Cyclin-dependent kinase suppression by WEE1 kinase protects the genome through control of replication initiation and nucleotide consumption.
ABSTRACT: Activation of oncogenes or inhibition of WEE1 kinase deregulates cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity and leads to replication stress; however, the underlying mechanism is not understood. We now show that elevation of CDK activity by inhibition of WEE1 kinase rapidly increases initiation of replication. This leads to nucleotide shortage and reduces replication fork speed, which is followed by SLX4/MUS81-mediated DNA double-strand breakage. Fork speed is normalized and DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation is suppressed when CDT1, a key factor for replication initiation, is depleted. Furthermore, addition of nucleosides counteracts the effects of unscheduled CDK activity on fork speed and DNA DSB formation. Finally, we show that WEE1 regulates the ionizing radiation (IR)-induced S-phase checkpoint, consistent with its role in control of replication initiation. In conclusion, these results suggest that deregulated CDK activity, such as that occurring following inhibition of WEE1 kinase or activation of oncogenes, induces replication stress and loss of genomic integrity through increased firing of replication origins and subsequent nucleotide shortage.
Project description:DNA replication starts at initiation sites termed replication origins. Metazoan cells contain many more potential origins than are activated (fired) during each S phase. Origin activation is controlled by the ATR checkpoint kinase and its downstream effector kinase Chk1, which suppresses origin firing in response to replication blocks and during normal S phase by inhibiting the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk2. In addition to increased origin activation, cells deficient in Chk1 activity display reduced rates of replication fork progression. Here we investigate the causal relationship between increased origin firing and reduced replication fork progression. We use the Cdk inhibitor roscovitine or RNAi depletion of Cdc7 to inhibit origin firing in Chk1-inhibited or RNAi-depleted cells. We report that Cdk inhibition and depletion of Cdc7 can alleviate the slow replication fork speeds in Chk1-deficient cells. Our data suggest that increased replication initiation leads to slow replication fork progression and that Chk1 promotes replication fork progression during normal S phase by controlling replication origin activity.
2010-01-01 | S-EPMC2941317 | BioStudies
Project description:The effectiveness of Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) inhibitors at killing cancer cells is considered to be fully dependent on their effect on DNA replication initiation. Chk1 inhibition boosts origin firing, presumably limiting the availability of nucleotides and in turn provoking the slow-down and subsequent collapse of forks, thus decreasing cell viability. Here we show that slow fork progression in Chk1-inhibited cells is not an indirect effect of excess new origin firing. Instead, fork slow-down results from the accumulation of replication barriers, whose bypass is impeded by CDK-dependent phosphorylation of the specialized DNA polymerase eta (Poleta). Also in contrast to the linear model, the accumulation of DNA damage in Chk1-deficient cells depends on origin density but is largely independent of fork speed. Notwithstanding this, origin dysregulation contributes only mildly to the poor proliferation rates of Chk1-depleted cells. Moreover, elimination of replication barriers by down-regulation of MCM helicase components, but not their bypass by Poleta, improves cell survival. Our results thus shed light on the molecular basis of the sensitivity of tumors to Chk1 inhibition.
Project description:The effectiveness of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) inhibitors at killing cancer cells is considered to be fully dependent on their effect on DNA replication initiation. Chk1 inhibition boosts origin firing, presumably limiting the availability of nucleotides and in turn provoking the slowdown and subsequent collapse of forks, thus decreasing cell viability. Here we show that slow fork progression in Chk1-inhibited cells is not an indirect effect of excess new origin firing. Instead, fork slowdown results from the accumulation of replication barriers, whose bypass is impeded by CDK-dependent phosphorylation of the specialized DNA polymerase eta (Pol?). Also in contrast to the linear model, the accumulation of DNA damage in Chk1-deficient cells depends on origin density but is largely independent of fork speed. Notwithstanding this, origin dysregulation contributes only mildly to the poor proliferation rates of Chk1-depleted cells. Moreover, elimination of replication barriers by downregulation of helicase components, but not their bypass by Pol?, improves cell survival. Our results thus shed light on the molecular basis of the sensitivity of tumors to Chk1 inhibition.
Project description:The conserved MRE11–RAD50–NBS1 (MRN) complex is an important sensor of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and facilitates DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR) and end joining. Here, we identify NBS1 as a target of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) phosphorylation. We show that NBS1 serine 432 phosphorylation occurs in the S, G2 and M phases of the cell cycle and requires CDK activity. This modification stimulates MRN-dependent conversion of DSBs into structures that are substrates for repair by HR. Impairment of NBS1 phosphorylation not only negatively affects DSB repair by HR, but also prevents resumption of DNA replication after replication-fork stalling. Thus, CDK-mediated NBS1 phosphorylation defines a molecular switch that controls the choice of repair mode for DSBs.
Project description:The initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication is regulated by three protein kinase classes: cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK), Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) and the DNA damage checkpoint kinases. CDK phosphorylation of two key initiation factors, Sld2 and Sld3, promotes essential interactions with Dpb11 (refs 2-4), whereas DDK acts by phosphorylating subunits of the Mcm2-7 helicase. CDK has an additional role in replication by preventing the re-loading of Mcm2-7 during the S, G2 and M phases, thus preventing origin re-firing and re-replication. During the G1 phase, both CDK and DDK are downregulated, which allows origin licensing and prevents premature replication initiation. Origin firing is also inhibited during the S phase when DNA damage or replication fork stalling activates the checkpoint kinases. Here we show that, analogous to the situation in the G1 phase, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae checkpoint kinase Rad53 inhibits both CDK- and DDK-dependent pathways, which acts redundantly to block further origin firing. Rad53 acts on DDK directly by phosphorylating Dbf4, whereas the CDK pathway is blocked by Rad53-mediated phosphorylation of the downstream CDK substrate, Sld3. This allows CDK to remain active during the S phase in the presence of DNA damage, which is crucial to prevent re-loading of Mcm2-7 onto origins that have already fired. Our results explain how checkpoints regulate origin firing and demonstrate that the slowing of S phase by the 'intra-S checkpoint' is primarily due to the inhibition of origin firing.
Project description:Recent studies have shown synergistic cytotoxic effects of simultaneous Chk1- and Wee1-inhibition. However, the mechanisms behind this synergy are not known. Here, we present a flow cytometry-based screen for compounds that cause increased DNA damage in S-phase when combined with the Wee1-inhibitor MK1775. Strikingly, the Chk1-inhibitors AZD7762 and LY2603618 were among the top candidate hits of 1664 tested compounds, suggesting that the synergistic cytotoxic effects are due to increased S-phase DNA damage. Combined Wee1- and Chk1-inhibition caused a strong synergy in induction of S-phase DNA damage and reduction of clonogenic survival. To address the underlying mechanisms, we developed a novel assay measuring CDK-dependent phosphorylations in single S-phase cells. Surprisingly, while Wee1-inhibition alone induced less DNA damage compared to Chk1-inhibition, Wee1-inhibition caused a bigger increase in S-phase CDK-activity. However, the loading of replication initiation factor CDC45 was more increased after Chk1- than Wee1-inhibition and further increased by the combined treatment, and thus correlated well with DNA damage. Therefore, when Wee1 alone is inhibited, Chk1 suppresses CDC45 loading and thereby limits the extent of unscheduled replication initiation and subsequent S-phase DNA damage, despite very high CDK-activity. These results can explain why combined treatment with Wee1- and Chk1-inhibitors gives synergistic anti-cancer effects.
Project description:Robustness and completion of DNA replication rely on redundant DNA replication origins. Reduced efficiency of origin licensing is proposed to contribute to chromosome instability in CDK-deregulated cell cycles, a frequent alteration in oncogenesis. However, the mechanism by which this instability occurs is largely unknown. Current models suggest that limited origin numbers would reduce fork density favouring chromosome rearrangements, but experimental support in CDK-deregulated cells is lacking. We have investigated the pattern of origin firing efficiency in budding yeast cells lacking the CDK regulators Cdh1 and Sic1. We show that each regulator is required for efficient origin activity, and that both cooperate non-redundantly. Notably, origins are differentially sensitive to CDK deregulation. Origin sensitivity is independent on normal origin efficiency, firing timing or chromosomal location. Interestingly, at a chromosome arm, there is a shortage of origin firing involving active and dormant origins, and the extent of shortage correlates with the severity of CDK deregulation and chromosome instability. We therefore propose that CDK deregulation in G1 phase compromises origin redundancy by decreasing the number of active and dormant origins, leading to origin shortage and increased chromosome instability.
Project description:Replication stress is a common feature of cancer cells, and thus a potentially important therapeutic target. Here, we show that cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-induced replication stress, resulting from Wee1 inactivation, is synthetic lethal with mutations disrupting dNTP homeostasis in fission yeast. Wee1 inactivation leads to increased dNTP demand and replication stress through CDK-induced firing of dormant replication origins. Subsequent dNTP depletion leads to inefficient DNA replication, DNA damage and to genome instability. Cells respond to this replication stress by increasing dNTP supply through histone methyltransferase Set2-dependent MBF-induced expression of Cdc22, the catalytic subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). Disrupting dNTP synthesis following Wee1 inactivation, through abrogating Set2-dependent H3K36 tri-methylation or DNA integrity checkpoint inactivation results in critically low dNTP levels, replication collapse and cell death, which can be rescued by increasing dNTP levels. These findings support a 'dNTP supply and demand' model in which maintaining dNTP homeostasis is essential to prevent replication catastrophe in response to CDK-induced replication stress.
Project description:Renal ciliopathies are a leading cause of kidney failure, but their exact etiology is poorly understood. NEK8/NPHP9 is a ciliary kinase associated with two renal ciliopathies in humans and mice, nephronophthisis (NPHP) and polycystic kidney disease. Here, we identify NEK8 as a key effector of the ATR-mediated replication stress response. Cells lacking NEK8 form spontaneous DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that further accumulate when replication forks stall, and they exhibit reduced fork rates, unscheduled origin firing, and increased replication fork collapse. NEK8 suppresses DSB formation by limiting cyclin A-associated CDK activity. Strikingly, a mutation in NEK8 that is associated with renal ciliopathies affects its genome maintenance functions. Moreover, kidneys of NEK8 mutant mice accumulate DNA damage, and loss of NEK8 or replication stress similarly disrupts renal cell architecture in a 3D-culture system. Thus, NEK8 is a critical component of the DNA damage response that links replication stress with cystic kidney disorders.
Project description:Eukaryotic DNA synthesis initiates from multiple replication origins and progresses through bidirectional replication forks to ensure efficient duplication of the genome. Temporal control of initiation from origins and regulation of replication fork functions are important aspects for maintaining genome stability. Multiple kinase-signaling pathways are involved in these processes. The Dbf4-dependent Cdc7 kinase (DDK), cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), and Mec1, the yeast Ataxia telangiectasia mutated/Ataxia telangiectasia mutated Rad3-related checkpoint regulator, all target the structurally disordered N-terminal serine/threonine-rich domain (NSD) of mini-chromosome maintenance subunit 4 (Mcm4), a subunit of the mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM) replicative helicase complex. Using whole-genome replication profile analysis and single-molecule DNA fiber analysis, we show that under replication stress the temporal pattern of origin activation and DNA replication fork progression are altered in cells with mutations within two separate segments of the Mcm4 NSD. The proximal segment of the NSD residing next to the DDK-docking domain mediates repression of late-origin firing by checkpoint signals because in its absence late origins become active despite an elevated DNA damage-checkpoint response. In contrast, the distal segment of the NSD at the N terminus plays no role in the temporal pattern of origin firing but has a strong influence on replication fork progression and on checkpoint signaling. Both fork progression and checkpoint response are regulated by the phosphorylation of the canonical CDK sites at the distal NSD. Together, our data suggest that the eukaryotic MCM helicase contains an intrinsic regulatory domain that integrates multiple signals to coordinate origin activation and replication fork progression under stress conditions.