Deuterium isotope shifts for backbone ¹H, ¹?N and ¹³C nuclei in intrinsically disordered protein ?-synuclein.
ABSTRACT: Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are abundant in nature and characterization of their potential structural propensities remains a widely pursued but challenging task. Analysis of NMR secondary chemical shifts plays an important role in such studies, but the output of such analyses depends on the accuracy of reference random coil chemical shifts. Although uniform perdeuteration of IDPs can dramatically increase spectral resolution, a feature particularly important for the poorly dispersed IDP spectra, the impact of deuterium isotope shifts on random coil values has not yet been fully characterized. Very precise (2)H isotope shift measurements for (13)C(?), (13)C(?), (13)C', (15)N, and (1)H(N) have been obtained by using a mixed sample of protonated and uniformly perdeuterated ?-synuclein, a protein with chemical shifts exceptionally close to random coil values. Decomposition of these isotope shifts into one-bond, two-bond and three-bond effects as well as intra- and sequential residue contributions shows that such an analysis, which ignores conformational dependence, is meaningful but does not fully describe the total isotope shift to within the precision of the measurements. Random coil (2)H isotope shifts provide an important starting point for analysis of such shifts in structural terms in folded proteins, where they are known to depend strongly on local geometry.
Project description:Phosphorylation is one of the main regulators of cellular signaling typically occurring in flexible parts of folded proteins and in intrinsically disordered regions. It can have distinct effects on the chemical environment as well as on the structural properties near the modification site. Secondary chemical shift analysis is the main NMR method for detection of transiently formed secondary structure in intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and the reliability of the analysis depends on an appropriate choice of random coil model. Random coil chemical shifts and sequence correction factors were previously determined for an Ac-QQXQQ-NH2-peptide series with X being any of the 20 common amino acids. However, a matching dataset on the phosphorylated states has so far only been incompletely determined or determined only at a single pH value. Here we extend the database by the addition of the random coil chemical shifts of the phosphorylated states of serine, threonine and tyrosine measured over a range of pH values covering the pKas of the phosphates and at several temperatures (www.bio.ku.dk/sbinlab/randomcoil). The combined results allow for accurate random coil chemical shift determination of phosphorylated regions at any pH and temperature, minimizing systematic biases of the secondary chemical shifts. Comparison of chemical shifts using random coil sets with and without inclusion of the phosphoryl group, revealed under/over estimations of helicity of up to 33%. The expanded set of random coil values will improve the reliability in detection and quantification of transient secondary structure in phosphorylation-modified IDPs.
Project description:Using fine-tuned hydrogen bonding criteria, a library of coiled peptide fragments has been generated from a large set of high-resolution protein X-ray structures. This library is shown to be an improved representation of ?/? torsion angles seen in intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). The ?/? torsion angle distribution of the library, on average, provides good agreement with experimentally observed chemical shifts and 3 JHN-H? coupling constants for a set of five disordered proteins. Inspection of the coil library confirms that nearest-neighbor effects significantly impact the ?/? distribution of residues in the coil state. Importantly, 3 JHN-H? coupling constants derived from the nearest-neighbor modulated backbone ? distribution in the coil library show improved agreement to experimental values, thereby providing a better way to predict 3 JHN-H? coupling constants for IDPs, and for identifying locations that deviate from fully random behavior.
Project description:For a long time, NMR chemical shifts have been used to identify protein secondary structures. Currently, this is accomplished through comparing the observed (1)H(alpha), (13)C(alpha), (13)C(beta), or (13)C' chemical shifts with the random coil values. Here, we present a new protocol, which is based on the joint probability of each of the three secondary structural types (beta-strand, alpha-helix, and random coil) derived from chemical-shift data, to identify the secondary structure. In combination with empirical smooth filters/functions, this protocol shows significant improvements in the accuracy and the confidence of identification. Updated chemical-shift statistics are reported, on the basis of which the reliability of using chemical shift to identify protein secondary structure is evaluated for each nucleus. The reliability varies greatly among the 20 amino acids, but, on average, is in the order of: (13)C(alpha)>(13)C'>(1)H(alpha)>(13)C(beta)>(15)N>(1)H(N) to distinguish an alpha-helix from a random coil; and (1)H(alpha)>(13)C(beta) >(1)H(N) approximately (13)C(alpha) approximately (13)C' approximately (15)N for a beta-strand from a random coil. Amide (15)N and (1)H(N) chemical shifts, which are generally excluded from the application, in fact, were found to be helpful in distinguishing a beta-strand from a random coil. In addition, the chemical-shift statistical data are compared with those reported previously, and the results are discussed. A JAVA User Interface program has been developed to make the entire procedure fully automated and is available via http://ccsr3150-p3.stanford.edu.
Project description:The signal-to-noise ratio is one of the limiting factors in neutron macromolecular crystallography. Protein perdeuteration, which replaces all H atoms with deuterium, is a method of improving the signal-to-noise ratio of neutron crystallography experiments by reducing the incoherent scattering of the hydrogen isotope. Detailed analyses of perdeuterated and hydrogenated structures are necessary in order to evaluate the utility of perdeuterated crystals for neutron diffraction studies. The room-temperature X-ray structure of perdeuterated diisopropyl fluorophosphatase (DFPase) is reported at 2.1 A resolution. Comparison with an independently refined hydrogenated room-temperature structure of DFPase revealed no major systematic differences, although the crystals of perdeuterated DFPase did not diffract neutrons. The lack of diffraction is examined with respect to data-collection and crystallographic parameters. The diffraction characteristics of successful neutron structure determinations are presented as a guideline for future neutron diffraction studies of macromolecules. X-ray diffraction to beyond 2.0 A resolution appears to be a strong predictor of successful neutron structures.
Project description:The impact of pressure on the backbone (15) N, (1) H and (13) C chemical shifts in N-terminally acetylated ?-synuclein has been evaluated over a pressure range 1-2500 bar. Even while the chemical shifts fall very close to random coil values, as expected for an intrinsically disordered protein, substantial deviations in the pressure dependence of the chemical shifts are seen relative to those in short model peptides. In particular, the nonlinear pressure response of the (1) H(N) chemical shifts, which commonly is associated with the presence of low-lying "excited states", is much larger in ?-synuclein than in model peptides. The linear pressure response of (1) H(N) chemical shift, commonly linked to H-bond length change, correlates well with those in short model peptides, and is found to be anticorrelated with its temperature dependence. The pressure dependence of (13) C chemical shifts shows remarkably large variations, even when accounting for residue type, and do not point to a clear shift in population between different regions of the Ramachandran map. However, a nearly universal decrease in (3) JHN-H? by 0.22 ± 0.05 Hz suggests a slight increase in population of the polyproline II region at 2500 bar. The first six residues of N-terminally acetylated synuclein show a transient of approximately 15% population of ?-helix, which slightly diminishes at 2500 bar. The backbone dynamics of the protein is not visibly affected beyond the effect of slight increase in water viscosity at 2500 bar.
Project description:There is a growing interest in understanding the properties of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs); however, the characterization of these states remains an open challenge. IDPs appear to have functional roles that diverge from those of folded proteins and revolve around their ability to act as hubs for protein-protein interactions. To gain a better understanding of the modes of binding of IDPs, we combined statistical mechanics, calorimetry, and NMR spectroscopy to investigate the recognition and binding of a fragment from the disordered protein Gab2 by the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2), a key interaction for normal cell signaling and cancer development. Structural ensemble refinement by NMR chemical shifts, thermodynamics measurements, and analysis of point mutations indicated that the population of preexisting bound conformations in the free-state ensemble of Gab2 is an essential determinant for recognition and binding by Grb2. A key role was found for transient polyproline II (PPII) structures and extended conformations. Our findings are likely to have very general implications for the biological behavior of IDPs in light of the evidence that a large fraction of these proteins possess a specific propensity to form PPII and to adopt conformations that are more extended than the typical random-coil states.
Project description:A recently described plant cell wall dissolution system has been modified to use perdeuterated solvents to allow direct in-NMR-tube dissolution and high-resolution solution-state NMR of the whole cell wall without derivatization. Finely ground cell wall material dissolves in a solvent system containing dimethylsulfoxide-d(6) and 1-methylimidazole-d(6) in a ratio of 4:1 (v/v), keeping wood component structures mainly intact in their near-native state. Two-dimensional NMR experiments, using gradient-HSQC (heteronuclear single quantum coherence) 1-bond (13)C--(1)H correlation spectroscopy, on nonderivatized cell wall material from a representative gymnosperm pinus taeda (loblolly pine), an angiosperm Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen), and a herbaceous plant Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf) demonstrate the efficacy of the system. We describe a method to synthesize 1-methylimidazole-d(6) with a high degree of perdeuteration, thus allowing cell wall dissolution and NMR characterization of nonderivatized plant cell wall structures.
Project description:The configuration and hydrogen-bonding network of side-chain amides in a 35 kDa protein were determined by measuring differential and trans-hydrogen-bond H/D isotope effects by using the isotopomer-selective (IS)-TROSY technique, which leads to a reliable recognition and correction of erroneous rotamers that are frequently found in protein structures. First, the differential two-bond isotope effects on carbonyl (13)C' shifts, which are defined as Delta(2)Delta(13)C'(ND) = (2)Delta(13)C'(ND(E))-(2)Delta(13)C'(ND(Z)), provide a reliable means for the configuration assignment for side-chain amides, because environmental effects (hydrogen bonds and charges, etc.) are greatly attenuated over the two bonds that separate the carbon and hydrogen atoms, and the isotope effects fall into a narrow range of positive values. Second and more importantly, the significant variations in the differential one-bond isotope effects on (15)N chemical shifts, which are defined as Delta(1)Delta(15)N(D) = (1)Delta(15)N(D(E))-(1)Delta(15)N(D(Z)) can be correlated with hydrogen-bonding interactions, particularly those involving charged acceptors. The differential one-bond isotope effects are additive, with major contributions from intrinsic differential conjugative interactions between the E and Z configurations, H-bonding interactions, and charge effects. Furthermore, the pattern of trans-H-bond H/D isotope effects can be mapped onto more complicated hydrogen-bonding networks that involve bifurcated hydrogen-bonds. Third, the correlations between Delta(1)Delta(15)N(D) and hydrogen-bonding interactions afford an effective means for the correction of erroneous rotamer assignments of side-chain amides. Rotamer correction by differential isotope effects is not only robust, but also simple and can be applied to large proteins.
Project description:Protein perdeuteration approaches have tremendous value in protein NMR studies, but are limited by the high cost of perdeuterated media. Here, we demonstrate that E. coli cultures expressing proteins using either the condensed single protein production method (cSPP), or conventional pET expression plasmids, can be condensed prior to protein expression, thereby providing high-quality (2)H, (13)C, (15)N-enriched protein samples at 2.5-10% the cost of traditional methods. As an example of the value of such inexpensively-produced perdeuterated proteins, we produced (2)H, (13)C, (15)N-enriched E. coli cold shock protein A (CspA) and EnvZb in 40x condensed phase media, and obtained NMR spectra suitable for 3D structure determination. The cSPP system was also used to produce (2)H, (13)C, (15)N-enriched E. coli plasma membrane protein YaiZ and outer membrane protein X (OmpX) in condensed phase. NMR spectra can be obtained for these membrane proteins produced in the cSPP system following simple detergent extraction, without extensive purification or reconstitution. This allows a membrane protein's structural and functional properties to be characterized prior to reconstitution, or as a probe of the effects of subsequent purification steps on the structural integrity of membrane proteins. We also provide a standardized protocol for production of perdeuterated proteins using the cSPP system. The 10-40 fold reduction in costs of fermentation media provided by using a condensed culture system opens the door to many new applications for perdeuterated proteins in spectroscopic and crystallographic studies.
Project description:The mechanism by which class A ?-lactamases hydrolyze ?-lactam antibiotics has been the subject of intensive investigation using many different experimental techniques. Here, we report on the novel use of both neutron and high resolution x-ray diffraction to help elucidate the identity of the catalytic base in the acylation part of the catalytic cycle, wherein the ?-lactam ring is opened and an acyl-enzyme intermediate forms. To generate protein crystals optimized for neutron diffraction, we produced a perdeuterated form of the Toho-1 ?-lactamase R274N/R276N mutant. Protein perdeuteration, which involves replacing all of the hydrogen atoms in a protein with deuterium, gives a much stronger signal in neutron diffraction and enables the positions of individual deuterium atoms to be located. We also synthesized a perdeuterated acylation transition state analog, benzothiophene-2-boronic acid, which was also isotopically enriched with (11)B, as (10)B is a known neutron absorber. Using the neutron diffraction data from the perdeuterated enzyme-inhibitor complex, we were able to determine the positions of deuterium atoms in the active site directly rather than by inference. The neutron diffraction results, along with supporting bond-length analysis from high resolution x-ray diffraction, strongly suggest that Glu-166 acts as the general base during the acylation reaction.