Clinical governance implementation in a selected teaching emergency department: a systems approach.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Clinical governance (CG) is among the different frameworks proposed to improve the quality of healthcare. Iran, like many other countries, has put healthcare quality improvement in its top health policy priorities. In November 2009, implementation of CG became a task for all hospitals across the country. However, it has been a challenge to clarify the notion of CG and the way to implement it in Iran. The purpose of this action research study is to understand how CG can be defined and implemented in a selected teaching emergency department (ED). METHODS/DESIGN: We will use Soft Systems Methodology for both designing the study and inquiring into its content. As we considered a complex problem situation regarding the quality of care in the selected ED, we initially conceptualized CG as a cyclic set of purposeful activities designed to explore the situation and find relevant changes to improve the quality of care. Then, implementation of CG will conceptually be to carry out that set of purposeful activities. The activities will be about: understanding the situation and finding out relevant issues concerning the quality of care; exploring different stakeholders' views and ideas about the situation and how it can be improved; and defining actions to improve the quality of care through structured debates and development of accommodations among stakeholders. We will flexibly use qualitative methods of data collection and analysis in the course of the study. To ensure the study rigor, we will use different strategies. DISCUSSION: Successful implementation of CG, like other quality improvement frameworks, requires special consideration of underlying complexities. We believe that addressing the complex situation and reflections on involvement in this action research will make it possible to understand the concept of CG and its implementation in the selected setting. By describing the context and executed flexible methods of implementation, the results of this study would contribute to the development of implementation science and be employed by boards and executives governing other clinical settings to facilitate CG implementation.
Project description:Background:Older adults in the emergency department (ED) are at high risk for functional decline, unrecognized delirium, falls, and medication interactions. Holistic assessment by a multidisciplinary team in the ED decreases these adverse outcomes and decreases admissions, but there are many barriers to incorporating this type of care during the ED visit. Methods:This is a hybrid type II effectiveness-implementation study using a pre-/post-cohort design (n?=?380) at a tertiary care academic ED with an ED observation unit (Obs Unit). The intervention is a two-step protocol of (step 1) ED nurses screening adult patients ??65?years old for geriatric needs using the Delirium Triage Screen, 4-Stage Balance Test, and the Identifying Seniors at Risk score. Patients who have geriatric needs identified by this screening but who do not meet hospital admission criteria will (step 2) be placed in the Obs Unit for multidisciplinary geriatric assessment by the hospital's geriatric consultation team, physical therapists, occupational therapists, pharmacists, and/or case managers. Not all patients may require all elements of the multidisciplinary geriatric assessment. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research: Care Transitions Framework was used to identify barriers to implementation. Lean Six Sigma processes will be used to overcome these identified barriers with the goal of achieving geriatric screening rates of >?80%. Implementation success and associated factors will be reported. For the effectiveness aim, pre-/post-cohorts of adults ??65?years old cared for in the Obs Unit will be followed for 90?days post-ED visit (n = 150 pre and 230 post). The primary outcome is the prevention of functional decline. Secondary outcomes include health-related quality of life, new geriatric syndromes identified, new services provided, and Obs Unit metrics such as length of stay and admission rates. Discussion:A protocol for implementing integrated multidisciplinary geriatric assessment into the ED setting has the potential to improve patient functional status by identifying and addressing geriatric issues and needs prior to discharge from the ED. Using validated frameworks and implementation strategies will increase our understanding of how to improve the quality of ED care for older adults in the acute care setting. Trial registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier, NCT04068311, registered 28 August 2019.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:(1) To describe the processes used to plan and conduct a stakeholder forum in aged care as a means of informing future uptake of consumer participatory research. (2) To discuss how capturing and drawing on stakeholders' experiences of aged care can generate new research ideas and inform the delivery of more person-centred aged care services. KEY PRINCIPLES OF CONSUMER ENGAGEMENT:A stakeholder forum was conducted as part of Ageing Well, a 2-year project evaluating the value and impact of social participation and quality of life tools as part of routine community aged care assessments at a large Australian provider. The forum was codesigned with community aged care clients and care coordinators and aimed to coproduce implementation strategies with a targeted representation of stakeholders. The stakeholder forum was developed using five key principles of consumer engagement activities: purposeful, inclusive, timely, transparent and respectful. The forum fostered an environment of mutual respect and collective inquiry to encourage contributions from all participants. This article outlines practical guidance on using a consumer engagement framework and the lessons learnt. DISCUSSION:The stakeholder forum facilitated an understanding of consumers' needs and existing gaps in aged care services and the circumstances that can enable or hinder the delivery and implementation of these services. This collective information can guide future research and policy at institutional, regional and national committees that relate to aged care. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ACTRN12617001212347.
Project description:Introduction: Increasing the use of evidence in healthcare policy and practice requires greater understanding of how stakeholders use evidence to inform policy, refine systems and change practice. Drawing on implementation theory, we have used system-focused participatory research to engage diverse stakeholders in using aggregated continuous quality improvement (CQI) data from Australian Indigenous primary health care settings to identify priority evidence-practice gaps, barriers/enablers and strategies for improvement. This article reports stakeholders' use or intended use of evidence at various levels of the system, and factors mediating use. Material and Methods: Interviews were undertaken with a purposeful sample of 30 healthcare stakeholders in different roles, organization types and settings in one Australian jurisdiction and with national participants, as part of the project's developmental evaluation. Qualitative data were analyzed to identify themes and categories relating to use of evidence. Results: Context-specific aggregated CQI data that were relatable to the diverse professional roles and practices provided an effective starting point for sharing perspectives, generating practice-based evidence and mobilizing evidence-use. Interviewees perceived the co-produced findings as applicable at different levels and useful for planning, policy development, supporting best practice and reflection, capacity strengthening and developing new research. Factors mediating use were commitment to best practice; the credibility of the evidence and its perceived relevance to work roles, contexts and decision needs; report format and language; facilitation and communication; competing work pressures and the organizational environment for change. Conclusions: This study found that primary health care stakeholders used evidence on quality of care for a variety of purposes. This could be linked to the interactive research processes used to engage stakeholders in different roles and settings in interpreting data, sharing and generating knowledge. Findings indicate that system-based participatory research using CQI data and iterative, interactive and systematic CQI-based methods can be applied at scale to support concurrent action for healthcare improvement at different system levels. Factors known to influence implementation should be addressed within the research design to optimize evidence use. Further research is needed to explore the utility of interactive dissemination for engaging healthcare stakeholders in informing policy and system change.
Project description:Among children with asthma, black children are two to four times as likely to have an emergency department (ED) visit and die from asthma, respectively, compared to white children in the United States. Despite the availability of evidence-based asthma management guidelines, minority children are less likely than white children to receive or use effective options for asthma care. The CHICAGO Plan is a three-arm multi-center randomized pragmatic trial of children 5 to 11years old presenting to the ED with uncontrolled asthma that compares:  an ED-focused intervention to improve the quality of care on discharge to home,  the same ED-focused intervention together with a home-based community health worker (CHW)-led intervention, and  enhanced usual care. All children receive spacers for the metered dose inhaler and teaching about its use. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Asthma Impact Scale and Satisfaction with Participation in Social Roles at 6months are the primary outcomes in children and in caregivers, respectively. Other patient-reported outcomes and indicators of healthcare utilization are assessed as secondary outcomes. Innovative features of the CHICAGO Plan include early and continuous engagement of children, caregivers, the Chicago Department of Public Health, and other stakeholders to inform the design and implementation of the study and a shared research infrastructure to coordinate study activities. The objective of this report is to describe the development of the CHICAGO Plan, including the methods and rationale for engaging stakeholders, the shared research infrastructure, and other features of the pragmatic clinical trial design.
Project description:The material practices which researchers use in research partnerships may enable or constrain the nature of engagement with stakeholder groups. Participatory learning and action (PLA) research approaches show promise, but there has been no detailed analysis of stakeholders' and researchers' experiences of PLA techniques for data generation and co-analysis.To explore stakeholders' and researchers' experiences of PLA techniques for data generation and co-analysis.The EU RESTORE implementation science project employed a participatory approach to investigate and support the implementation of guidelines and training initiatives (GTIs) to enhance communication in cross-cultural primary care consultations. We developed a purposeful sample of 78 stakeholders (migrants, general practice staff, community interpreters, service providers, service planners) from primary care settings in Austria, England, Greece, Ireland and The Netherlands. We used speed evaluations and participatory evaluations to explore their experiences of two PLA techniques-Commentary Charts and Direct Ranking-which were intended to generate data for co-analysis by stakeholders about the GTIs under analysis. We evaluated 16 RESTORE researchers' experiences using interviews. We conducted thematic and content analysis of all evaluation data.PLA Commentary Charts and Direct Ranking techniques, with their visual, verbal and tangible nature and inherent analytical capabilities, were found to be powerful tools for involving stakeholders in a collaborative analysis of GTIs. Stakeholders had few negative experiences and numerous multifaceted positive experiences of meaningful engagement, which resonated with researchers' accounts.PLA techniques and approaches are valuable as material practices in health research partnerships.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Evidence-based clinical algorithms (EBCA) are knowledge tools to promote evidence use by codifying evidence into action plans to facilitate appropriate care. However, their impact on process and outcomes of care varies considerably across practice settings and providers, highlighting the need for tailoring of both these knowledge tools and their implementation strategies to target end users and the setting in which EBCAs are to be employed. Leadership at the Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital emergency department (TASH-ED) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia identified a need for context-appropriate EBCAs to improve evidence uptake to mitigate care gaps in this high volume, high acuity setting. We aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to utilization of EBCAs in the TASH-ED, to identify priority targets for development of EBCAs tailored for the TASH-ED context and to understand the process of care in the TASH-ED to inform implementation planning. METHODS:We employed a multi-component qualitative design including: semi-structured interviews with TASH-ED clinical, administrative and support services staff, and Toronto EM physicians who had worked in the TASH-ED; direct observation of the process of care in TASH-ED; document review. RESULTS:Although most TASH-ED participants reported an awareness of EBCAs, they noted little or no experience using them, primarily due to the poor fit of many EBCAs to their practice setting. All participants felt that context-appropriate EBCAs were needed to ensure standardized and evidence-based care and improve patient outcomes for common ED presentations. Trauma, sepsis, acute cardiac conditions, hypertensive emergencies, and diabetic keto-acidosis were most commonly identified as priorities for EBCA development. Lack of medication, equipment and human resources were identified as the primary barriers to use of EBCAs in the TASH-ED. Support from leadership and engagement of stakeholders outside the ED where EBCAs were believed to be less well accepted were identified as essential facilitators to implementation of EBCAs in the TASH-ED. CONCLUSIONS:This study found a perceived need for EBCAs tailored to the TASH-ED setting to support uptake of evidence-based care into routine practice for common clinical presentations. Barriers and facilitators provide information essential to development of both context-appropriate EBCAs and plans for their implementation in the TASH-ED.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The implementation of guidelines and training initiatives to support communication in cross-cultural primary care consultations is ad hoc across a range of international settings with negative consequences particularly for migrants. This situation reflects a well-documented translational gap between evidence and practice and is part of the wider problem of implementing guidelines and the broader range of professional educational and quality interventions in routine practice. In this paper, we describe our use of a contemporary social theory, Normalization Process Theory and participatory research methodology--Participatory Learning and Action--to investigate and support implementation of such guidelines and training initiatives in routine practice. METHODS: This is a qualitative case study, using multiple primary care sites across Europe. Purposive and maximum variation sampling approaches will be used to identify and recruit stakeholders-migrant service users, general practitioners, primary care nurses, practice managers and administrative staff, interpreters, cultural mediators, service planners, and policy makers. We are conducting a mapping exercise to identify relevant guidelines and training initiatives. We will then initiate a PLA-brokered dialogue with stakeholders around Normalization Process Theory's four constructs--coherence, cognitive participation, collective action, and reflexive monitoring. Through this, we will enable stakeholders in each setting to select a single guideline or training initiative for implementation in their local setting. We will prospectively investigate and support the implementation journeys for the five selected interventions. Data will be generated using a Participatory Learning and Action approach to interviews and focus groups. Data analysis will follow the principles of thematic analysis, will occur in iterative cycles throughout the project and will involve participatory co-analysis with key stakeholders to enhance the authenticity and veracity of findings. DISCUSSION: This research employs a unique combination of Normalization Process Theory and Participatory Learning and Action, which will provide a novel approach to the analysis of implementation journeys. The findings will advance knowledge in the field of implementation science because we are using and testing theoretical and methodological approaches so that we can critically appraise their scope to mediate barriers and improve the implementation processes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Novel diagnostic triage and testing strategies to support early detection of cancer could improve clinical outcomes. Most apparently promising diagnostic tests ultimately fail because of inadequate performance in real-world, low prevalence populations such as primary care or general community populations. They should therefore be systematically evaluated before implementation to determine whether they lead to earlier detection, are cost-effective, and improve patient safety and quality of care, while minimising over-investigation and over-diagnosis. METHODS:We performed a systematic scoping review of frameworks for the evaluation of tests and diagnostic approaches. RESULTS:We identified 16 frameworks: none addressed the entire continuum from test development to impact on diagnosis and patient outcomes in the intended population, nor the way in which tests may be used for triage purposes as part of a wider diagnostic strategy. Informed by these findings, we developed a new framework, the 'CanTest Framework', which proposes five iterative research phases forming a clear translational pathway from new test development to health system implementation and evaluation. CONCLUSION:This framework is suitable for testing in low prevalence populations, where tests are often applied for triage testing and incorporated into a wider diagnostic strategy. It has relevance for a wide range of stakeholders including patients, policymakers, purchasers, healthcare providers and industry.
Project description:The US Public Health Service smoking cessation practice guideline specifically recommends that physicians and nurses strongly advise their patients who use tobacco to quit, but the best approach for attaining this goal in the emergency department (ED) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize emergency physicians' (EPs) and nurses' (ENs) perceptions of cessation counseling and to identify barriers and facilitators to implementation of the 5 A's framework (Ask-Advise-Assess-Assist-Arrange) in the ED.We conducted semi-structured, face-to-face interviews of 11 EPs and 19 ENs following a pre-post implementation trial of smoking cessation guidelines in two study EDs. We used purposeful sampling to target EPs and ENs with different attitudes toward cessation counseling, based on their responses to a written survey (Decisional Balance Questionnaire). Conventional content analysis was used to inductively characterize the issues raised by study participants and to construct a coding structure, which was then applied to study transcripts.The main findings of this study converged upon three overarching domains: 1) reactions to the intervention; 2) perceptions of patients' receptivity to cessation counseling; and 3) perspectives on ED cessation counseling and preventive care. ED staff expressed ambivalence toward the implementation of smoking cessation guidelines. Both ENs and EPs agreed that the delivery of smoking cessation counseling is important, but that it is not always practical in the ED on account of time constraints, the competing demands of acute care, and resistance from patients. Participants also called attention to the need for improved role clarity and teamwork when implementing the 5 A's in the ED.There are numerous challenges to the implementation of smoking cessation guidelines in the ED. ENs are generally willing to take the lead in offering brief cessation counseling, but their efforts need to be reinforced by EPs. ED systems need to address workflow, teamwork, and practice policies that facilitate prescription of smoking cessation medication, referral for cessation counseling, and follow-up in primary care. The results of this qualitative evaluation can be used to guide the design of future ED intervention studies.ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT00756704.
Project description:Hip fractures are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and care of hip fracture patients places a heavy burden on healthcare systems due to prolonged recovery time. Measuring quality of care delivered to hip fracture patients is important to help target efforts to improve care for patients and efficiency of the health system. The purpose of this study is to synthesise the evidence surrounding quality of care indicators for patients who have sustained a hip fracture. Using a scoping review methodology, the research question that will be addressed is: "What patient, institutional, and system-level indicators are currently in use or proposed for measuring quality of care across the continuum for individuals following a hip fracture?".We will employ the methodological frameworks used by Arksey and O'Malley and Levac et al. The synthesis will be limited to quality of care indicators for individuals who suffered low trauma hip fracture. All English peer-reviewed studies published from the year 2000-most recent will be included. Literature search strategies will be developed using medical subject headings and text words related to hip fracture quality indicators and the search will be peer-reviewed. Numerous electronic databases will be searched. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts for inclusion, followed by screening of the full text of potentially relevant articles to determine final inclusion. Abstracted data will include study characteristics and indicator definitions.To improve quality of care for patients and create a more efficient healthcare system, mechanisms for the measurement of quality of care are required. The implementation of quality of care indicators enables stakeholders to target areas for improvement in service delivery. Knowledge translation activities will occur throughout the review with dissemination of the project goals and findings to local, national, and international stakeholders.