Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 suppresses vascular endothelial growth factor expression and tumor angiogenesis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis, the process by which new blood vessels are recruited to existing ones, is essential for tumor development. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), which modulates bioavailability of IGF, has been studied for its potential role in angiogenesis during tissue regeneration and cancer development. In this study, we assessed the role of IGFBP-3 in tumor angiogenesis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using adenoviral (Ad-BP3) and recombinant (rBP3) IGFBP-3. Using an in vivo orthotopic tongue tumor model, we confirmed that both Ad-BP3 and rBP3 suppress the growth of UMSCC38 HNSCC cells in vivo. Ad-BP3 inhibited vascularization in tongue tumors and chorio-allantoic membrane, and suppressed angiogenesis-stimulating activities in UMSCC38 cells. In HUVECs, Ad-BP3 decreased migration, invasion, and tube formation. rBP3 also suppressed production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in HUVECs and UMSCC38 cells. IGFBP-3-GGG, a mutant IGFBP-3 with loss of IGF binding capacity, suppressed VEGF production. In addition, we found that IGFBP-3 suppressed VEGF expression, even in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from an IGF-1R-null mouse. Finally, we demonstrated that IGFBP-3-GGG inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth to the same degree as wild-type IGFBP-3. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that IGFBP-3 has anti-angiogenic activity in HNSCC, at least in part due to IGF-independent suppression of VEGF production from vascular endothelial cells and cancer cells.
Project description:We previously reported that IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), a major IGF-binding protein in human serum, regulates angiogenic activities of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) through IGF-dependent and IGF-independent mechanisms. However, the role of IGFBP-3 in cell adhesion is largely unknown. We demonstrate here that IGFBP-3 inhibits the adhesion of HNSCC cells and HUVECs to the extracellular matrix (ECM). IGFBP-3 reduced transcription of a variety of integrins, especially integrin ?4, and suppressed phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Src in these cells through both IGF-dependent and IGF-independent pathways. IGFBP-3 was found to suppress the transcription of c-fos and c-jun and the activity of AP1 transcription factor. The regulatory effect of IGFBP-3 on integrin ?4 transcription was attenuated by blocking c-jun and c-fos gene expression via siRNA transfection. Taken together, our data show that IGFBP-3 has IGF-dependent and -independent inhibitory effects on intracellular adhesion signaling in HNSCC and HUVECs through its ability to block c-jun and c-fos transcription and thus AP-1-mediated integrin ?4 transcription. Collectively, our data suggest that IGFPB-3 may be an effective cancer therapeutic agent by blocking integrin-mediated adhesive activity of tumor and vascular endothelial cells.
Project description:The IGF axis has been implicated in the risk of various cancers. We previously reported a potential role of tissue-derived IGF in lung tumor formation and progression. However, the role of IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3, a major IGFBP, on the activity of tissue-driven IGF in lung cancer development is largely unknown. Here, we show that IGF-I, but not IGF-II, protein levels in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were significantly higher than those in normal and hyperplastic bronchial epithelium. We found that IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels in NSCLC tissue specimens were significantly correlated with phosphorylated IGF-IR (pIGF-IR) expression. We investigated the impact of IGFBP-3 expression on the activity of tissue-driven IGF-I in lung cancer development using mice carrying lung-specific human IGF-I transgene (Tg), a germline-null mutation of IGFBP-3, or both. Compared with wild-type (BP3(+/+)) mice, mice carrying heterozygous (BP3(+/-)) or homozygous (BP3(-/-)) deletion of IGFBP-3 alleles exhibited decreases in circulating IGFBP-3 and IGF-I. Unexpectedly, IGF(Tg) mice with 50% of physiological IGFBP-3 (BP3(+/-); IGF(Tg)) showed higher levels of pIGF-IR/IR and a greater degree of spontaneous or tobacco carcinogen [4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone]-induced lung tumor development and progression than did the IGF(Tg) mice with normal (BP3(+/+;) IGF(Tg)) or homozygous deletion of IGFBP-3 (BP3(-/-); IGF(Tg)). These data show that IGF-I is overexpressed in NSCLC, leading to activation of IGF-IR, and that IGFBP-3, depending on its expression level, either inhibits or potentiates IGF-I actions in lung carcinogenesis.
Project description:An in-depth understanding of the molecular and cellular complexity of angiogenesis continues to advance as new stimulators and inhibitors of blood vessel formation are uncovered. Gaining a more complete understanding of the response of blood vessels to both stimulatory and inhibitory molecules will likely contribute to more effective strategies to control pathological angiogenesis. Here, we provide evidence that endothelial cell interactions with structurally altered collagen type IV may suppress the expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4), a well documented inhibitor of the IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling axis. We report for the first time that IGFBP-4 differentially inhibits angiogenesis induced by distinct growth factor signaling pathways as IGFBP-4 inhibited FGF-2- and IGF-1-stimulated angiogenesis but failed to inhibit VEGF-induced angiogenesis. The resistance of VEGF-stimulated angiogenesis to IGFBP-4 inhibition appears to depend on sustained activation of p38 MAPK as blocking its activity restored the anti-angiogenic effects of IGFBP-4 on VEGF-induced blood vessel growth in vivo. These novel findings provide new insight into how blood vessels respond to endogenous inhibitors during angiogenesis stimulated by distinct growth factor signaling pathways.
Project description:Metastasis is a critical event in the progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and closely correlates with clinical outcome. We previously showed that the farnesyl transferase inhibitor SCH66336 has antitumor activities in HNSCC by inducing the secretion of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), which in turn inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis. In our study, we found that SCH66336 at a sublethal dose for HNSCC inhibited the migration and invasion of HNSCC cells. The inhibitory effect of SCH66336 was associated with the blockade of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) pathway via suppressing IGF-1R itself and Akt expression. Consistent with previous work, induction of IGFBP-3 by SCH66336 also contributed in part to the anti-invasive effect. SCH66336 treatment also reduced the expression and activity of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), both important regulators of tumor metastasis. The effect of SCH66336 on uPA activity was inhibited partly by knockdown of IGFBP-3 using small interfering RNA. The inhibitory effect of SCH66336 on migration or invasion was attenuated partly or completely by knockdown of IGFBP-3, Akt or IGF-1R expression, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the IGF-1R pathway plays a major role in the proliferation, migration and invasion of HNSCC cells, suggesting that therapeutic obstruction of the IGF-1R pathway would be a useful approach to treating patients with HNSCC.
Project description:Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is known to inhibit reperfusion-induced apoptosis. IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) is the major circulating carrier protein for IGF-1 and induces apoptosis. In this study, we determined if IGFBP-3 was important in the hepatic response to I/R. To deliver IGFBP-3, we used an adenovirus containing IGFBP-3 cDNA (AdIGFBP-3) or an IGFBP-3 mutant devoid of IGF binding affinity but retaining IGFBP-3 receptor binding ability (AdIGFBP-3(GGG)). Mice subjected to I/R injury showed typical patterns of hepatocellular damage. Protein levels of IGFBP-3 were increased after reperfusion and showed a positive correlation with the extent of liver injury. Prior injection with AdIGFBP-3 aggravated liver injury: serum aminotransferases, prothrombin time, proinflammatory cytokines, hepatocellular necrosis and apoptosis, and neutrophil infiltration were markedly increased compared to control mice. A decrease in antioxidant potential and an upregulation of NADPH oxidase might have caused these aggravating effects of IGFBP-3. Experiments using HepG2 cells and N-acetylcysteine-pretreated mice showed a discernible effect of IGFBP-3 on reactive oxygen species generation. Lastly, AdIGFBP-3 abolished the beneficial effects of ischemic preconditioning and hypothermia. Mice treated with AdIGFBP-3(GGG) exhibited effects similar to those of AdIGFBP-3, suggesting a ligand-independent effect of IGFBP-3. Our results suggest IGFBP-3 as an aggravating factor during hepatic I/R injury.
Project description:Hypoxia stimulates tumor angiogenesis by inducing the expression of angiogenic molecules. The negative regulators of this process, however, are not well understood. Here, we report that hypoxia induced the expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-6 (IGFBP-6), a tumor repressor, in human and rodent vascular endothelial cells (VECs) via a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-mediated mechanism. Addition of human IGFBP-6 to cultured human VECs inhibited angiogenesis in vitro. An IGFBP-6 mutant with at least 10,000-fold lower binding affinity for IGFs was an equally potent inhibitor of angiogenesis, suggesting that this action of IGFBP-6 is IGF-independent. The functional relationship between IGFBP-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a major hypoxia-inducible angiogenic molecule, was examined. While VEGF alone increased angiogenesis in vitro, co-incubation with IGFBP-6 abolished VEGF-stimulated angiogenesis. The in vivo role of IGFBP-6 in angiogenesis was tested in flk1:GFP zebrafish embryos, which exhibit green fluorescence protein in developing vascular endothelium, permitting visualization of developing blood vessels. Injection of human IGFBP-6 mRNA reduced the number of embryonic inter-segmental blood vessels by ?40%. This anti-angiogenic activity is conserved in zebrafish because expression of zebrafish IGFBP-6b had similar effects. To determine the anti-angiogenic effect of IGFBP-6 in a tumor model, human Rh30 rhabdomyosarcoma cells stably transfected with IGFBP-6 were inoculated into athymic BALB/c nude mice. Vessel density was 52% lower in IGFBP-6-transfected xenografts than in vector control xenografts. These results suggest that the expression of IGFBP-6 in VECs is up-regulated by hypoxia and IGFBP-6 inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:In pediatric tumor xenograft models, tumor-derived insulin growth factor (IGF-2) results in intrinsic resistance to IGF-IR-targeted antibodies, maintaining continued tumor angiogenesis. We evaluated the antiangiogenic activity of a ligand-binding antibody (MEDI-573) alone or in combination with IGF-I receptor binding antibodies (MAB391, CP01-B02).IGF-stimulated signaling was monitored by increased Akt phosphorylation in sarcoma and human umbilical cord vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC). Angiogenesis was determined in vitro using capillary tube formation in HUVECs and in vivo using a VEGF-stimulated Matrigel assay. Tumor growth delay was examined in 4 sarcoma xenograft models.The IGF ligand-binding antibody MEDI-573 suppressed Akt phosphorylation induced by exogenous IGF-I and IGF-2 in sarcoma cells. Receptor-binding antibodies suppressed IGF-I stimulation of Akt phosphorylation, but IGF-2 circumvented this effect and maintained HUVEC tube formation. MEDI-573 inhibited HUVEC proliferation and tube formation in vitro, but did not inhibit angiogenesis in vivo, probably because MEDI-573 binds murine IGF-I with low affinity. However, in vitro antiangiogenic activity of MEDI-573 was also circumvented by human recombinant IGF-I. The combination of receptor- and ligand-binding antibodies completely suppressed VEGF-stimulated proliferation of HUVECs in the presence of IGF-I and IGF-2, prevented ligand-induced phosphorylation of IGF-IR/IR receptors, and suppressed VEGF/IGF-2-driven angiogenesis in vivo. The combination of CP1-BO2 plus MEDI-573 was significantly superior to therapy with either antibody alone against IGF-I and IGF-2 secreting pediatric sarcoma xenograft models.These results suggest that combination of antibodies targeting IGF receptor and ligands may be an effective therapeutic strategy to block angiogenesis for IGF-driven tumors.
Project description:AIM: To investigate the effects of dauricine (Dau) on insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)-induced hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). METHODS: Serum-starved MCF-7 cells were pretreated for 1 h with different concentrations of Dau, followed by incubation with IGF-I for 6 h. HIF-1alpha and VEGF protein expression levels were analyzed by Western blotting and ELISA, respectively. HIF-1alpha and VEGF mRNA levels were determined by real-time PCR. In vitro angiogenesis was observed via the human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) tube formation assay. An in vitro invasion assay on HUVECs was performed. RESULTS: Dau significantly inhibited IGF-I-induced HIF-1alpha protein expression but had no effect on HIF-1alpha mRNA expression. However, Dau remarkably suppressed VEGF expression at both protein and mRNA levels in response to IGF-I. Mechanistically, Dau suppressed IGF-I-induced HIF-1alpha and VEGF protein expression mainly by blocking the activation of PI-3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. In addition, Dau reduced IGF-I-induced HIF-1alpha protein accumulation by inhibiting its synthesis as well as by promoting its degradation. Functionally, Dau inhibited angiogenesis in vitro. Moreover, Dau had a direct effect on IGF-I-induced invasion of HUVECs. CONCLUSION: Dau inhibits human breast cancer angiogenesis by suppressing HIF-1alpha protein accumulation and VEGF expression, which may provide a novel potential mechanism for the anticancer activities of Dau in human breast cancer.
Project description:Some, but not all, epidemiologic studies report an association between vitamin D and prostate cancer risk. The inconsistent findings might be explained in the context of modification by members of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis. Data and specimens for this nested case-control study (n = 1695 cases and n = 1682 controls) are from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT). Baseline serum samples were assayed for 25(OH)D, IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, and the ratio of IGF1:BP3, along with insulin-related markers c-peptide and leptin. The presence of prostate cancer was assessed by prostate biopsy. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for prostate cancer risk. There were no interactions between serum 25(OH)D and IGF analytes in relation to prostate cancer risk when PCPT treatment arms were combined. In the placebo arm, above median serum 25(OH)D levels were associated with increased risk of prostate cancer among men with higher IGF-2 (OR:1.33, 95% CI: 1.00-1.65), with a significant interaction between 25(OH)D and treatment arm (Pinteraction = 0.04). Additionally, there was an interaction between treatment arm and serum IGFBP-3 (Pinteraction = 0.03). Higher serum 25(OH)D may increase risk of prostate cancer in the presence of higher circulating IGF-2.
Project description:Most antiangiogenic therapies currently being evaluated in clinical trials target the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway; however, the tumor vasculature can acquire resistance to vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapy by shifting to other angiogenesis mechanisms. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) has been reported to suppress tumor growth and angiogenesis by both IGF-dependent and IGF-independent mechanisms; however, understanding of its IGF-independent mechanisms is limited. We observed that IGFBP-3 blocked tumor angiogenesis and growth in non-small cell lung cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Conditioned media from an IGFBP-3-treated non-small cell lung cancer cell line displayed a significantly decreased capacity to induce HUVEC proliferation and aortic sprouting. In cancer cells, IGFBP-3 directly interacted with Erk1/2, leading to inactivation of Erk1/2 and Elk-1, and suppressed transcription of early growth response protein 1 and its target genes, basic fibroblast growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor. These data suggest that IGF-independent Erk1/2 inactivation and decreased IGFBP-3-induced Egr-1 expression block the autocrine and paracrine loops of angiogenic factors in vascular endothelial and cancer cells. Together, these findings provide a molecular framework of IGFBP-3's IGF-independent antiangiogenic antitumor activities. Future studies are needed for development of IGFBP-3 as a new line of antiangiogengic cancer drug.