Dissecting quantitative trait loci for boron efficiency across multiple environments in Brassica napus.
ABSTRACT: High yield is the most important goal in crop breeding, and boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for plants. However, B deficiency, leading to yield decreases, is an agricultural problem worldwide. Brassica napus is one of the most sensitive crops to B deficiency, and considerable genotypic variation exists among different cultivars in response to B deficiency. To dissect the genetic basis of tolerance to B deficiency in B. napus, we carried out QTL analysis for seed yield and yield-related traits under low and normal B conditions using the double haploid population (TNDH) by two-year and the BQDH population by three-year field trials. In total, 80 putative QTLs and 42 epistatic interactions for seed yield, plant height, branch number, pod number, seed number, seed weight and B efficiency coefficient (BEC) were identified under low and normal B conditions, singly explaining 4.15-23.16% and 0.53-14.38% of the phenotypic variation. An additive effect of putative QTLs was a more important controlling factor than the additive-additive effect of epistatic interactions. Four QTL-by-environment interactions and 7 interactions between epistatic interactions and the environment contributed to 1.27-4.95% and 1.17-3.68% of the phenotypic variation, respectively. The chromosome region on A2 of SYLB-A2 for seed yield under low B condition and BEC-A2 for BEC in the two populations was equivalent to the region of a reported major QTL, BE1. The B. napus homologous genes of Bra020592 and Bra020595 mapped to the A2 region and were speculated to be candidate genes for B efficiency. These findings reveal the complex genetic basis of B efficiency in B. napus. They provide a basis for the fine mapping and cloning of the B efficiency genes and for breeding B-efficient cultivars by marker-assisted selection (MAS).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil crops. A primary limitation to the cultivation of this crop is the lack of available phosphorus (P) in soils. To elucidate the genetic control of P deficiency tolerance in Brassica napus, quantitative trait locus (QTL) for seed yield and yield related-traits in response to P deficiency were identified using a double haploid mapping population (TN DH) derived from a cross between a P-efficient cultivar, Ningyou 7 and a P-inefficient cultivar, Tapidor.<h4>Results</h4>Three field trials were conducted to determine seed yield (SY), plant height (PH), number of primary branches (BN), height to the first primary branch (FBH), relative first primary branch height (RBH), pod number per plant (PN), seed number per pod (SN) and seed weight of 1,000 seeds (SW) in 188 lines of TN DH population exposed to low P (LP) and optimal P (OP) conditions. P deficiency decreased PH, BN, SN, PN and SY, and increased FBH and RBH with no effect on SW. Three reproducible LP-specific QTL regions were identified on chromosomes A2, A3 and A5 that controlled SN, PN and SW respectively. In addition, six reproducible constitutive regions were also mapped with two each for SY-LP on A2, and FBH-LP on C6 and one each for PH-LP and SW-LP on A3. About 30 markers derived from 19 orthologous genes involved in Arabidopsis P homeostasis were mapped on 24 QTL regions by comparative mapping between Arabidopsis and Brassica napus. Among these genes, GPT1, MGD2 and SIZ1 were associated with two major loci regulating SY-LP and other yield-related traits on A2 between 77.1 and 95.0 cM.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The stable QTLs detected under LP conditions and their candidate genes may provide useful information for marker-assisted selection in breeding high-yield B. napus varieties with improved P efficiency.
Project description:Little is known about the genetic control of heterosis in the complex polyploid crop species oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). In this study, two large doubled-haploid (DH) mapping populations and two corresponding sets of backcrossed test hybrids (THs) were analysed in controlled greenhouse experiments and extensive field trials for seedling biomass and yield performance traits, respectively. Genetic maps from the two populations, aligned with the help of common simple sequence repeat markers, were used to localise and compare quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to the expression of heterosis for seedling developmental traits, plant height at flowering, thousand seed mass, seeds per silique, siliques per unit area and seed yield. QTL were mapped using data from the respective DH populations, their corresponding TH populations and from mid-parent heterosis (MPH) data, allowing additive and dominance effects along with digenic epistatic interactions to be estimated. A number of genome regions containing numerous heterosis-related QTL involved in different traits and at different developmental stages were identified at corresponding map positions in the two populations. The co-localisation of per se QTL from the DH population datasets with heterosis-related QTL from the MPH data could indicate regulatory loci that may also contribute to fixed heterosis in the highly duplicated B. napus genome. Given the key role of epistatic interactions in the expression of heterosis in oilseed rape, these QTL hotspots might harbour genes involved in regulation of heterosis (including fixed heterosis) for different traits throughout the plant life cycle, including a significant overall influence on heterosis for seed yield.
Project description:Although much research has been conducted, the genetic architecture of heterosis remains ambiguous. To unravel the genetic architecture of heterosis, a reconstructed F(2) population was produced by random intercross among 202 lines of a double haploid population in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Both populations were planted in three environments and 15 yield-correlated traits were measured, and only seed yield and eight yield-correlated traits showed significant mid-parent heterosis, with the mean ranging from 8.7% (branch number) to 31.4% (seed yield). Hundreds of QTL and epistatic interactions were identified for the 15 yield-correlated traits, involving numerous variable loci with moderate effect, genome-wide distribution and obvious hotspots. All kinds of mode-of-inheritance of QTL (additive, A; partial-dominant, PD; full-dominant, D; over-dominant, OD) and epistatic interactions (additive × additive, AA; additive × dominant/dominant × additive, AD/DA; dominant × dominant, DD) were observed and epistasis, especially AA epistasis, seemed to be the major genetic basis of heterosis in rapeseed. Consistent with the low correlation between marker heterozygosity and mid-parent heterosis/hybrid performance, a considerable proportion of dominant and DD epistatic effects were negative, indicating heterozygosity was not always advantageous for