Room temperature copper(II)-catalyzed oxidative cyclization of enamides to 2,5-disubstituted oxazoles via vinylic C-H functionalization.
ABSTRACT: A copper(II)-catalyzed oxidative cyclization of enamides to oxazoles via vinylic C-H bond functionalization at room temperature is described. Various 2,5-disubstituted oxazoles bearing aryl, vinyl, alkyl, and heteroaryl substituents could be synthesized in moderate to high yields. This reaction protocol is complementary to our previously reported iodine-mediated cyclization of enamides to afford 2,4,5-trisubstituted oxazoles.
Project description:A novel method for the synthesis of trisubstituted oxazoles via a one-pot oxazole synthesis/Suzuki-Miyaura coupling sequence has been developed. One-pot formation of 5-(triazinyloxy)oxazoles using carboxylic acids, amino acids and a dehydrative condensing reagent, DMT-MM, followed by Ni-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura coupling with boronic acids provided the corresponding 2,4,5-trisubstituted oxazoles in good yields.
Project description:The reactivity of ?-azidochalcones has been explored for the preparation of highly substituted oxazoles via a 2H-azirine intermediate. The azidochalcones, when treated with potassium thiocyanate in the presence of potassium persulfate, lead to 2,4,5-trisubstituted oxazoles in good yields. Incidentally, 2-aminothiazoles are the products when ferric nitrate is employed instead of persulfate in the above reaction.
Project description:New routes to 2, 4, 5-trisubstituted oxazoles were established whereby the substitution pattern was established by the structure of the starting nonsymmetrical acyloins. 2-Chloromethyl-4, 5-disubstituted oxazoles were prepared by refinements of an earlier described process whereby chloroacetyl esters of symmetrical and non-symmetrical acyloins were cyclized using an ammonium acetate/acetic acid protocol. After substitution is effected, the azide moiety is then installed by substitution under mild conditions. While dibrominated and iodinated phenyloxazoles are required for further synthetic elaboration, the cyclization reaction was found to be very sensitive to the relative positions of the halogens in the starting materials.
Project description:Deprotonation of 2-(phenylsulfonyl)-1,3-oxazole (1) readily provides a useful C-5 carbanion that is reactive with a variety of electrophiles. Aldehydes and ketones are useful substrates, and the formation of 5-iodo- and 5-tri-n-butylstannyl oxazoles affords access to cross-coupling reactions. Subsequent nucleophilic displacement of the 2-phenylsulfonyl group provides a general route for the synthesis of 2,5-disubstituted-1,3-oxazoles.
Project description:We report the first cationic gold(i)-catalyzed one-pot reaction of amide, alkyne and aldehyde followed by cyclization, to successfully access highly substituted oxazoles derivatives in good yields. A single catalyst allows the occurring of this multi-step reaction atom- and step-economically, with water as the only theoretical side product.
Project description:An efficient construction of imidazole ring by a Cs2CO3-promoted annulation of amidoximes with terminal alkynes in DMSO has been developed. This protocol provides a simple synthetic route with high atom-utilization for the synthesis of 2,4-disubstituted imidazoles in good yields under transition-metal-free and ligand-free conditions. Internal alkynes can also undergo the annulation to give 2,4,5-trisubstituted imidazoles.
Project description:The electrophilic cyclization of substituted propargylic aryl ethers by I2, ICl, and PhSeBr produces 3,4-disubstituted 2H-benzopyrans in excellent yields. This methodology results in vinylic halides or selenides under mild reaction conditions and tolerates a variety of functional groups, including methoxy, alcohol, aldehyde, and nitro groups.
Project description:[reaction: see text] 2,3-Disubstituted benzo[b]furans are readily prepared under very mild reaction conditions by the palladium/copper-catalyzed cross-coupling of various o-iodoanisoles and terminal alkynes, followed by electrophilic cyclization with I2, PhSeCl, or p-O2NC6H4SCl. Aryl- and vinylic-substituted alkynes undergo electrophilic cyclization in excellent yields. Biologically important furopyridines can be prepared by this approach in high yields.
Project description:Enamides represent bioactive pharmacophores in various natural products, and have become increasingly common reagents for asymmetric incorporation of nitrogen functionality. Yet the synthesis of the requisite geometrically defined enamides remains problematic, especially for highly substituted and Z-enamides. Herein we wish to report a general atom economic method for the isomerization of a broad range of N-allyl amides to form Z-di-, tri-, and tetrasubstituted enamides with exceptional geometric selectivity. This report represents the first examples of a catalytic isomerization of N-allyl amides to form nonpropenyl disubstituted, tri- and tetrasubstituted enamides with excellent geometric control. Applications of these geometrically defined enamides toward the synthesis of cis vicinal amino alcohols and tetrasubstituted ?-borylamido complexes are discussed.
Project description:An efficient three-step protocol was developed to produce 2-(azidomethyl)oxazoles from vinyl azides in a continuous-flow process. The general synthetic strategy involves a thermolysis of vinyl azides to generate azirines, which react with bromoacetyl bromide to provide 2-(bromomethyl)oxazoles. The latter compounds are versatile building blocks for nucleophilic displacement reactions as demonstrated by their subsequent treatment with NaN3 in aqueous medium to give azido oxazoles in good selectivity. Process integration enabled the synthesis of this useful moiety in short overall residence times (7 to 9 min) and in good overall yields.