of PDGF B- but not PDGF A-chain gene involves increased mRNA stability. Mesangial cells are a useful model for studying molecular mechanisms of PDGF- gene regulation in non-transformed human cells.
Project description:The apoptosis of glomerular mesangial cells (GMC) in rat Thy-1 nephritis (Thy-1N), a model of human mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis, is accompanied by sublytic C5b-9 deposition, but the mechanism of sublytic C5b-9-mediated GMC apoptosis has not been elucidated. In the present study, the gene expression profiles both in the GMC stimulated by sublytic C5b-9 and the rat renal tissue of Thy-1N were detected using microarrays. Among the co-up-regulated genes, the up-regulation of interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) was further confirmed. Increased caspase 8 and caspase 3 expression and caspase 8 promoter activity in the GMC were also identified. Meanwhile, overexpression or knockdown of IRF-1 not only enhanced or inhibited GMC apoptosis and caspase 8 and 3 induction but also increased or decreased caspase 8 promoter activity, respectively. The element of IRF-1 binding to the caspase 8 promoter was first revealed. Furthermore, silencing IRF-1 or repressing the activation of caspases 8 and 3 significantly reduced GMC apoptosis, including other pathologic changes of Thy-1N. These novel findings indicate that GMC apoptosis of Thy-1N is associated with the IRF-1-activated caspase 8 pathway.
Project description:Exposure of mesangial cells to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) BB caused a significant stimulation of cell proliferation and protein synthesis, as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation and [3H]leucine incorporation respectively. In contrast, cells treated with angiotensin II had no significant increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation, but demonstrated a marked increase in [3H]leucine incorporation. Furthermore, angiotensin II significantly increased total protein content per cell. These data show that, whereas PDGF-BB is a mitogen and stimulates mesangial-cell hyperplasia, angiotensin II causes hypertrophy of the cells without hyperplasia. Treatment of mesangial cells with PDGF and angiotensin II rapidly and dose-dependently stimulated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity, as shown by an assay for activity in vitro using myelin basic protein as a substrate, and by immunoprecipitation of 32P-labelled cells with specific antibodies against the 42 kDa and 44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinases p42mapk and p44mapk, respectively. Whereas stimulation with PDGF-BB caused a potent and sustained (for more than 30 min) phosphorylation and activation of p42mapk and p44mapk, as well as of the upstream activators MAP kinase kinase and c-Raf, the effect of angiotensin II was less potent, reaching a peak at 5-10 min and thereafter declining rapidly. In summary, these results suggest that PDGF-BB and angiotensin II differ in their potency and duration of activation of the MAP kinase cascade, which may explain why PDGF-BB is a potent mitogen for mesangial cells, whereas angiotensin II only triggers mesangial-cell hypertrophy.
Project description:The apoptosis of glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) in rat Thy-1 nephritis (Thy-1N), a model of human mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN), is accompanied by sublytic C5b-9 deposition. However, the mechanism by which sublytic C5b-9 induces GMC apoptosis is unclear. In the present studies, the effect of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis-associated factor 1 (XAF1) expression on GMC apoptosis and the role of p300 and interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) in mediating XAF1 gene activation were determined, both in the GMCs induced by sublytic C5b-9 (in vitro) and in the renal tissues of rats with Thy-1N (in vivo). The in vitro studies demonstrated that IRF-1-enhanced XAF1 gene activation and its regulation by p300-mediated IRF-1 acetylation were involved in GMC apoptosis induced by sublytic C5b-9. The element of IRF-1 binding to XAF1 promoter and two acetylated sites of IRF-1 protein were also revealed. In vivo, silence of p300, IRF-1 or XAF1 genes in the renal tissues diminished GMC apoptosis and secondary GMC proliferation as well as urinary protein secretion in Thy-1N rats. Together, these data implicate that sublytic C5b-9 induces the expression of both p300 and IRF-1, as well as p300-dependent IRF-1 acetylation that may contribute to XAF1 gene activation and subsequent GMC apoptosis in Thy-1N rats.
Project description:Cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) stimulate rat mesangial cells to synthesize and secrete inflammatory mediators. To understand better the signaling pathways that contribute to this response, we exposed rat mesangial cells to the prototypic inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta and analyzed the changes in the pattern of gene expression. IL-1beta downregulated the gene encoding the matricellular glycoprotein secreted modular calcium-binding protein 1 (SMOC-1) in mesangial cells. Inflammatory cytokines attenuated SMOC-1 mRNA and protein expression through endogenous production of NO, which activated the soluble guanylyl cyclase. Silencing SMOC-1 expression with small interfering RNA decreased the formation of TGF-beta, reduced SMAD binding to DNA, and decreased mRNA expression of genes regulated by TGF-beta. In a rat model of anti-Thy-1 glomerulonephritis, glomerular SMOC-1 mRNA and protein decreased and inducible NO synthase expression increased simultaneously. Treatment of nephritic rats with the inducible NO synthase-specific inhibitor l-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine prevented SMOC-1 downregulation. In summary, these data suggest that NO attenuates SMOC-1 expression in acute glomerular inflammation, thereby limiting TGF-beta-mediated profibrotic signaling.