Protonation of a peroxodiiron(III) complex and conversion to a diiron(III/IV) intermediate: implications for proton-assisted O-O bond cleavage in nonheme diiron enzymes.
ABSTRACT: Oxygenation of a diiron(II) complex, [Fe(II)(2)(?-OH)(2)(BnBQA)(2)(NCMe)(2)](2+) [2, where BnBQA is N-benzyl-N,N-bis(2-quinolinylmethyl)amine], results in the formation of a metastable peroxodiferric intermediate, 3. The treatment of 3 with strong acid affords its conjugate acid, 4, in which the (?-oxo)(?-1,2-peroxo)diiron(III) core of 3 is protonated at the oxo bridge. The core structures of 3 and 4 are characterized in detail by UV-vis, Mössbauer, resonance Raman, and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. Complex 4 is shorter-lived than 3 and decays to generate in ~20% yield of a diiron(III/IV) species 5, which can be identified by electron paramagnetic resonance and Mössbauer spectroscopies. This reaction sequence demonstrates for the first time that protonation of the oxo bridge of a (?-oxo)(?-1,2-peroxo)diiron(III) complex leads to cleavage of the peroxo O-O bond and formation of a high-valent diiron complex, thereby mimicking the steps involved in the formation of intermediate X in the activation cycle of ribonucleotide reductase.
Project description:With the goal of gaining insight into the structures of peroxo intermediates observed for oxygen-activating nonheme diiron enzymes, a series of metastable synthetic diiron(III)-peroxo complexes with [Fe(III)(2)(mu-O)(mu-1,2-O(2))] cores has been characterized by X-ray absorption and resonance Raman spectroscopies, EXAFS analysis shows that this basic core structure gives rise to an Fe-Fe distance of approximately 3.15 A; the distance is decreased by 0.1 A upon introduction of an additional carboxylate bridge. In corresponding resonance Raman studies, vibrations arising from both the Fe-O-Fe and the Fe-O-O-Fe units can be observed. Importantly a linear correlation can be discerned between the nu(O-O) frequency of a complex and its Fe-Fe distance among the subset of complexes with [Fe(III)(2)(mu-OR)(mu-1,2-O(2))] cores (R = H, alkyl, aryl, or no substituent). These experimental studies are complemented by a normal coordinate analysis and DFT calculations.
Project description:Addition of H(+) to a synthetic (mu-1,2-peroxo)diiron(III) model complex results in protonation of a carboxylate rather than the peroxo ligand. This conclusion is based on spectroscopic evidence from UV-vis, (57)Fe Mossbauer, resonance Raman, infrared, and (1)H/(19)F NMR studies. These results suggest a similar role for protons in the dioxygen activation reactions in soluble methane monooxygenase and related carboxylate-bridged diiron enzymes.
Project description:We report the generation and characterization of an intermediate in a mutant form of the toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase hydroxylase component from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1. The reaction of chemically reduced I100W variant in the presence of the coupling protein, ToMOD, with dioxygen was monitored by stopped-flow UV/visible spectroscopy. Rapid-freeze quench (RFQ) samples were also generated for EPR and Mössbauer spectroscopy. A transient species is observed in the UV/visible spectrum with an absorption maximum at 500 nm. EPR and Mössbauer spectra of RFQ samples identified this species as a diiron(III,IV) cluster spin-coupled to a neutral W radical. A diamagnetic precursor to the mixed-valent diiron(III,IV) was also observed at an earlier time point, with Mössbauer parameters typical of high-spin FeIII. We have tentatively assigned this antiferromagnetically coupled diiron(III) intermediate as a peroxo-bridged cluster, and this complex has also been observed in preliminary studies of the wild-type hydroxylase.
Project description:Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of hypusine containing eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A), which plays an essential role in the regulation of cell proliferation. Recombinant human deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (hDOHH) has been reported to have oxygen- and iron-dependent activity, an estimated iron/holoprotein stoichiometry of 2, and a visible band at 630 nm responsible for the blue color of the as-isolated protein. EPR, Mössbauer, and XAS spectroscopic results presented herein provide direct spectroscopic evidence that hDOHH has an antiferromagnetically coupled diiron center with histidines and carboxylates as likely ligands, as suggested by mutagenesis experiments. Resonance Raman experiments show that its blue chromophore arises from a (mu-1,2-peroxo)diiron(III) center that forms in the reaction of the reduced enzyme with O2, so the peroxo form of hDOHH is unusually stable. Nevertheless we demonstrate that it can carry out the hydroxylation of the deoxyhypusine residue present in the elF5A substrate. Despite a lack of sequence similarity, hDOHH has a nonheme diiron active site that resembles both in structure and function those found in methane and toluene monooxygenases, bacterial and mammalian ribonucleotide reductases, and stearoyl acyl carrier protein Delta9-desaturase from plants, suggesting that the oxygen-activating diiron motif is a solution arrived at by convergent evolution. Notably, hDOHH is the only example thus far of a human hydroxylase with such a diiron active site.
Project description:Soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) carries out methane oxidation at 4 °C and under ambient pressure in a catalytic cycle involving the formation of a peroxodiiron(III) intermediate (P) from the oxygenation of the diiron(II) enzyme and its subsequent conversion to Q, the diiron(IV) oxidant that hydroxylates methane. Synthetic diiron(IV) complexes that can serve as models for Q are rare and have not been generated by a reaction sequence analogous to that of sMMO. In this work, we show that [FeII(Me3NTB)(CH3CN)](CF3SO3)2 (Me3NTB = tris((1-methyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methyl)amine) (1) reacts with O2 in the presence of base, generating a (?-1,2-peroxo)diiron(III) adduct with a low O-O stretching frequency of 825 cm-1 and a short Fe···Fe distance of 3.07 Å. Even more interesting is the observation that the peroxodiiron(III) complex undergoes O-O bond cleavage upon treatment with the Lewis acid Sc3+ and transforms into a bis(?-oxo)diiron(IV) complex, thus providing a synthetic precedent for the analogous conversion of P to Q in the catalytic cycle of sMMO.
Project description:To obtain structural and spectroscopic models for the diiron(II,III) centers in the active sites of diiron enzymes, the (?-alkoxo)(?-carboxylato)diiron(II,III) complexes [Fe(II)Fe(III)(N-Et-HPTB)(O(2)CPh)(NCCH(3))(2)](ClO(4))(3) (1) and [Fe(II)Fe(III)(N-Et-HPTB)(O(2)CPh)(Cl)(HOCH(3))](ClO(4))(2) (2) (N-Et-HPTB = N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-(1-ethyl-benzimidazolylmethyl))-2-hydroxy-1,3-diaminopropane) have been prepared and characterized by X-ray crystallography, UV-visible absorption, EPR, and Mössbauer spectroscopies. Fe1-Fe2 separations are 3.60 and 3.63 Å, and Fe1-O1-Fe2 bond angles are 128.0° and 129.4° for 1 and 2, respectively. Mössbauer and EPR studies of 1 show that the Fe(III) (S(A) = 5/2) and Fe(II) (S(B) = 2) sites are antiferromagnetically coupled to yield a ground state with S = 1/2 (g= 1.75, 1.88, 1.96); Mössbauer analysis of solid 1 yields J = 22.5 ± 2 cm(-1) for the exchange coupling constant (H = JS(A)·S(B) convention). In addition to the S = 1/2 ground-state spectrum of 1, the EPR signal for the S = 3/2 excited state of the spin ladder can also be observed, the first time such a signal has been detected for an antiferromagnetically coupled diiron(II,III) complex. The anisotropy of the (57)Fe magnetic hyperfine interactions at the Fe(III) site is larger than normally observed in mononuclear complexes and arises from admixing S > 1/2 excited states into the S = 1/2 ground state by zero-field splittings at the two Fe sites. Analysis of the "D/J" mixing has allowed us to extract the zero-field splitting parameters, local g values, and magnetic hyperfine structural parameters for the individual Fe sites. The methodology developed and followed in this analysis is presented in detail. The spin Hamiltonian parameters of 1 are related to the molecular structure with the help of DFT calculations. Contrary to what was assumed in previous studies, our analysis demonstrates that the deviations of the g values from the free electron value (g = 2) for the antiferromagnetically coupled diiron(II,III) core in complex 1 are predominantly determined by the anisotropy of the effective g values of the ferrous ion and only to a lesser extent by the admixture of excited states into ground-state ZFS terms (D/J mixing). The results for 1 are discussed in the context of the data available for diiron(II,III) clusters in proteins and synthetic diiron(II,III) complexes.
Project description:A growing subset of metalloenzymes activates dioxygen with nonheme diiron active sites to effect substrate oxidations that range from the hydroxylation of methane and the desaturation of fatty acids to the deformylation of fatty aldehydes to produce alkanes and the six-electron oxidation of aminoarenes to nitroarenes in the biosynthesis of antibiotics. A common feature of their reaction mechanisms is the formation of O2 adducts that evolve into more reactive derivatives such as diiron(II,III)-superoxo, diiron(III)-peroxo, diiron(III,IV)-oxo, and diiron(IV)-oxo species, which carry out particular substrate oxidation tasks. In this review, we survey the various enzymes belonging to this unique subset and the mechanisms by which substrate oxidation is carried out. We examine the nature of the reactive intermediates, as revealed by X-ray crystallography and the application of various spectroscopic methods and their associated reactivity. We also discuss the structural and electronic properties of the model complexes that have been found to mimic salient aspects of these enzyme active sites. Much has been learned in the past 25 years, but key questions remain to be answered.
Project description:In order to model the syn disposition of histidine residues in carboxylate-bridged non-heme diiron enzymes, we prepared a new dinucleating ligand, H(2)BPG(2)DEV, that provides this geometric feature. The ligand incorporates biologically relevant carboxylate functionalities, which have not been explored as extensively as nitrogen-only analogues. Three novel oxo-bridged diiron(III) complexes, [Fe(2)(mu-O)(H(2)O)(2)(BPG(2)DEV)](ClO(4))(2) (6), [Fe(2)(mu-O)(mu-O(2)CAr(iPrO))(BPG(2)DEV)](ClO(4)) (7), and [Fe(2)(mu-O)(mu-CO(3))(BPG(2)DEV)] (8), were prepared. Single-crystal X-ray structural characterization confirms that two pyridyl groups are bound syn with respect to the Fe-Fe vector in these compounds. The carbonato-bridged complex 8 forms quantitatively from 6 in a rapid reaction with gaseous CO(2) in organic solvents. A common maroon-colored intermediate (lambda(max) = 490 nm; epsilon = 1500 M(-1) cm(-1)) forms in reactions of 6, 7, or 8 with H(2)O(2) and NEt(3) in CH(3)CN/H(2)O solutions. Mass spectrometric analyses of this species, formed using (18)O-labeled H(2)O(2), indicate the presence of a peroxide ligand bound to the oxo-bridged diiron(III) center. The Mossbauer spectrum at 90 K of the EPR-silent intermediate exhibits a quadrupole doublet with delta = 0.58 mm/s and DeltaE(Q) = 0.58 mm/s. The isomer shift is typical for a peroxodiiron(III) species, but the quadrupole splitting parameter is unusually small compared to those of related complexes. These Mossbauer parameters are comparable to those observed for a peroxo intermediate formed in the reaction of reduced toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase hydroxylase with dioxygen. Resonance Raman studies reveal an unusually low-energy O-O stretching mode in the peroxo intermediate that is consistent with a short diiron distance. Although peroxodiiron(III) intermediates generated from 6, 7, and 8 are poor O-atom-transfer catalysts, they display highly efficient catalase activity, with turnover numbers up to 10,000. In contrast to hydrogen peroxide reactions of diiron(III) complexes that lack a dinucleating ligand, the intermediates generated here could be re-formed in significant quantities after a second addition of H(2)O(2), as observed spectroscopically and by mass spectrometry.
Project description:The iron(II) triflate complex (1) of 1,2-bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-6-yl)ethane, with two bipyridine moieties connected by an ethane bridge, was prepared. Addition of aqueous 30% H2O2 to an acetonitrile solution of 1 yielded 2, a green compound with ?max=710 nm. Moessbauer measurements on 2 showed a doublet with an isomer shift (?) of 0.35 mm/s and a quadrupole splitting (?EQ) of 0.86 mm/s, indicative of an antiferromagnetically coupled diferric complex. Resonance Raman spectra showed peaks at 883, 556 and 451 cm-1 that downshifted to 832, 540 and 441 cm-1 when 1 was treated with H218O2. All the spectroscopic data support the initial formation of a (?-hydroxo)(?-1,2-peroxo)diiron(III) complex that oxidizes carbon-hydrogen bonds. At 0°C 2 reacted with cyclohexene to yield allylic oxidation products but not epoxide. Weak benzylic C-H bonds of alkylarenes were also oxidized. A plot of the logarithms of the second order rate constants versus the bond dissociation energies of the cleaved C-H bond showed an excellent linear correlation. Along with the observation that oxidation of the probe substrate 2,2-dimethyl-1-phenylpropan-1-ol yielded the corresponding ketone but no benzaldehyde, and the kinetic isotope effect, kH/kD , of 2.8 found for the oxidation of xanthene, the results support the hypothesis for a metal-based H-atom abstraction mechanism. Complex 2 is a rare example of a (?-hydroxo)(?-1,2-peroxo)diiron(III) complex that can elicit the oxidation of carbon-hydrogen bonds.
Project description:A dinucleating macrocycle, H(2)PIM, containing phenoxylimine metal-binding units has been prepared. Reaction of H(2)PIM with [Fe(2)(Mes)(4)] (Mes = 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl) and sterically hindered carboxylic acids, Ph(3)CCO(2)H or Ar(Tol)CO(2)H (2,6-bis(p-tolyl)benzoic acid), afforded complexes [Fe(2)(PIM)(Ph(3)CCO(2))(2)] (1) and [Fe(2)(PIM)(Ar(Tol)CO(2))(2)] (2), respectively. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that these diiron(II) complexes closely mimic the active site structures of the hydroxylase components of bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases (BMMs), particularly the syn disposition of the nitrogen donor atoms and the bridging ?-?(1)?(2) and ?-?(1)?(1) modes of the carboxylate ligands at the diiron(II) centers. Cyclic voltammograms of 1 and 2 displayed quasi-reversible redox couples at +16 and +108 mV vs ferrocene/ferrocenium, respectively. Treatment of 2 with silver perchlorate afforded a silver(I)/iron(III) heterodimetallic complex, [Fe(2)(?-OH)(2)(ClO(4))(2)(PIM)(Ar(Tol)CO(2))Ag] (3), which was structurally and spectroscopically characterized. Complexes 1 and 2 both react rapidly with dioxygen. Oxygenation of 1 afforded a (?-hydroxo)diiron(III) complex [Fe(2)(?-OH)(PIM)(Ph(3)CCO(2))(3)] (4), a hexa(?-hydroxo)tetrairon(III) complex [Fe(4)(?-OH)(6)(PIM)(2)(Ph(3)CCO(2))(2)] (5), and an unidentified iron(III) species. Oxygenation of 2 exclusively formed di(carboxylato)diiron(III) compounds, a testimony to the role of the macrocylic ligand in preserving the dinuclear iron center under oxidizing conditions. X-ray crystallographic and (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic investigations indicated that 2 reacts with dioxygen to give a mixture of (?-oxo)diiron(III) [Fe(2)(?-O)(PIM)(Ar(Tol)CO(2))(2)] (6) and di(?-hydroxo)diiron(III) [Fe(2)(?-OH)(2)(PIM)(Ar(Tol)CO(2))(2)] (7) units in the same crystal lattice. Compounds 6 and 7 spontaneously convert to a tetrairon(III) complex, [Fe(4)(?-OH)(6)(PIM)(2)(Ar(Tol)CO(2))(2)] (8), when treated with excess H(2)O.