Probiotic supplementation affects markers of intestinal barrier, oxidation, and inflammation in trained men; a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Probiotics are an upcoming group of nutraceuticals claiming positive effects on athlete's gut health, redox biology and immunity but there is lack of evidence to support these statements. METHODS:We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial to observe effects of probiotic supplementation on markers of intestinal barrier, oxidation and inflammation, at rest and after intense exercise. 23 trained men received multi-species probiotics (1010 CFU/day, Ecologic®Performance or OMNi-BiOTiC®POWER, n?=?11) or placebo (n?=?12) for 14?weeks and performed an intense cycle ergometry over 90 minutes at baseline and after 14?weeks. Zonulin and ?1-antitrypsin were measured from feces to estimate gut leakage at baseline and at the end of treatment. Venous blood was collected at baseline and after 14?weeks, before and immediately post exercise, to determine carbonyl proteins (CP), malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidation status of lipids (TOS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Statistical analysis used multifactorial analysis of variance (ANOVA). Level of significance was set at p??0.1). CP increased significantly from pre to post exercise in both groups at baseline and in the placebo group after 14?weeks of treatment (p?=?0.006). After 14?weeks, CP concentrations were tendentially lower with probiotics (p?=?0.061). TOS was slightly increased above normal in both groups, at baseline and after 14?weeks of treatment. There was no effect of supplementation or exercise on TOS. At baseline, both groups showed considerably higher TNF-? concentrations than normal. After 14?weeks TNF-? was tendentially lower in the supplemented group (p?=?0.054). IL-6 increased significantly from pre to post exercise in both groups (p?=?0.001), but supplementation had no effect. MDA was not influenced, neither by supplementation nor by exercise. CONCLUSIONS:The probiotic treatment decreased Zonulin in feces, a marker indicating enhanced gut permeability. Moreover, probiotic supplementation beneficially affected TNF-? and exercise induced protein oxidation. These results demonstrate promising benefits for probiotic use in trained men. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY:http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, identifier: NCT01474629.
Project description:We investigated microbiota changes following surgical colon cancer resection and evaluate effects of probiotics on microbiota and surgical recovery. This randomized double-blind trial was performed at four medical centers in South Korea. Of 68 patients expected to undergo anterior sigmoid colon cancer resection, 60 were eligible, of whom 29 and 31 received probiotics and placebo, respectively, for four weeks, starting at one week preoperatively. Third- and/or fourth-week information on anterior resection syndrome (ARS), inflammatory markers, and quality of life was obtained. Stool sample analysis was conducted after randomization and bowel preparation and at three and four postoperative weeks. Bacteria were categorized into Set I (with probiotic effects) and II (colon cancer-associated). The probiotic group's ARS score showed an improving trend (p = 0.063), particularly for flatus control (p = 0.030). Serum zonulin levels significantly decreased with probiotics. Probiotic ingestion resulted in compositional changes in gut microbiota; greater increases and decreases in Set I and II bacteria, respectively, occurred with probiotics. Compositional increase in Set I bacteria was associated with reduced white blood cells, neutrophils, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, and zonulin. Bifidobacterium composition was negatively correlated with zonulin levels in the probiotic group. Probiotics improved postoperative flatus control and modified postoperative changes in microbiota and inflammatory markers.
Project description:Zeolites are crystalline compounds with microporous structures of Si-tetrahedrons. In the gut, these silicates could act as adsorbents, ion-exchangers, catalysts, detergents or anti-diarrheic agents. This study evaluated whether zeolite supplementation affects biomarkers of intestinal wall permeability and parameters of oxidation and inflammation in aerobically trained individuals, and whether it could improve their performance.In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial, 52 endurance trained men and women, similar in body fat, non-smokers, 20-50 years, received 1.85 g of zeolite per day for 12 weeks. Stool samples for determination of intestinal wall integrity biomarkers were collected. From blood, markers of redox biology, inflammation, and DNA damage were determined at the beginning and the end of the study. In addition, VO2max and maximum performance were evaluated at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. For statistical analyses a 2-factor ANOVA was used.At baseline both groups showed slightly increased stool zonulin concentrations above normal. After 12 weeks with zeolite zonulin was significantly (p?<?0.05) decreased in the supplemented group. IL-10 increased tendentially (p?<?0.1) in the zeolite group. There were no significant changes observed in the other measured parameters.Twelve weeks of zeolite supplementation exerted beneficial effects on intestinal wall integrity as indicated via decreased concentrations of the tight junction modulator zonulin. This was accompanied by mild anti-inflammatory effects in this cohort of aerobically trained subjects. Further research is needed to explore mechanistic explanations for the observations in this study.
Project description:Probiotics have immunomodulatory effects. However, little is known about the potential benefit of probiotics on the inflammation subsequent to strenuous exercise. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover design separated by a 21-day washout, 15 healthy resistance-trained men ingested an encapsulated probiotic Streptococcus (S.) thermophilus FP4 and Bifidobacterium (B.) breve BR03 at 5 bn live cells (AFU) concentration each, or a placebo, daily for 3 weeks prior to muscle-damaging exercise (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02520583). Isometric strength, muscle soreness, range of motion and girth, and blood interleukin-6 (IL-6) and creatine kinase (CK) concentrations were measured from pre- to 72 h post-exercise. Statistical analysis was via mixed models and magnitude-based inference to the standardized difference. Probiotic supplementation resulted in an overall decrease in circulating IL-6, which was sustained to 48 h post-exercise. In addition, probiotic supplementation likely enhanced isometric average peak torque production at 24 to 72 h into the recovery period following exercise (probiotic-placebo point effect ±90% CI: 24 h, 11% ± 7%; 48 h, 12% ± 18%; 72 h, 8% ± 8%). Probiotics also likely moderately increased resting arm angle at 24 h (2.4% ± 2.0%) and 48 h (1.9% ± 1.9%) following exercise, but effects on soreness and flexed arm angle and CK were unclear. These data suggest that dietary supplementation with probiotic strains S. thermophilus FP4 and B. breve BR03 attenuates performance decrements and muscle tension in the days following muscle-damaging exercise.
Project description:Competitive football players who undergo strenuous training and frequent competitions are more vulnerable to psychological disorders. Probiotics are capable of reducing these psychological disorders. The present study aimed to determine the effect of daily probiotics supplementation on anxiety induced physiological parameters among competitive football players. The randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 20 male footballers who received either probiotics (Lactobacillus Casei Shirota strain 3 × 1010 colony forming units (CFU) or a placebo drink over eight weeks. Portable biofeedback devices were used to measure the electroencephalography, heart rate, and electrodermal responses along with cognitive tests at the baseline, week 4, and week 8. Data were statistically analyzed using mixed factorial ANOVA and results revealed that there is no significant difference between the probiotic and placebo groups for heart rate (61.90 bpm ± 5.84 vs. 67.67 bpm ± 8.42, p = 0.09) and electrodermal responses (0.27 µS ± 0.19 vs. 0.41 µS ± 0.12, p = 0.07) after eight weeks. Similarly, brain waves showed no significant changes during the study period except for the theta wave and delta wave at week 4 (p < 0.05). The cognitive test reaction time (digit vigilance test) showed significant improvement in the probiotic group compared to the placebo (p < 0.05). In conclusion, these findings suggest that daily probiotics supplementation may have the potential to modulate the brain waves namely, theta (relaxation) and delta (attention) for better training, brain function, and psychological improvement to exercise. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanism of current findings.
Project description:Dysregulation of gut microbiota and intestinal barrier function has emerged as potential mechanisms underlying digestive diseases, yet targeted therapies are lacking The purpose of this investigation was to assess the efficacy of UCC118, a characterized probiotic strain, on exercise-induced GI permeability in healthy humans. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, seven healthy adults received 4 weeks of daily UCC118 or placebo supplementation. GI hyperpermeability was induced by strenuous treadmill running performed before and after each supplementation period. While running, participants ingested 5 g of lactulose, rhamnose, and sucrose. Urine was collected before, immediately after, and every hour for 5 h after exercise to assess GI permeability. Metagenomic sequencing was performed on fecal homogenates collected prior to exercise to identify changes in microbial diversity and taxon abundances. Inflammatory biomarkers were assessed from blood and fecal homogenates collected prior to and immediately following the cessation of exercise. Exercise significantly induced intestinal permeability of lactulose, rhamnose, and sucrose (P < 0.001). UCC118 significantly reduced sucrose (? = -0.38 ± 0.13 vs. 1.69 ± 0.79; P < 0.05) recovery, with no substantial change in lactulose (? = -0.07 ± 0.23 vs. 0.35 ± 0.15; P = 0.16) or rhamnose (? = -0.06 ± 0.22 vs. 0.48 ± 0.28; P = 0.22). Taxonomic sequencing revealed 99 differentially regulated bacteria spanning 6 taxonomic ranks (P < 0.05) after UCC118 supplementation. No differences in plasma IL-6 or fecal zonulin were observed after UCC118 supplementation. The results described herein provide proof of principle that 4 weeks of UCC118 supplementation attenuated exercise-induced intestinal hyperpermeability. Further research is warranted to investigate the as-yet-to-be defined molecular processes of intestinal hyperpermeability and the effects of probiotic supplementation.
Project description:Prolonged intense exercise has been associated with transient suppression of immune function and an increased risk of infections. In this context, the catabolism of amino acid tryptophan via kynurenine may play an important role. The present study examined the effect of a probiotic supplement on the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and the metabolism of aromatic amino acids after exhaustive aerobic exercise in trained athletes during three months of winter training.Thirty-three highly trained individuals were randomly assigned to probiotic (PRO, n = 17) or placebo (PLA, n = 16) groups using double blind procedures, receiving either 1 × 1010 colony forming units (CFU) of a multi-species probiotic (Bifidobacterium bifidum W23, Bifidobacterium lactis W51, Enterococcus faecium W54, Lactobacillus acidophilus W22, Lactobacillus brevis W63, and Lactococcus lactis W58) or placebo once per day for 12 weeks. The serum concentrations of tryptophan, phenylalanine and their primary catabolites kynurenine and tyrosine, as well as the concentration of the immune activation marker neopterin were determined at baseline and after 12 weeks, both at rest and immediately after exercise. Participants completed a daily diary to identify any infectious symptoms.After 12 weeks of treatment, post-exercise tryptophan levels were lowered by 11% (a significant change) in the PLA group compared to the concentrations measured before the intervention (p = 0.02), but remained unchanged in the PRO group. The ratio of subjects taking the placebo who experienced one or more URTI symptoms was increased 2.2-fold compared to those on probiotics (PLA 0.79, PRO 0.35; p = 0.02).Data indicate reduced exercise-induced tryptophan degradation rates in the PRO group. Daily supplementation with probiotics limited exercise-induced drops in tryptophan levels and reduced the incidence of URTI, however, did not benefit athletic performance.
Project description:Objective. Probiotics have been reported to support healthy digestive and immune function, aid in protein absorption, and decrease inflammation. Further, a trend to increase vertical jump power has been observed following co-administration of protein and probiotics in resistance-trained subjects. However, to date the potential beneficial effect of probiotics on recovery from high intensity resistance exercise have yet to be explored. Therefore, this study examined the effect of co-administration of protein and probiotics on muscle damage, recovery and performance following a damaging exercise bout. Design. Twenty nine (n = 29) recreationally-trained males (mean ± SD; 21.5 ± 2.8 years; 89.7 ± 28.2 kg; 177.4 ± 8.0 cm) were assigned to consume either 20 g of casein (PRO) or 20 g of casein plus probiotic (1 billion CFU Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, PROBC) in a crossover, diet-controlled design. After two weeks of supplementation, perceptional measures, athletic performance, and muscle damage were analyzed following a damaging exercise bout. Results. The damaging exercise bout significantly increased muscle soreness, and reduced perceived recovery; however, PROBC significantly increased recovery at 24 and 72 h, and decreased soreness at 72 h post exercise in comparison to PRO. Perceptual measures were confirmed by increases in CK (PRO: +266.8%, p = 0.0002; PROBC: +137.7%, p = 0.01), with PROBC showing a trend towards reduced muscle damage (p = 0.08). The muscle-damaging exercise resulted in significantly increased muscle swelling and Blood Urea Nitrogen levels in both conditions with no difference between groups. The strenuous exercise significantly reduced athletic performance in PRO (Wingate Peak Power; PRO: (-39.8 watts, -5.3%, p = 0.03)), whereas PROBC maintained performance (+10.1 watts, +1.7%). Conclusions. The results provide evidence that probiotic supplementation in combination with protein tended to reduce indices of muscle damage, improves recovery, and maintains physical performance subsequent to damaging exercise.
Project description:Background and Aims:Ulcerative colitis (UC) is associated with an increased intestinal permeability, possibly through a dysbiosis of intestinal bacteria. We investigated which markers are most relevant to assess intestinal permeability in UC patients and whether probiotics had an effect on these markers. Methods:In this twelve-week placebo-controlled randomized double-blind study, twenty-five subjects with UC in remission received either placebo or a multispecies probiotics. Samples of blood, urine, and faeces were taken at baseline, week 6, and week 12 to assess intestinal permeability and inflammation. Diaries and Bristol stool scale were kept to record stool frequency and consistency. Quality of life was scored from 32-224 with the inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (IBD-Q). Results:This group of UC patients, in clinical remission, did not show increased intestinal permeability at baseline of this study. During the study, no significant group or time effects were found for intestinal permeability measured by the 5-sugar absorption test, serum zonulin, and faecal zonulin. Likewise, the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP), calprotectin, and the cytokines IFN?, TNF?, IL-6, and IL-10 were not significantly affected. Stool frequency and consistency were not significantly affected either. The IBD-Q score, 194 for the probiotics group and 195 for the placebo group, remained unaffected. Correlations were tested between all outcomes; urinary sucrose excretion was significantly correlated with serum zonulin (r?=?0.62) and faecal calprotectin (r?=?0.55). Faecal zonulin was not significantly correlated with any of the other markers. Conclusion:Serum zonulin may be a more relevant biomarker of intestinal permeability than faecal zonulin, due to its correlation with other biomarkers of intestinal permeability. UC patients in remission did not show an effect of the probiotic treatment or a change in gut permeability. This should not discourage further studies because effects might be present during active disease or shortly after a flare up.
Project description:Probiotics exert multiple health benefits, including gastrointestinal health, immunoregulation, and metabolic disease improvement, by modulating microbiota to maintain eubiosis via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and brain-gut-microbiome axes. Physiological fatigue, mental stress, and gastrointestinal discomfort under the demands of athletic performance as well as immunosuppression are common during endurance training and competition. Limited studies investigated the functional effects of probiotic supplementation on endurance training. Bifidobacterium longum subsp. Longum OLP-01 (OLP-01), isolated from an elite Olympic athlete, was combined with a six-week exercise training program with gradually increasing intensity. In this study, Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were assigned to sedentary, exercise, OLP-01, or exercise + OLP-01 groups and administered probiotic and/or treadmill exercise training for six weeks to assess exercise performance, physiological adaption, and related metabolites. The exercise + OLP-01 group demonstrated higher performance in terms of endurance and grip strength, as well as improved fatigue-associated indexes (lactate, ammonia, creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and glycogen content), compared with the other groups. OLP-01 supplementation significantly ameliorated inflammation and injury indexes (platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR), aminotransferase (AST), and CK) caused by prolonged endurance exercise test. Moreover, acetate, propionate, and butyrate levels were significantly higher in the exercise + OLP-01 group than in the sedentary and OLP-01 groups. Athletes often experience psychological and physiological stress caused by programed intensive exercise, competition, and off-site training, often leading to poor exercise performance and gastrointestinal issues. Functional OLP-01 probiotics are considered to be a nutritional strategy for improving physiological adaption, oxidative stress, inflammation, and energy balance to ensure high physical performance. Based on these results, probiotics combined with exercise training is a potential strategy for ensuring high physical performance of athletes, which should be further investigated through microbiota validation.
Project description:Given the solid evidence that prolonged strenuous exercise is a cause of metabolic stress, this study sought to determine whether a 12-h run would affect total oxidant status (TOS), total oxidant capacity (TOC), total antioxidant status (TAS), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and the biomarkers of intestinal permeability (protein fatty acid-binding proteins (I-FABP) and zonulin) in middle-aged male subjects. Ten amateur long-distance runners (aged 52.0 ± 6.2 years, body height 176.9 ± 4.9 cm, body mass 73.9 ± 6.0 kg) were enrolled in the study. The venous blood samples were collected 1 hour before and right after the run and were analyzed for the levels of TAS, TOS/TOC, hs-CRP, I-FABP and zonulin. The post-run concentrations of TOS/TOC were significantly elevated (p < 0.001), but TAS changes were not significant. Pearson's correlation coefficients calculated for the post run values of TAS and TOS/TOC were statistically significant and negative (r = -0.750, p < 0.05). Significant increases in the concentrations of hs-CRP (p < 0.001), I-FABP (p < 0.05) and zonulin (p < 0.01) were noted. The results indicate that a strenuous 12-h run disturbs the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in middle-aged men, as well as promoting inflammation and impairing intestinal permeability.