Desferrioxamine inhibits protein tyrosine nitration: mechanisms and implications.
ABSTRACT: Tissues are exposed to exogenous and endogenous nitrogen dioxide ((·)NO(2)), which is the terminal agent in protein tyrosine nitration. Besides iron chelation, the hydroxamic acid (HA) desferrioxamine (DFO) shows multiple functionalities including nitration inhibition. To investigate mechanisms whereby DFO affects 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) formation, we utilized gas-phase (·)NO(2) exposures, to limit introduction of other reactive species, and a lung surface model wherein red cell membranes (RCM) were immobilized under a defined aqueous film. When RCM were exposed to ()NO(2) covered by +/- DFO: (i) DFO inhibited 3-NT formation more effectively than other HA and non-HA chelators; (ii) 3-NT inhibition occurred at very low[DFO] for prolonged times; and (iii) 3-NT formation was iron independent but inhibition required DFO present. DFO poorly reacted with (·)NO(2) compared to ascorbate, assessed via (·)NO(2) reactive absorption and aqueous-phase oxidation rates, yet limited 3-NT formation at far lower concentrations. DFO also inhibited nitration under aqueous bulk-phase conditions, and inhibited 3-NT generated by active myeloperoxidase "bound" to RCM. Per the above and kinetic analyses suggesting preferential DFO versus (·)NO(2) reaction within membranes, we conclude that DFO inhibits 3-NT formation predominantly by facile repair of the tyrosyl radical intermediate, which prevents (·)NO(2) addition, and thus nitration, and potentially influences biochemical functionalities.
Project description:Approximately 6.3 million fractures occur in the U.S. annually, with 5-10% resulting in debilitating nonunions. A major limitation to achieving successful bony union is impaired neovascularization. To augment fracture healing, we designed an implantable drug delivery technology containing the angiogenic stimulant, deferoxamine (DFO). DFO activates new blood vessel formation through iron chelation and upregulation of the HIF-1α pathway. However, due to its short half-life and rapid clearance, maintaining DFO at the callus site during peak fracture angiogenesis has remained challenging. To overcome these limitations, we composed an implantable formulation of DFO conjugated to hyaluronic acid (HA). This compound immobilizes DFO within the fracture callus throughout the angiogenic window, making it a high-capacity iron sponge that amplifies blood vessel formation and prevents nonunions. We investigated implanted HA-DFO's capacity to facilitate fracture healing in the irradiated rat mandible, a model whereby nonunions routinely develop secondary to obliteration of vascularity. HA-DFO implantation significantly improved radiomorphometrics and metrics of biomechanical strength. In addition, HA-DFO treated mandibles exhibited a remarkable 91% bone union rate, representing a 3.5-fold improvement over non-treated/irradiated controls (20% bone union rate). Collectively, our work proposes a unique methodology for the targeted delivery of DFO to fracture sites in order to facilitate neovascularization. If these findings are successfully translated into clinical practice, millions of patients will benefit from the prevention of nonunions.
Project description:Whereas complex stereoregular cyclic architectures are commonplace in biomacromolecules, they remain rare in synthetic polymer chemistry, thus limiting the potential to develop synthetic mimics or advanced materials for biomedical applications. Herein we disclose the formation of a stereocontrolled 1,4-linked six-membered cyclopolyether prepared by ring-closing metathesis (RCM). Ru-mediated RCM, with careful control of the catalyst, concentration, and temperature, selectively affords the six-membered-ring cyclopolymer. Under optimized reaction conditions, no metathetical degradation, macrocycle formation, or cross-linking was observed. Post-polymerization modification by dihydroxylation afforded a novel polymer family encompassing a poly(ethylene glycol) backbone and sugar-like functionalities ("PEGose"). This strategy also paves the way for using RCM as an efficient method to synthesize other stereocontrolled cyclopolymers.
Project description:Protein 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) formation is frequently regarded as a simple biomarker of disease, an irreversible posttranslational modification that can disrupt protein structure and function. Nevertheless, evidence that protein 3-NT modifications may be site selective and reversible, thus allowing for physiological regulation of protein activity, has begun to emerge. We have previously reported that cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 undergoes heme-dependent nitration of Tyr(385), an internal and catalytically essential residue. In the present study, we demonstrate that nitrated COX-1 undergoes a rapid reversal of nitration by substrate-selective and biologically regulated denitrase activity. Using nitrated COX-1 as a substrate, denitrase activity was validated and quantified by analytic HPLC with electrochemical detection and determined to be constitutively active in murine and human endothelial cells, macrophages, and a variety of tissue samples. Smooth muscle cells, however, contained little denitrase activity. Further characterizing this denitrase activity, we found that it was inhibited by free 3-NT and may be enhanced by endogenous nitric oxide and exogenously administered carbon monoxide. Finally, we describe a purification protocol that results in significant enrichment of a discrete denitrase-containing fraction, which maintains activity throughout the purification process. These findings reveal that nitrated COX-1 is a substrate for a denitrase in cells and tissues, implying that the reciprocal processes of nitration and denitration may modulate bioactive lipid synthesis in the setting of inflammation. In addition, our data reveal that denitration is a controlled process that may have broad importance for regulating cell signaling events in nitric oxide-generating systems during oxidative/nitrosative stress.
Project description:The oncogenic transcription factor FOXM1 has been previously shown to play a critical role in carcinogenesis by inducing cellular proliferation in multiple cancer types. A small-molecule compound, Robert Costa Memorial drug-1 (RCM-1), has been recently identified from high-throughput screen as an inhibitor of FOXM1 in vitro and in mouse model of allergen-mediated lung inflammation. In the present study, we examined antitumor activities of RCM-1 using tumor models. Treatment with RCM-1 inhibited tumor cell proliferation as evidenced by increased cell-cycle duration. Confocal imaging of RCM-1-treated tumor cells indicated that delay in cellular proliferation was concordant with inhibition of FOXM1 nuclear localization in these cells. RCM-1 reduced the formation and growth of tumor cell colonies in the colony formation assay. In animal models, RCM-1 treatment inhibited growth of mouse rhabdomyosarcoma Rd76-9, melanoma B16-F10, and human H2122 lung adenocarcinoma. RCM-1 decreased FOXM1 protein in the tumors, reduced tumor cell proliferation, and increased tumor cell apoptosis. RCM-1 decreased protein levels and nuclear localization of ?-catenin, and inhibited protein-protein interaction between ?-catenin and FOXM1 in cultured tumor cells and in vivo Altogether, our study provides important evidence of antitumor potential of the small-molecule compound RCM-1, suggesting that RCM-1 can be a promising candidate for anticancer therapy.
Project description:As wear particles-induced osteolysis still remains the leading cause of early implant loosening in endoprosthetic surgery, and promotion of osteoclastogenesis by wear particles has been confirmed to be responsible for osteolysis. Therapeutic agents targeting osteoclasts formation are considered for the treatment of wear particles-induced osteolysis. In the present study, we demonstrated for the first time that desferrioxamine (DFO), a powerful iron chelator, could significantly alleviate osteolysis in an ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) particles-induced mice calvaria osteolysis model. Furthermore, DFO attenuated calvaria osteolysis by restraining enhanced inflammatory osteoclastogenesis induced by UHMWPE particles. Consistent with the in vivo results, we found DFO was also able to inhibit osteoclastogenesis in a dose-dependent manner in vitro, as evidenced by reduction of osteoclasts formation and suppression of osteoclast specific genes expression. In addition, DFO dampened osteoclasts differentiation and formation at early stage but not at late stage. Mechanistically, the reduction of osteoclastogenesis by DFO was due to increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, as decreased osteoclasts formation induced by DFO was significantly restored after HO-1 was silenced by siRNA, while HO-1 agonist COPP treatment enhanced DFO-induced osteoclastogenesis inhibition. In addition, blocking of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) signaling pathway promoted DFO-induced HO-1 expression, implicating that p38 signaling pathway was involved in DFO-mediated HO-1 expression. Taken together, our results suggested that DFO inhibited UHMWPE particles-induced osteolysis by restraining inflammatory osteoclastogenesis through upregulation of HO-1 via p38MAPK pathway. Thus, DFO might be used as an innovative and safe therapeutic alternative for treating wear particles-induced aseptic loosening.
Project description:The requirement of rice (Oryza sativa L.) for fertilizer can depend on crop and soil management practices, which can vary among fields within a rice-growing area. A web-based decision support tool named Rice Crop Manager (RCM) was developed previously to calculate field-specific rates of fertilizer N, P, and K for rice in Odisha State in eastern India. We compared field-specific nutrient management calculated by RCM with farmers' fertilizer practice (FFP) and a blanket fertilizer recommendation (BFR), which used a uniform 80 kg N ha-1, 17 kg P ha-1, and 33 kg K ha-1. A total of 209 field trials were conducted in two seasons (kharif and rabi) for two years across ten districts in six agro-climatic zones. Grain yield was consistently higher with fertilization recommended by RCM than with FFP. Higher yield with RCM was attributed to a combination of applying more of the total fertilizer N at the critical growth stage of panicle initiation, applying more fertilizer N in kharif, and applying zinc. The RCM recommendation frequently increased yield compared to BFR as a result of improved N management, which included the adjustment of N rate for a target yield set slightly higher than historical yield reported by a farmer. Fertilization based on RCM rather than BFR reduced the risk of financial loss. The effectiveness of an RCM recommendation relative to BFR and FFP was consistent across rice varieties with different growth duration, irrigated and rainfed rice, and three categories of soil clay content. The RCM recommendation failed to increase yield relative to BFR in one of the six agro-climatic zones, where a higher rate of fertilizer P and/or K was apparently required. The nutrient management calculations used by RCM can be improved as new information and research findings become available. Experiences with RCM in Odisha can help guide the development of comparable nutrient management decision tools in other rice-growing areas.
Project description:There is increasing evidence that sequence-specific formation of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) may cause functional changes in target proteins. Recently, the nitration of Tyr residues in glycogen phosphorylase b (Ph-b) was implicated in the age-associated decline of protein function [Sharov et al., Exp. Gerontol. 41 (2006) 407-416]; in another report, the nitration of one specific residue, Tyr613, located in the allosteric inhibition site was hypothesized as a rationale for peroxynitrite inactivation [Dairou et al., J. Mol. Biol. 372 (2007) 1009-1021]. In this study, we have optimized the analysis of in-gel Ph-b digests by high performance liquid chromatography-electro spray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry, in order to achieve a quantitative analysis of nitration of individual Tyr residues at a high coverage of Tyr-containing sequences (92%). Our data do not confirm the role of Tyr613 nitration in the control of enzymatic function. Furthermore, we show here that the enzymatic activity of Ph-b does not directly correlate with the protein nitration levels, and that the modification of Cys and, potentially, other amino acid residues can better rationalize Ph-b inactivation by peroxynitrite.
Project description:Protein tyrosine nitration by oxidative and nitrate stress is important in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory or aging-related diseases. Mass spectrometry analysis of protein nitrotyrosine is very challenging because the non-nitrated peptides suppress the signals of the low-abundance nitrotyrosine (NT) peptides. No validated methods for enrichment of NT-peptides are currently available. Here we report an immunoaffinity enrichment of NT-peptides for proteomics analysis. The effectiveness of this approach was evaluated using nitrated protein standards and whole-cell lysates in vitro. A total of 1881 NT sites were identified from a nitrated whole-cell extract, indicating that this immunoaffinity-MS method is a valid approach for the enrichment of NT-peptides, and provides a significant advance for characterizing the nitrotyrosine proteome. We noted that this method had higher affinity to peptides with N-terminal nitrotyrosine relative to peptides with other nitrotyrosine locations, which raises the need for future study to develop a pan-specific nitrotyrosine antibody for unbiased, proteome-wide analysis of tyrosine nitration. We applied this method to quantify the changes in protein tyrosine nitration in mouse lungs after intranasal poly(I:C) treatment and quantified 237 NT sites. This result indicates that the immunoaffinity-MS method can be used for quantitative analysis of protein nitrotyrosines in complex samples.
Project description:Exposure of Arabidopsis leaves to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) results in nitration of specific chloroplast proteins. To determine whether NO2 itself and/or nitrite derived from NO2 can nitrate proteins, Arabidopsis thylakoid membranes were isolated and treated with NO2-bubbled or potassium nitrite (KNO2) buffer, followed by protein extraction, electrophoresis, and immunoblotting using an anti-3-nitrotyrosine (NT) antibody. NO2 concentrations in the NO2-bubbled buffer were calculated by numerically solving NO2 dissociation kinetic equations. The two buffers were adjusted to have identical nitrite concentrations. Both treatments yielded an NT-immunopositive band that LC/MS identified as PSBO1. The difference in the band intensity between the 2 treatments was designated nitration by NO2. Both NO2 and nitrite mediated nitration of proteins, and the nitration ability per unit NO2 concentration was ?100-fold greater than that of nitrite.
Project description:Tyrosine nitration is a post-translational protein modification relevant to various pathophysiological processes. Chemical nitration procedures have been used to generate and study nitrated proteins, but these methods regularly lead to modifications at other amino acid residues. A novel strategy employs a genetic code modification that allows incorporation of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) during ribosomal protein synthesis to generate a recombinant protein with defined 3-NT-sites, in the absence of other post-translational modifications. This approach was applied to study the generation and stability of the 3-NT moiety in recombinant proteins produced in E.coli. Nitrated alpha-synuclein (ASYN) was selected as exemplary protein, relevant in Parkinson's disease (PD). A procedure was established to obtain pure tyrosine-modified ASYN in mg amounts. However, a rapid (t1/2 = 0.4 h) reduction of 3-NT to 3-aminotyrosine (3-AT) was observed. When screening for potential mechanisms, we found that 3-NT can be reduced enzymatically to 3-AT, whilst biologically relevant low molecular weight reductants, such as NADPH or GSH, did not affect 3-NT. A genetic screen for E.coli proteins, involved in the observed 3-NT reduction, revealed the contribution of several, possibly redundant pathways. Green fluorescent protein was studied as an alternative model protein. These data confirm 3-NT reduction as a broadly-relevant pathway in E.coli. In conclusion, incorporation of 3-NT as a genetically-encoded non-natural amino acid allows for generation of recombinant proteins with specific nitration sites. The potential reduction of the 3-NT moiety by E.coli, however, requires attention to the design of the purification strategy for obtaining pure nitrated protein.