Heterologous prime-boost regimens using rAd35 and rMVA vectors elicit stronger cellular immune responses to HIV proteins than homologous regimens.
ABSTRACT: We characterized prime-boost vaccine regimens using heterologous and homologous vector and gene inserts. Heterologous regimens offer a promising approach that focuses the cell-mediated immune response on the insert and away from vector-dominated responses. Ad35-GRIN/ENV (Ad35-GE) vaccine is comprised of two vectors containing sequences from HIV-1 subtype A gag, rt, int, nef (Ad35-GRIN) and env (Ad35-ENV). MVA-CMDR (MVA-C), MVA-KEA (MVA-K) and MVA-TZC (MVA-T) vaccines contain gag, env and pol genes from HIV-1 subtypes CRF01_AE, A and C, respectively. Balb/c mice were immunized with different heterologous and homologous vector and insert prime-boost combinations. HIV and vector-specific immune responses were quantified post-boost vaccination. Gag-specific IFN-? ELISPOT, intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) (CD107a, IFN-?, TNF-? and IL-2), pentamer staining and T-cell phenotyping were used to differentiate responses to inserts and vectors. Ad35-GE prime followed by boost with any of the recombinant MVA constructs (rMVA) induced CD8+ Gag-specific responses superior to Ad35-GE-Ad35-GE or rMVA-rMVA prime-boost combinations. Notably, there was a shift toward insert-focus responses using heterologous vector prime-boost regimens. Gag-specific central and effector memory T cells were generated more rapidly and in greater numbers in the heterologous compared to the homologous prime-boost regimens. These results suggest that heterologous prime-boost vaccination regimens enhance immunity by increasing the magnitude, onset and multifunctionality of the insert-specific cell-mediated immune response compared to homologous vaccination regimens. This study supports the rationale for testing heterologous prime-boost regimens in humans.
Project description:The current study assessed the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of various prime-boost vaccine regimens in rhesus macaques using combinations of recombinant DNA (rDNA), recombinant MVA (rMVA), and subunit gp140 protein. The rDNA and rMVA vectors were constructed to express Env from HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE and Gag-Pol from CRF01_AE or SIVmac 239. One of the rMVAs, MVA/CMDR, has been recently tested in humans. Immunizations were administered at months 0 and 1 (prime) and months 3 and 6 (boost). After priming, HIV env-specific serum IgG was detected in monkeys receiving gp140 alone or rMVA but not in those receiving rDNA. Titers were enhanced in these groups after boosting either with gp140 alone or with rMVA plus gp140. The groups that received the rDNA prime developed env-specific IgG after boosting with rMVA with or without gp140. HIV Env-specific serum IgG binding antibodies were elicited more frequently and of higher titer, and breadth of neutralizing antibodies was increased with the inclusion of the subunit Env boost. T cell responses were measured by tetramer binding to Gag p11c in Mamu-A*01 macaques, and by IFN-? ELISPOT assay to SIV-Gag. T cell responses were induced after vaccination with the highest responses seen in macaques immunized with rDNA and rMVA. Macaques were challenged intravenously with a novel SHIV-E virus (SIVmac239 Gag-Pol with an HIV-1 subtype E-Env CAR402). Post challenge with SHIV-E, antibody titers were boosted in all groups and peaked at 4 weeks. Robust T cell responses were seen in all groups post challenge and in macaques immunized with rDNA and rMVA a clear boosting of responses was seen. A greater than two-log drop in RNA copies/ml at peak viremia and earlier set point was achieved in macaques primed with rDNA, and boosted with rMVA/SHIV-AE plus gp140. Post challenge viremia in macaques immunized with other regimens was not significantly different to that of controls. These results demonstrate that a gp140 subunit and inclusion of SIV Gag-Pol may be critical for control of SHIV post challenge.
Project description:Increasing the breadth of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine-elicited immune responses or targeting conserved regions may improve coverage of circulating strains. HIV Vaccine Trials Network 083 tested whether cellular immune responses with these features are induced by prime-boost strategies, using heterologous vectors, heterologous inserts, or a combination of both.A total of 180 participants were randomly assigned to receive combinations of adenovirus vectors (Ad5 or Ad35) and HIV-1 envelope (Env) gene inserts (clade A or B) in a prime-boost regimen.T-cell responses to heterologous and homologous insert regimens targeted a similar number of epitopes (ratio of means, 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], .6-1.6; P = .91), but heterologous insert regimens induced significantly more epitopes that were shared between EnvA and EnvB than homologous insert regimens (ratio of means, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2-5.7; P = .01). Participants in the heterologous versus homologous insert groups had T-cell responses that targeted epitopes with greater evolutionary conservation (mean entropy [±SD], 0.32 ± 0.1 bits; P = .003), and epitopes recognized by responders provided higher coverage (49%; P = .035). Heterologous vector regimens had higher numbers of total, EnvA, and EnvB epitopes than homologous vector regimens (P = .02, .044, and .045, respectively).These data demonstrate that vaccination with heterologous insert prime boosting increased T-cell responses to shared epitopes, while heterologous vector prime boosting increased the number of T-cell epitopes recognized.NCT01095224.
Project description:We report the first-in-human safety and immunogenicity assessment of a prototype intranasally administered, replication-competent Sendai virus (SeV)-vectored, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine.?Sixty-five HIV-1-uninfected adults in Kenya, Rwanda, and the United Kingdom were assigned to receive 1 of 4 prime-boost regimens (administered at 0 and 4 months, respectively; ratio of vaccine to placebo recipients, 12:4): priming with a lower-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with an adenovirus 35-vectored vaccine encoding HIV-1 Gag, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and Nef (Ad35-GRIN) given intramuscularly (SLA); priming with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly (SHA); priming with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly, followed by boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (ASH); and priming and boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (SHSH).?All vaccine regimens were well tolerated. Gag-specific IFN-? enzyme-linked immunospot-determined response rates and geometric mean responses were higher (96% and 248 spot-forming units, respectively) in groups primed with SeV-Gag and boosted with Ad35-GRIN (SLA and SHA) than those after a single dose of Ad35-GRIN (56% and 54 spot-forming units, respectively) or SeV-Gag (55% and 59 spot-forming units, respectively); responses persisted for ?8 months after completion of the prime-boost regimen. Functional CD8+ T-cell responses with greater breadth, magnitude, and frequency in a viral inhibition assay were also seen in the SLA and SHA groups after Ad35-GRIN boost, compared with those who received either vaccine alone. SeV-Gag did not boost T-cell counts in the ASH group. In contrast, the highest Gag-specific antibody titers were seen in the ASH group. Mucosal antibody responses were sporadic.?SeV-Gag primed functional, durable HIV-specific T-cell responses and boosted antibody responses. The prime-boost sequence appears to determine which arm of the immune response is stimulated.?NCT01705990.
Project description:A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) vaccine able to induce long-lasting immunity remains a major challenge. We previously designed a T cell multiepitopic immunogen including protective conserved epitopes from HIV-1 Gag, Pol and Nef proteins (TMEP-B), that induced potent HIV-1-specific CD8 T cells when vectored by DNA and combined with the vaccine candidate modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-B. Here, we described the vectorization of TMEP-B in MVA (MVA-TMEP) and evaluated the T cell immunogenicity profile elicited in mice when administered in homologous (MVA/MVA) or heterologous (DNA/MVA) prime/boost vector regimens or using homologous or heterologous inserts. The heterologous vector regimen was superior to the homologous protocol in inducing T cell responses. DNA-TMEP-primed animals boosted with MVA-TMEP or MVA-B exhibited the highest magnitudes of HIV-1-specific CD8, CD4 and T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, with MVA-TMEP significantly expanding Gag-specific CD8 T cell responses. In the homologous vector regimen, all groups exhibited similar HIV-1-specific CD8 and CD4 T cell responses, but both MVA-B/MVA-B and MVA-TMEP/MVA-TMEP combinations elicited higher Gag-Pol-Nef (GPN)-specific CD8 T cell responses compared to MVA-TMEP/MVA-B. Our results revealed an enhanced induction of HIV-1-specific T cell responses by TMEP-B when vectored in both DNA and MVA, and supported their use in combined prime/boost strategies for HIV-1 prevention and/or therapy.
Project description:In previous studies we have shown that a pantothenate auxotroph of Myocbacterium bovis BCG (BCG?panCD) expressing HIV-1 subtype C Gag induced Gag-specific immune responses in mice and Chacma baboons after prime-boost immunization in combination with matched rMVA and VLP vaccines respectively. In this study recombinant BCG (rBCG) expressing HIV-1 subtype C reverse transcriptase and a truncated envelope were constructed using both the wild type BCG Pasteur strain as a vector and the pantothenate auxotroph. Mice were primed with rBCG expressing Gag and RT and boosted with a recombinant MVA, expressing a polyprotein of Gag, RT, Tat and Nef (SAAVI MVA-C). Priming with rBCG?panCD expressing Gag or RT rather than the wild type rBCG expressing Gag or RT resulted in higher frequencies of total HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells and increased numbers of T cells specific to the subdominant Gag and RT epitopes. Increasing the dose of rBCG from 10(5) cfu to 10(7) cfu also led to an increase in the frequency of responses to subdominant HIV epitopes. A mix of the individual rBCG?panCD vaccines expressing either Gag, RT or the truncated Env primed the immune system for a boost with SAAVI MVA-C and generated five-fold higher numbers of HIV-specific IFN-?-spot forming cells than mice primed with rBCG?panCD containing an empty vector control. Priming with the individual rBCG?panCD vaccines or the mix and boosting with SAAVI MVA-C also resulted in the generation of HIV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells producing IFN-? and TNF-? and CD4(+) cells producing IL-2. The rBCG vaccines tested in this study were able to prime the immune system for a boost with rMVA expressing matching antigens, inducing robust, HIV-specific T cell responses to both dominant and subdominant epitopes in the individual proteins when used as individual vaccines or in a mix.
Project description:The search for a universal filovirus vaccine that provides protection against multiple filovirus species has been prompted by sporadic but highly lethal outbreaks of Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus infections. A good prophylactic vaccine should be able to provide protection to all known filovirus species and as an upside potentially protect from newly emerging virus strains. We investigated the immunogenicity and protection elicited by multivalent vaccines expressing glycoproteins (GP) from Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and Marburg virus (MARV). Immune responses against filovirus GP have been associated with protection from disease. The GP antigens were expressed by adenovirus serotypes 26 and 35 (Ad26 and Ad35) and modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vectors, all selected for their strong immunogenicity and good safety profile. Using fully lethal NHP intramuscular challenge models, we assessed different vaccination regimens for immunogenicity and protection from filovirus disease. Heterologous multivalent Ad26-Ad35 prime-boost vaccination regimens could give full protection against MARV (range 75%-100% protection) and EBOV (range 50% to 100%) challenge, and partial protection (75%) against SUDV challenge. Heterologous multivalent Ad26-MVA prime-boost immunization gave full protection against EBOV challenge in a small cohort study. The use of such multivalent vaccines did not show overt immune interference in comparison with monovalent vaccines. Multivalent vaccines induced GP-specific antibody responses and cellular IFN? responses to each GP expressed by the vaccine, and cross-reactivity to TAFV GP was detected in a trivalent vaccine expressing GP from EBOV, SUDV and MARV. In the EBOV challenge studies, higher humoral EBOV GP-specific immune responses (p = 0.0004) were associated with survival from EBOV challenge and less so for cellular immune responses (p = 0.0320). These results demonstrate that it is feasible to generate a multivalent filovirus vaccine that can protect against lethal infection by multiple members of the filovirus family.
Project description:An effective vaccine against Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) still remains the best solution to provide a sustainable control and/or eradication of the virus. We have previously generated the HIV-1 vaccine modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-B, which exhibited good immunogenicity profile in phase I prophylactic and therapeutic clinical trials, but was unable to prevent viral rebound after antiretroviral (ART) removal. To potentiate the immunogenicity of MVA-B, here we described the design and immune responses elicited in mice by a new T cell multi-epitopic B (TMEP-B) immunogen, vectored by DNA, when administered in homologous or heterologous prime/boost regimens in combination with MVA-B. The TMEP-B protein contained conserved regions from Gag, Pol, and Nef proteins including multiple CD4 and CD8 T cell epitopes functionally associated with HIV control. Heterologous DNA-TMEP/MVA-B regimen induced higher HIV-1-specific CD8 T cell responses with broader epitope recognition and higher polyfunctional profile than the homologous DNA-TMEP/DNA-TMEP or the heterologous DNA-GPN/MVA-B combinations. Moreover, higher HIV-1-specific CD4 and Tfh immune responses were also detected using this regimen. After MVA-B boost, the magnitude of the anti-VACV CD8 T cell response was significantly compromised in DNA-TMEP-primed animals. Our results revealed the immunological potential of DNA-TMEP prime/MVA-B boost regimen and supported the application of these combined vectors in HIV-1 prevention and/or therapy.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In non-human primates (NHPs) and humans, partial protection from HIV/SIV infection or suppression of replication is achievable by Env-binding antibodies and Gag-specific CD8+ T-cells targeting protective epitopes. Unfortunately, such T-cell responses are frequently dominated by responses to non-protective, variable epitopes. In this study we attempt to combine three independent approaches, each developed to prevent immunodominance of non-protective epitopes. These approaches were (1) vaccines consisting exclusively of putatively protective p24 Gag highly conserved elements (CEs), (2) vaccines using solely subdominant antigens which were acutely protective in a recent NHP trial, and (3) virus-encoded virus-like particle vaccines (virus-like vaccines/VLVs) using heterologous Env and Gag sequences to enable selection of broadly cross-reactive responses and to avoid immunodominance of non-conserved sequences in prime-boost regimens as previously observed.<h4>Methods</h4>We vaccinated outbred CD1 mice with HIV-1 clade B Gag/Env encoded in an adenoviral prime and SIVmac239 Gag/Env in an MVA boost. We combined this completely heterologous immunization regimen and the homologous SIVmac239 Gag/Env immunization regimen with an additional prime encoding SIV CEs and accessory antigens Rev, Vif and Vpr (Ad-Ii-SIVCErvv). T-cell responses were analyzed by intracellular cytokine staining of splenocytes and antibody responses by trimer-specific ELISA, avidity and isotype-specific ELISA.<h4>Results</h4>Env dominance could be avoided successfully in the completely heterologous prime-boost regimen, but Env immunodominance reappeared when Ad-Ii-SIVCErvv was added to the prime. This regimen did however still induce more cross-reactive Gag-specific CD8+ T-cells and Env-specific antibodies. Including Ad-Ii-SIVCErvv in the homologous prime-boost not only elicited accessory antigen-specific CD8+ memory T-cells, but also significantly increased the ratio of Gag- to Env-specific CD8+ T-cells. The CD4+ T-cell response shifted away from structural antigens previously associated with infection-enhancement.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The homologous Gag/Env prime-boost with Ad-Ii-SIVCErvv prime combined acutely protective CD8+ T-cell responses to subdominant antigens and Env-binding antibodies with chronically protective Gag-specific CD8+ T-cells in outbred mice. This vaccine regimen should be tested in an NHP efficacy trial.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Sequential prime-boost or co-administration of HIV vaccine candidates based on an adjuvanted clade B p24, RT, Nef, p17 fusion protein (F4/AS01) plus a non-replicating adenovirus 35 expressing clade A Gag, RT, Int and Nef (Ad35-GRIN) may lead to a unique immune profile, inducing both strong T-cell and antibody responses.<h4>Methods</h4>In a phase 1, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 146 healthy adult volunteers were randomized to one of four regimens: heterologous prime-boost with two doses of F4/AS01E or F4/AS01B followed by Ad35-GRIN; Ad35-GRIN followed by two doses of F4/AS01B; or three co-administrations of Ad35-GRIN and F4/AS01B. T cell and antibody responses were measured.<h4>Results</h4>The vaccines were generally well-tolerated, and did not cause serious adverse events. The response rate, by IFN-? ELISPOT, was greater when Ad35-GRIN was the priming vaccine and in the co-administration groups. F4/AS01 induced CD4+ T-cells expressing primarily CD40L and IL2 +/- TNF-?, while Ad35-GRIN induced predominantly CD8+ T-cells expressing IFN-? +/- IL2 or TNF-?. Viral inhibition was induced after Ad35-GRIN vaccination, regardless of the regimen. Strong F4-specific antibody responses were induced. Immune responses persisted at least a year after the last vaccination. The complementary response profiles, characteristic of each vaccine, were both expressed after co-administration.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Co-administration of an adjuvanted protein and an adenovirus vector showed an acceptable safety and reactogenicity profile and resulted in strong, multifunctional and complementary HIV-specific immune responses.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01264445.
Project description:Heterologous prime-boost strategies are of interest for HIV vaccine development. The order of prime-boost components could be important for the induction of T-cell responses. In this phase I/II multi-arm trial, three vaccine candidates were used as prime or boost: MVA HIV-B (coding for Gag, Pol, Nef); HIV LIPO-5 (5 lipopeptides from Gag, Pol, Nef); DNA GTU-MultiHIV B (coding for Rev, Nef, Tat, Gag, Env gp160 clade B). Healthy volunteers (n=92) were randomized to four groups: 1) MVA at weeks (W) 0/8 + LIPO-5 at W20/28 (M/L); 2) LIPO-5 at W0/8 + MVA at W20/28 (L/M); 3) DNA at W0/4/12 + LIPO-5 at W20/28 (G/L); 4) DNA at W0/4/12 + MVA at W20/28 (G/M). Frequency of IFNγ-ELISpot responders at W30 was 33%, 43%, 0% and 74%, respectively. Only MVA-receiving groups were further analyzed. Gene expression profiles of 79 subjects at different timepoints were analyzed by Illumina Whole-Genome Gene Expression BeadChips. Significant whole blood gene expression changes were observed two weeks after the first MVA injection, regardless of its use as prime or boost. An MVA gene signature was identified, including 86 genes mainly related to cell cycle pathways. Three prime-boost strategies led to CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses and to a whole blood gene expression signature primarily due to their MVA HIV-B component.