Shwachman-Diamond syndrome: a complex case demonstrating the potential for misdiagnosis as asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (Jeune syndrome).
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The differential diagnosis of a neonate or fetus presenting with a bell-shaped or long narrow thorax includes a wide range of bony dysplasia syndromes. Where this is accompanied by respiratory distress, asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD, Jeune syndrome) is an important potential diagnosis. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is widely recognised as a cause of exocrine pancreatic dysfunction, short stature and bone marrow failure. It is not so well appreciated that rib and/or thoracic cage abnormalities occur in 30-50% of patients and that, in severe cases, these abnormalities may lead to thoracic dystrophy and respiratory failure in the newborn. There are, however, at least three previous case reports of children who were initially diagnosed with ATD who were subsequently shown to have SDS. CASE PRESENTATION: This report details the case history of a patient misdiagnosed as having ATD as a neonate following the neonatal asphyxial death of her brother. She subsequently developed progressive pancytopenia but was only diagnosed with SDS at 11 years of age after referral for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for bone marrow failure accompanied by trilineage dysplasia and clonal cytogenetic abnormalities on bone marrow examination. Subsequent testing revealed the presence of fat globules in stools, reduced faecal chymotrypsin, fat-soluble vitamin deficiency, metaphyseal dysplasia on skeletal survey and heterozygous mutations of the SBDS gene. CONCLUSION: This report highlights the potential for diagnostic confusion between ATD and SDS. It is important to include SDS in the differential diagnosis of newborns with thoracic dystrophy and to seek expert clinical and radiological assessment of such children.
Project description:Asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), or Jeune syndrome, is a multisystem autosomal recessive disorder associated with a characteristic skeletal dysplasia and variable renal, hepatic, pancreatic, and retinal abnormalities. We have performed a genome wide linkage search using autozygosity mapping in a cohort of four consanguineous families with ATD, three of which originate from Pakistan, and one from southern Italy. In these families, as well as in a fifth consanguineous family from France, we localised a novel ATD locus (ATD) to chromosome 15q13, with a maximum cumulative two point lod score at D15S1031 (Zmax=3.77 at theta=0.00). Five consanguineous families shared a 1.2 cM region of homozygosity between D15S165 and D15S1010. Investigation of a further four European kindreds, with no known parental consanguinity, showed evidence of marker homozygosity across a similar interval. Families with both mild and severe forms of ATD mapped to 15q13, but mutation analysis of two candidate genes, GREMLIN and FORMIN, did not show pathogenic mutations.
Project description:Jeune syndrome (asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy, ATD) is a rare autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by a small, narrow chest and variable limb shortness with a considerable neonatal mortality as a result of respiratory distress. Renal, hepatic, pancreatic and ocular complications may occur later in life. We describe 13 cases with ages ranging from 9 months to 22 years. Most patients experienced respiratory problems in the first years of their life, three died, one experienced renal complications, and one had hepatic problems. With age, the thoracic malformation tends to become less pronounced and the respiratory problems decrease. The prognosis of ATD seems better than described in literature and in our opinion this justifies long term intensive treatment in the first years. We also propose a follow-up protocol for patients with ATD.
Project description:Defects in the biosynthesis and/or function of primary cilia cause a spectrum of disorders collectively referred to as ciliopathies. A subset of these disorders is distinguished by profound abnormalities of the skeleton that include a long narrow chest with markedly short ribs, extremely short limbs, and polydactyly. These include the perinatal lethal short-rib polydactyly syndromes (SRPS) and the less severe asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), Ellis-van Creveld (EVC) syndrome, and cranioectodermal dysplasia (CED) phenotypes. To identify new genes and define the spectrum of mutations in the skeletal ciliopathies, we analyzed 152 unrelated families with SRPS, ATD, and EVC. Causal variants were discovered in 14 genes in 120 families, including one newly associated gene and two genes previously associated with other ciliopathies. These three genes encode components of three different ciliary complexes; FUZ, which encodes a planar cell polarity complex molecule; TRAF3IP1, which encodes an anterograde ciliary transport protein; and LBR, which encodes a nuclear membrane protein with sterol reductase activity. The results established the molecular basis of SRPS type IV, in which mutations were identified in four different ciliary genes. The data provide systematic insight regarding the genotypes associated with a large cohort of these genetically heterogeneous phenotypes and identified new ciliary components required for normal skeletal development.
Project description:Deficiencies in the SBDS gene result in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS), an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome associated with leukemia predisposition. SBDS encodes a highly conserved protein previously implicated in ribosome biogenesis. Using human primary bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), lymphoblasts, and skin fibroblasts, we show that SBDS stabilized the mitotic spindle to prevent genomic instability. SBDS colocalized with the mitotic spindle in control primary BMSCs, lymphoblasts, and skin fibroblasts and bound to purified microtubules. Recombinant SBDS protein stabilized microtubules in vitro. We observed that primary BMSCs and lymphoblasts from SDS patients exhibited an increased incidence of abnormal mitoses. Similarly, depletion of SBDS by siRNA in human skin fibroblasts resulted in increased mitotic abnormalities and aneuploidy that accumulated over time. Treatment of primary BMSCs and lymphoblasts from SDS patients with nocodazole, a microtubule destabilizing agent, led to increased mitotic arrest and apoptosis, consistent with spindle destabilization. Conversely, SDS patient cells were resistant to taxol, a microtubule stabilizing agent. These findings suggest that spindle instability in SDS contributes to bone marrow failure and leukemogenesis.
Project description:To characterize bone marrow failure with del(13q), we reviewed clinical records of 22 bone marrow failure patients possessing del(13q) alone or del(13q) plus other abnormalities. All del(13q) patients were diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndrome-unclassified due to the absence of apparent dysplasia. Elevated glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein-deficient blood cell percentages were detected in all 16 with del(13q) alone and 3 of 6 (50%) patients with del(13q) plus other abnormalities. All 14 patients with del(13q) alone and 2 of 5 (40%) patients with del(13q) plus other abnormalities responded to immunosuppressive therapy with 10-year overall survival rates of 83% and 67%, respectively. Only 2 patients who had abnormalities in addition to the del(13q) abnormality developed acute myeloid leukemia. Given that myelodysplastic syndrome-unclassified with del(13q) is a benign bone marrow failure subset characterized by good response to immunosuppressive therapy and a high prevalence of increased glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein-deficient cells, del(13q) should not be considered an intermediate-risk chromosomal abnormality.
Project description:BACKGROUND:ERCC6L2-associated disorder has recently been described and only five patients were reported so far. The described phenotype included bone marrow, cerebral, and craniofacial abnormalities. The aim of this study was to further define the genetic and phenotypic spectrum of the disorder by summarizing the five published cases and an additional case that we identified through whole-exome sequencing performed at the University of Toronto. METHODS:Clinical data was extracted from the Canadian Inherited Marrow Failure Registry. Whole exome sequencing was performed to identify causative mutations. RESULTS:All six cases had homozygous truncating mutations either at or upstream of the helicase domain of ERCC6L2. All patients displayed bone marrow failure, learning or developmental delay and microcephaly. Our patient was unique in displaying features of cerebellar disease, including ataxia and dysmetria as well as an interval deterioration of the corpus callosum and generalized volume loss on MRI. Another unique feature of our patient was retinal dystrophy with macular involvement. Along with one other patient, our patient displayed craniofacial abnormalities by presenting with low-set prominent ears, a pointed prominent chin, and deep-set eyes. Leukemia is common among patients with inherited bone marrow failure, but thus far, none of the patients have developed this complication. CONCLUSIONS:ERCC6L2-associated disorder is a multisystem disorder. The phenotype spectrum includes bone marrow failure, cerebral, and craniofacial abnormalities, as well as cerebellar and retinal abnormalities.
Project description:A novel, genetic immunodeficiency syndrome has been recently described, herein termed "MonoMAC". It is characterized by severe circulating monocytopenia, NK- and B-lymphocytopenia, severe infections with M. avium complex (MAC), and risk of progression to myelodysplasia/acute myelogenous leukemia. Detailed bone marrow analyses performed on 18 patients further define this disorder. The majority of patients had hypocellular marrows with reticulin fibrosis and multilineage dysplasia affecting the myeloid (72%), erythroid (83%) and megakaryocytic (100%) lineages. Cytogenetic abnormalities were present in 10 of 17 (59%). Despite B-lymphocytopenia, plasma cells were present but were abnormal (e.g. CD56(+)) in nearly half of cases. Increased T-cell large granular lymphocyte populations were present in 28% of patients. Chromosomal breakage studies, cell cycle checkpoint functions, and sequencing of TERT and K-RAS genes revealed no abnormalities. MonoMAC appears to be a unique, inherited syndrome of bone marrow failure. We describe distinctive bone marrow features to help in its recognition and diagnosis. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifiers: NCT00018044, NCT00923364, NCT01212055).
Project description:Intraflagellar transport (IFT) depends on two evolutionarily conserved modules, subcomplexes A (IFT-A) and B (IFT-B), to drive ciliary assembly and maintenance. All six IFT-A components and their motor protein, DYNC2H1, have been linked to human skeletal ciliopathies, including asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD; also known as Jeune syndrome), Sensenbrenner syndrome, and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Conversely, the 14 subunits in the IFT-B module, with the exception of IFT80, have unknown roles in human disease. To identify additional IFT-B components defective in ciliopathies, we independently performed different mutation analyses: candidate-based sequencing of all IFT-B-encoding genes in 1,467 individuals with a nephronophthisis-related ciliopathy or whole-exome resequencing in 63 individuals with ATD. We thereby detected biallelic mutations in the IFT-B-encoding gene IFT172 in 12 families. All affected individuals displayed abnormalities of the thorax and/or long bones, as well as renal, hepatic, or retinal involvement, consistent with the diagnosis of ATD or MZSDS. Additionally, cerebellar aplasia or hypoplasia characteristic of Joubert syndrome was present in 2 out of 12 families. Fibroblasts from affected individuals showed disturbed ciliary composition, suggesting alteration of ciliary transport and signaling. Knockdown of ift172 in zebrafish recapitulated the human phenotype and demonstrated a genetic interaction between ift172 and ift80. In summary, we have identified defects in IFT172 as a cause of complex ATD and MZSDS. Our findings link the group of skeletal ciliopathies to an additional IFT-B component, IFT172, similar to what has been shown for IFT-A.
Project description:We report a case of a 4-week-old female neonate with Jeune's asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (JATD) and coexistent situs anomaly, primarily presenting as gastric motility disorder. The child presented with abdominal distension and nonbilious vomiting since birth with failure to thrive. However, skeletal survey revealed JATD. Upper gastrointestinal contrast study showed situs inversus with delayed gastric emptying. Pyloric biopsy and intraoperative antro-duodenal manometry confirmed association of gastric motility disorder. Awareness of the unusual possibility of primary presentation of Jeune syndrome as gastric motility disorder will improve the management approach in such infants.
Project description:Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome caused by biallelic SBDS gene mutations. Here we examined SBDS protein levels in human bone marrow. SBDS protein expression was high in neutrophil progenitors, megakaryocytes, plasma cells, and osteoblasts. In contrast, SBDS protein levels were low in all hematopoietic cell lineages from patients harboring the common SBDS mutations. We conclude that SBDS protein levels vary widely between specific marrow lineages. Uniformly low SBDS protein expression levels distinguish the majority of SDS patients from controls or other marrow failure syndromes.