High-efficiency transduction of rhesus hematopoietic repopulating cells by a modified HIV1-based lentiviral vector.
ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV1) vectors poorly transduce rhesus hematopoietic cells due to species-specific restriction factors, including the tripartite motif-containing 5 isoform? (TRIM5?) which targets the HIV1 capsid. We previously developed a chimeric HIV1 (?HIV) vector system wherein the vector genome is packaged with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) capsid for efficient transduction of both rhesus and human CD34(+) cells. To evaluate whether ?HIV vectors could efficiently transduce rhesus hematopoietic repopulating cells, we performed a competitive repopulation assay in rhesus macaques, in which half of the CD34(+) cells were transduced with standard SIV vectors and the other half with ?HIV vectors. As compared with SIV vectors, ?HIV vectors achieved higher vector integration, and the transgene expression rates were two- to threefold higher in granulocytes and red blood cells and equivalent in lymphocytes and platelets for 2 years. A recipient of ?HIV vector-only transduced cells reached up to 40% of transgene expression rates in granulocytes and lymphocytes and 20% in red blood cells. Similar to HIV1 and SIV vectors, ?HIV vector frequently integrated into gene regions, especially into introns. In summary, our ?HIV vector demonstrated efficient transduction for rhesus long-term repopulating cells, comparable with SIV vectors. This ?HIV vector should allow preclinical testing of HIV1-based therapeutic vectors in large animal models.
Project description:Innate immune factors, such as TRIM5? and cyclophilin A (CypA), act as a major restriction factor of retroviral infection among species. When HIV1 infects human cells, HIV1 capsid binds to human CypA to escape from human TRIM5? restriction. However, in rhesus cells, the mismatch between HIV1 capsid and rhesus CypA is recognized by rhesus TRIM5? to reduce HIV1 infectivity through proteasomal degradation. To circumvent this block, we previously developed a chimeric HIV1 vector (?HIV) that substituted HIV1 capsid with SIV capsid, and it significantly increased transduction efficiency for nonhuman primate cells. In this study, we evaluated whether the ?HIV vector efficiently transduces human cells, and the transduction efficiency might increase by a CypA inhibitor (cyclosporine) and a proteasome inhibitor (MG132). The ?HIV vector could transduce human CD34? cells, as efficiently as the HIV1 vector, in vitro and in xenograft mice, even in the mismatch between SIV capsid and human CypA. Cyclosporine decreased transduction efficiency with the HIV1 vector, whereas it slightly increased transduction efficiency with the ?HIV vector in human CD34? cells. MG132 increased transduction efficiency with both ?HIV and HIV1 vectors in the same manner. However, MG132 was toxic to human CD34? cells at high concentrations, and both drugs had a small range of effective dosage. These findings demonstrate that both ?HIV and HIV1 vectors have similar transduction efficiency for human hematopoietic repopulating cells, suggesting that the ?HIV vector escapes from TRIM5? restriction, which is independent of human CypA.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vectors transduce rhesus blood cells poorly due to a species-specific block by TRIM5alpha and APOBEC3G, which target HIV-1 capsid and viral infectivity factor (Vif), respectively. We sought to develop a lentiviral vector capable of transducing both human and rhesus blood cells by combining components of both HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), including SIV capsid (sCA) and SIV Vif. A chimeric HIV-1 vector including sCA (chiHIV) was superior to the conventional SIV in transducing a human blood cell line and superior to the conventional HIV-1 vector in transducing a rhesus blood cell line. Among human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), the chiHIV and HIV-1 vectors showed similar transduction efficiencies; in rhesus CD34(+) HSCs, the chiHIV vector yielded superior transduction rates. In in vivo competitive repopulation experiments with two rhesus macaques, the chiHIV vector demonstrated superior marking levels over the conventional HIV-1 vector in all blood lineages (first rhesus, 15 to 30% versus 1 to 5%; second rhesus, 7 to 15% versus 0.5 to 2%, respectively) 3 to 7 months postinfusion. In summary, we have developed an HIV-1-based lentiviral vector system that should allow comprehensive preclinical testing of HIV-1-based therapeutic vectors in the rhesus macaque model with eventual clinical application.
Project description:We previously reported that lentiviral vectors derived from the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) were efficient at transducing rhesus hematopoietic repopulating cells. To evaluate the persistence of vector-containing and -expressing cells long term, and the safety implications of SIV lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer, we followed 3 rhesus macaques for more than 4 years after transplantation with transduced CD34+ cells. All 3 animals demonstrated significant vector marking and expression of the GFP transgene in T cells, B cells, and granulocytes, with mean GFP+ levels of 6.7% (range, 3.3%-13.0%), 7.4% (4.2%-13.4%), and 5.6% (3.1%-10.5%), respectively. There was no vector silencing in hematopoietic cells over time. Vector insertion site analysis of granulocytes demonstrated sustained highly polyclonal reconstitution, with no evidence for progression to oligoclonality. A significant number of clones were found to contribute at both 1-year and 3- or 4-year time points. No vector integrations were detected in the MDS1/EVI1 region, in contrast to our previous findings with a gamma-retroviral vector. These data show that lentiviral vectors can mediate stable and efficient long-term expression in the progeny of transduced hematopoietic stem cells, with an integration profile that may be safer than that of standard Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV)-derived retroviral vectors.
Project description:Lentiviral vectors are attractive for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy because they do not require mitosis for nuclear entry, they efficiently transduce hematopoietic repopulating cells, and self-inactivating (SIN) designs can be produced at high titer. Experiments to evaluate HIV-derived lentiviral vectors in nonhuman primates prior to clinical trials have been hampered by low transduction frequencies due in part to host restriction by TRIM5alpha. We have established conditions for efficient transduction of pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) long-term repopulating cells using VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV-based lentiviral vectors. Stable, long-term, high-level gene marking was observed in 3 macaques using relatively low MOIs (5-10) in a 48-hour ex vivo transduction protocol. All animals studied had rapid neutrophil engraftment with a median of 10.3 days to a count greater than 0.5 x 10(9)/L (500/microL). Expression was detected in all lineages, with long-term marking levels in granulocytes at approximately 20% to 30%, and in lymphocytes at approximately 12% to 23%. All animals had polyclonal engraftment as determined by analysis of vector integration sites. These data suggest that lentiviral vectors should be highly effective for HSC gene therapy, particularly for diseases in which maintaining the engraftment potential of stem cells using short-term ex vivo transduction protocols is critical.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vectors can transduce human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), but transduction efficiency varies among individuals. The innate immune factor tripartite motif-containing protein 5? (TRIM5?) plays an important role for restriction of retroviral infection. In this study, we examined whether TRIM5? could account for variations in transduction efficiency using both an established rhesus gene therapy model and human CD34(+) cell culture. Evaluation of TRIM5? genotypes (Mamu-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, and TrimCyp) in 16 rhesus macaques that were transplanted with transduced CD34(+) cells showed a significant correlation between TRIM5? Mamu-4 and high gene marking in both lymphocytes and granulocytes 6 months after transplantation. Since significant human TRIM5? coding polymorphisms were not known, we evaluated TRIM5? expression levels in human CD34(+) cells from 14 donors. Three days after HIV-1 vector transduction, measured transduction efficiency varied significantly among donors and was negatively correlated with TRIM5? expression levels. In summary, transduction efficiency in both rhesus and human CD34(+) cells was influenced by TRIM5? variations (genotypes and expression levels). Our findings are important for both understanding and mitigating the variability of transduction efficiency for rhesus and human CD34(+) cells.
Project description:Heterologous lentiviral vectors (LVs) represent a way to address safety concerns in the field of gene therapy by decreasing the possibility of genetic recombination between vector and packaging constructs and the generation of replication-competent viruses. Using described LVs based on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus MAC251 (SIV(MAC251)), we asked whether heterologous virion particles in which trans-acting factors belonged to HIV-1 and cis elements belonged to SIV(MAC251) (HIV-siv) would behave as parental homologous vectors in all cell types. To our surprise, we found that although the heterologous HIV-siv vector was as infectious as its homologous counterpart in most human cells, it was defective in the transduction of dendritic cells (DCs) and, to a lesser extent, macrophages. In DCs, the main postentry defect was observed in the formation of two-long-terminal-repeat circles, despite the fact that full-length proviral DNA was being synthesized and was associated with the nucleus. Taken together, our data suggest that heterologous HIV-siv vectors display a cell-dependent infectivity defect, most probably at a post-nuclear entry migration step. As homologous HIV and SIV vectors do transduce DCs, we believe that these results underscore the importance of a conserved interaction between cis elements and trans-acting viral factors that is lost or suboptimal in heterologous vectors and essential only in the transduction of certain cell types. For gene therapy purposes, these findings indicate that the cellular tropism of LVs can be modulated not only through the use of distinct envelope proteins or tissue-specific promoters but also through the specific combinatorial use of packaging and transfer vector constructs.
Project description:The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-causing lentiviruses human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) effectively evade host immunity and, once established, infections with these viruses are only rarely controlled by immunological mechanisms. However, the initial establishment of infection in the first few days after mucosal exposure, before viral dissemination and massive replication, may be more vulnerable to immune control. Here we report that SIV vaccines that include rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) vectors establish indefinitely persistent, high-frequency, SIV-specific effector memory T-cell (T(EM)) responses at potential sites of SIV replication in rhesus macaques and stringently control highly pathogenic SIV(MAC239) infection early after mucosal challenge. Thirteen of twenty-four rhesus macaques receiving either RhCMV vectors alone or RhCMV vectors followed by adenovirus 5 (Ad5) vectors (versus 0 of 9 DNA/Ad5-vaccinated rhesus macaques) manifested early complete control of SIV (undetectable plasma virus), and in twelve of these thirteen animals we observed long-term (?1 year) protection. This was characterized by: occasional blips of plasma viraemia that ultimately waned; predominantly undetectable cell-associated viral load in blood and lymph node mononuclear cells; no depletion of effector-site CD4(+) memory T cells; no induction or boosting of SIV Env-specific antibodies; and induction and then loss of T-cell responses to an SIV protein (Vif) not included in the RhCMV vectors. Protection correlated with the magnitude of the peak SIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses in the vaccine phase, and occurred without anamnestic T-cell responses. Remarkably, long-term RhCMV vector-associated SIV control was insensitive to either CD8(+) or CD4(+) lymphocyte depletion and, at necropsy, cell-associated SIV was only occasionally measurable at the limit of detection with ultrasensitive assays, observations that indicate the possibility of eventual viral clearance. Thus, persistent vectors such as CMV and their associated T(EM) responses might significantly contribute to an efficacious HIV/AIDS vaccine.
Project description:Lentivirus-derived vectors are very promising gene delivery systems since they are able to transduce nonproliferating differentiated cells, while murine leukemia virus-based vectors can only transduce cycling cells. Here we report the construction and characterization of highly efficient minimal vectors derived from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac251). High-fidelity PCR amplification of DNA fragments was used to generate a minimal SIV vector formed from a 5' cytomegalovirus early promoter, the 5' viral sequences up to the 5' end of gag required for reverse transcription and packaging, the Rev-responsive element, a gene-expressing cassette, and the 3' long terminal repeat (LTR). Production of SIV vector particles was achieved by transfecting 293T cells with the vector DNA and helper constructs coding for the viral genes and the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G envelope. These SIV vectors were found to have transducing titers reaching 10(7) transducing units/ml on HeLa cells and to deliver a gene without transfer of helper functions to target cells. The central polypurine tract can be included in the minimal vector, resulting in a two- to threefold increase in the transduction titers on dividing or growth-arrested cells. Based on this minimal SIV vector, a sin vector was designed by deleting 151 nucleotides in the 3' LTR U3 region, and this SIV sin vector retained high transduction titers. Furthermore, the minimal SIV vector was efficient at transducing terminally differentiated human CD34(+) cell-derived or monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). Results show that up to 40% of human primary DCs can be transduced by the SIV vectors. This opens a new perspective in the field of immunotherapy.
Project description:Foamy virus (FV) vectors are promising tools for gene therapy, but low titer is a major challenge for large-scale clinical trials. Here, we increased FV vector titer 50-fold by constructing novel vector plasmids and using polyethylenimine-mediated transfection. FV and lentiviral (LV) vectors were used separately to transduce human CD34(+) cells at multiplicities of infection of 25, and those cells were transplanted into immunodeficient mice. FV vector transduction frequencies of repopulating human cells were 37.1?±?1.9% in unstimulated cells and 36.9?±?2.2% in prestimulated cells, and engraftment frequencies were 40.9?±?4.9% in unstimulated cells and 47.1?±?3.3% in prestimulated cells. Engraftment frequencies of FV vector-transduced cells were significantly higher than those of LV vector-transduced cells. Linear amplification-mediated PCR with Illumina paired-end runs showed that all human chromosomes contained FV provirus. FV had an integration preference near transcriptional start sites and CpG islands of RefSeq genes but not within genes. Repopulating lymphoid and myeloid cells contained common integration sites, suggesting that FV vector could transduce multilineage hematopoietic stem/progenitor populations. Our new FV vector backbone may be a suitable candidate for developing therapeutic FV vectors for use in clinical trials.
Project description:Murine leukemia virus (MLV)-derived vectors are widely used for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene transfer, but lentiviral vectors such as the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) may allow higher efficiency transfer and better expression. Recent studies in cell lines have challenged the notion that retroviruses and retroviral vectors integrate randomly into their host genome. Medical applications using these vectors are aimed at HSCs, and thus large-scale comprehensive analysis of MLV and SIV integration in long-term repopulating HSCs is crucial to help develop improved integrating vectors. We studied integration sites in HSCs of rhesus monkeys that had been transplanted 6 mo to 6 y prior with MLV- or SIV-transduced CD34(+)cells. Unique MLV (491) and SIV (501) insertions were compared to a set of in silico-generated random integration sites. While MLV integrants were located predominantly around transcription start sites, SIV integrants strongly favored transcription units and gene-dense regions of the genome. These integration patterns suggest different mechanisms for integration as well as distinct safety implications for MLV versus SIV vectors.