CD8 lineage-specific regulation of interleukin-7 receptor expression by the transcriptional repressor Gfi1.
ABSTRACT: Interleukin-7 receptor ? (IL-7R?) is essential for T cell survival and differentiation. Glucocorticoids are potent enhancers of IL-7R? expression with diverse roles in T cell biology. Here we identify the transcriptional repressor, growth factor independent-1 (Gfi1), as a novel intermediary in glucocorticoid-induced IL-7R? up-regulation. We found Gfi1 to be a major inhibitory target of dexamethasone by microarray expression profiling of 3B4.15 T-hybridoma cells. Concordantly, retroviral transduction of Gfi1 significantly blunted IL-7R? up-regulation by dexamethasone. To further assess the role of Gfi1 in vivo, we generated bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice, in which a modified Il7r locus expresses GFP to report Il7r gene transcription. By introducing this BAC reporter transgene into either Gfi1-deficient or Gfi1-transgenic mice, we document in vivo that IL-7R? transcription is up-regulated in the absence of Gfi1 and down-regulated when Gfi1 is overexpressed. Strikingly, the in vivo regulatory role of Gfi1 was specific for CD8(+), and not CD4(+) T cells or immature thymocytes. These results identify Gfi1 as a specific transcriptional repressor of the Il7r gene in CD8 T lymphocytes in vivo.
Project description:Investigation of whole genome gene expression level changes in Mus musculus 3B4.15 T hybridoma cells treated with 1microMolar Dexamethasone compared to mock treated cells. Interleukin-7 receptor alpha (IL-7Rα) is essential for T cell survival and differentiation. Glucocorticoids are potent enhancers of IL-7Rα expression with diverse roles in T cell biology. Here we identify the transcriptional repressor, Growth factor independent-1 (Gfi1), as a novel intermediary in glucocorticoid-induced IL-7Rα upregulation. We found Gfi1 to be a major inhibitory target of dexamethasone by microarray expression profiling of 3B4.15 T-hybridoma cells. Concordantly, retroviral transduction of Gfi1 significantly blunted IL-7Rα upregulation by dexamethasone. To further assess the role of Gfi1 in vivo, we generated bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice, in which a modified Il7r locus expresses GFP to report Il7r gene transcription. By introducing this BAC reporter transgene into either Gfi1-deficient or Gfi1-transgenic mice, we document in vivo that IL-7Rα transcription is upregulated in the absence of Gfi1 and downregulated when Gfi1 is overexpressed. Strikingly, the in vivo regulatory role of Gfi1 was specific for CD8+, and not CD4+ T cells or immature thymocytes. These results identify Gfi1 as a specific transcriptional repressor of the Il7r gene in CD8 T lymphocytes in vivo. A six chip study using total RNA recovered from three separate flasks of mock treated 3B4.15 cells and three separate flasks of Dexamethasone treated 3B4.15 cells . Each chip measures the expression level of 44170 target genes
Project description:Protracted inhibition of osteoblast (OB) differentiation characterizes multiple myeloma (MM) bone disease and persists even when patients are in long-term remission. However, the underlying pathophysiology for this prolonged OB suppression is unknown. Therefore, we developed a mouse MM model in which the bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) remained unresponsive to OB differentiation signals after removal of MM cells. We found that BMSCs from both MM-bearing mice and MM patients had increased levels of the transcriptional repressor Gfi1 compared with controls and that Gfi1 was a novel transcriptional repressor of the critical OB transcription factor Runx2. Trichostatin-A blocked the effects of Gfi1, suggesting that it induces epigenetic changes in the Runx2 promoter. MM-BMSC cell-cell contact was not required for MM cells to increase Gfi1 and repress Runx2 levels in MC-4 before OBs or naive primary BMSCs, and Gfi1 induction was blocked by anti-TNF-? and anti-IL-7 antibodies. Importantly, BMSCs isolated from Gfi1(-/-) mice were significantly resistant to MM-induced OB suppression. Strikingly, siRNA knockdown of Gfi1 in BMSCs from MM patients significantly restored expression of Runx2 and OB differentiation markers. Thus, Gfi1 may have an important role in prolonged MM-induced OB suppression and provide a new therapeutic target for MM bone disease.
Project description:Interleukin 7 (IL-7) and its receptor, formed by IL-7R? (encoded by IL7R) and ?c, are essential for normal T-cell development and homeostasis. Here we show that IL7R is an oncogene mutated in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). We find that 9% of individuals with T-ALL have somatic gain-of-function IL7R exon 6 mutations. In most cases, these IL7R mutations introduce an unpaired cysteine in the extracellular juxtamembrane-transmembrane region and promote de novo formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds between mutant IL-7R? subunits, thereby driving constitutive signaling via JAK1 and independently of IL-7, ?c or JAK3. IL7R mutations induce a gene expression profile partially resembling that provoked by IL-7 and are enriched in the T-ALL subgroup comprising TLX3 rearranged and HOXA deregulated cases. Notably, IL7R mutations promote cell transformation and tumor formation. Overall, our findings indicate that IL7R mutational activation is involved in human T-cell leukemogenesis, paving the way for therapeutic targeting of IL-7R-mediated signaling in T-ALL.
Project description:The GFI1 gene encodes a transcriptional repressor, which regulates myeloid differentiation. In the mouse, Gfi1 deficiency causes neutropenia and an accumulation of granulomonocytic precursor cells that is reminiscent of a myelodysplastic syndrome. We report here that a variant allele of GFI1 (GFI1(36N)) is associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in white subjects with an odds ratio of 1.6 (P < 8 x 10(-5)). The GFI1(36N) variant occurred in 1806 AML patients with an allele frequency of 0.055 compared with 0.035 in 1691 healthy control patients in 2 independent cohorts. We observed that both GFI1 variants maintain the same activity as transcriptional repressors but differ in their regulation by the AML1/ETO (RUNX1/RUNX1T1) fusion protein produced in AML patients with a t(8;21) translocation. AML1/ETO interacts and colocalizes with the more common GFI1(36S) form in the nucleus and inhibits its repressor activity. However, the variant GFI1(36N) protein has a different subnuclear localization than GFI1(36S). As a consequence, AML1/ETO does not colocalize with GFI1(36N) and is unable to inhibit its repressor activity. We conclude that both variants of GFI1 differ in their ability to be regulated by interacting proteins and that the GFI1(36N) variant form exhibits distinct biochemical features that may confer a predisposition to AML.
Project description:Gfi1 is a transcriptional repressor essential for haematopoiesis and inner ear development. It shares with its paralogue Gfi1b an amino-terminal SNAG repressor domain and six carboxy-terminal zinc-finger motifs, but differs from Gfi1b in sequences separating these domains. Here, we describe two knock-in mouse models, in which the N-terminal SNAG repressor domain was mutated or in which the Gfi1 coding region was replaced by Gfi1b. Mouse mutants without an intact SNAG domain show the full phenotype of Gfi1 null mice. However, Gfi1:Gfi1b knock-in mice show almost normal pre-T-cell and neutrophil development, but lack properly formed inner ear hair cells. Hence, our findings show that an intact SNAG domain is essential for all functions of Gfi1 and that Gfi1b can replace Gfi1 functionally in haematopoiesis but, surprisingly, not in inner ear hair cell development, demonstrating that Gfi1 and Gfi1b have equivalent and domain-dependent, cell type-specific functions.
Project description:Interleukin-7 receptor ? chain (IL-7R?) is induced upon T cell positive selection and controls thymic CD8-lineage specification and peripheral naive T cell homeostasis. How IL-7R? expression is regulated in developing thymocytes is unclear. Here, we show that transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) signaling promoted IL-7R? expression and CD8+ T cell differentiation. In addition, TGF-? signaling was required for high IL-7R? expression in CD4+ T cells bearing low-affinity T cell receptors, and the abrogation of TGF-? receptor expression led to failed maintenance of peripheral CD4+ T cells. Compromised IL-7R? expression in TGF-?-receptor-deficient T cells was associated with increased expression of the Il7ra transcriptional repressor, Gfi-1. IL-7R? transgenesis or T-cell-specific ablation of Gfi-1 restored IL-7R? expression and largely ameliorated the development and homeostasis defects of TGF-?-receptor-deficient T cells. These findings reveal functions for TGF-? signaling in controlling IL-7R? expression and in promoting T cell repertoire diversification.
Project description:The transcriptional repressor Gfi1 regulates the expression of genes important for survival, proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. Gfi1 deficient mice are severely neutropenic and accumulate ill-defined CD11b(+)GR1(int) myeloid cells. Here we show that Gfi1 expression levels determine mono- or granulocytic lineage choice in precursor cells. In addition, we identify CD48 as a cell surface marker which enables a better definition of monocytes and granulocytes in mouse bone marrow. Using the CD48/Gr1/Gfi1 marker combination we can show that the CD11b(+)GR1(int) cells accumulating in Gfi1 deficient mice are monocytes and not granulocyte precursors. Expression of CD48, Gr1 and Gfi1 define different bone marrow subpopulations that are either committed to the granulocytic lineage, or bipotential precursors of granulocytes or monocytes. Finally, a comparison of genes differentially expressed between murine Gfi1 high granulocytic precursors and mature granulocytes with gene expression changes from human myeloblasts versus neutrophils show a strong resemblance of human and mouse differentiation pathways. This underlines the value of the markers CD48 and Gfi1 identified here to study human and murine granulo-monocytic differentiation.
Project description:Foxp3(+) regulatory T (T(reg)) cells are essential for the maintenance of self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. The majority of T(reg) cells is generated in the thymus as a specific subset of CD4(+) T cells, known as thymus-derived or natural T(reg) (nT(reg)) cells, in response to signals from T-cell receptors, costimulatory molecules, and cytokines. Recent studies have identified intracellular signaling and transcriptional pathways that link these signals to Foxp3 induction, but how the production of these extrinsic factors is controlled remains poorly understood. Here, we report that the transcription repressor growth factor independent 1 (Gfi1) has a key inhibitory role in the generation of nT(reg) cells by a noncell-autonomous mechanism. T cell-specific deletion of Gfi1 results in aberrant expansion of thymic nT(reg) cells and increased production of cytokines. In particular, IL-2 overproduction plays an important role in driving the expansion of nT(reg) cells. In contrast, although Gfi1 deficiency elevated thymocyte apoptosis, Gfi1 repressed nT(reg) generation independently of its prosurvival effect. Consistent with an inhibitory role of Gfi1 in this process, loss of Gfi1 dampens antitumor immunity. These data point to a previously unrecognized extrinsic control mechanism that negatively shapes thymic generation of nT(reg) cells.
Project description:GFI1 is a transcriptional repressor that plays a critical role in hematopoiesis and has also been implicated in lymphomagenesis. It is still poorly understood how GFI1 expression is regulated in the hematopoietic system. We show here that GFI1 transcription was repressed by the tumor suppressor p53 in hematopoietic cells. Knockdown of p53 resulted in increased GFI1 expression and abolished DNA damage-induced GFI1 downregulation. In contrast, GFI1 expression was reduced and its downregulation in response to DNA damage was rescued upon restoration of p53 function in p53-deficient cells. In luciferase reporter assays, wild type p53, but not a DNA binding-defective p53 mutant, repressed the GFI1 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrated that p53 bound to the proximal region of the GFI1 promoter. Detailed mapping of the GFI1 promoter indicated that GFI1 core promoter region spanning from -33 to +6 bp is sufficient for p53-mediated repression. This core promoter region contains a putative p53 repressive response element, mutation of which abolished p53 binding to and repression of GFI1 promoter. Significantly, apoptosis induced by DNA damage was inhibited upon Gfi1 overexpression, but augmented following GFI1 knockdown. Our data establish for the first time that GFI1 is repressed by p53 and add to our understanding of the roles of GFI1 in normal hematopoiesis and lymphomagenesis.
Project description:The zinc finger protein growth factor independent-1 (Gfi1) is a transcriptional repressor that is critically required for normal granulocytic differentiation. GFI1 loss-of-function mutations are found in some patients with severe congenital neutropenia (SCN). The SCN-associated GFI1-mutant proteins act as dominant negatives to block granulopoiesis through selective deregulation of a subset of GFI1 target genes. Here we show that Gfi1 is a master regulator of microRNAs, and that deregulated expression of these microRNAs recapitulates a Gfi1 loss-of-function block to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-stimulated granulopoiesis. Specifically, bone marrow cells from a GFI1-mutant SCN patient and Gfi1(-/-) mice display deregulated expression of miR-21 and miR-196B expression. Flow cytometric analysis and colony assays reveal that the overexpression or depletion of either miR induces changes in myeloid development. However, coexpression of miR-21 and miR-196b (as seen in Gfi1(-/-) mice and a GFI1N382S SCN patient) completely blocks G-CSF-induced granulopoiesis. Thus, our results not only identify microRNAs whose regulation is required during myelopoiesis, but also provide an example of synergy in microRNA biologic activity and illustrate potential mechanisms underlying SCN disease pathogenesis.