Impaired adult myeloid progenitor CMP and GMP cell function in conditional c-myb-knockout mice.
ABSTRACT: The differentiation of myeloid progenitors to mature, terminally differentiated cells is a highly regulated process. Here, we showed that conditional disruption of the c-myb proto-oncogene in adult mice resulted in dramatic reductions in CMP, GMP and MEP myeloid progenitors, leading to a reduction of neutrophils, basophils, monocytes and platelets in peripheral blood. In addition, c-myb plays a critical role at multiple stages of myeloid development, from multipotent CMP and bipotent GMP to unipotent CFU-G and CFU-M progenitor cells. c-myb controls the differentiation of these cells and is required for the proper commitment, maturation and normal differentiation of CMPs and GMPs. Specifically, c-myb regulates the precise commitment to the megakaryocytic and granulo-monocytic pathways and governs the granulocytic-monocytic lineage choice. c-myb is also required for the commitment along the granulocytic pathway for early myeloid progenitor cells and for the maturation of committed precursor cells along this pathway. On the other hand, disruption of the c-myb gene favors the commitment to the monocytic lineage, although monocytic development was abnormal with cells appearing more mature with atypical CD41 surface markers. These results demonstrate that c-myb plays a pivotal role in the regulation of multiple stages in adult myelogenesis.
Project description:Granulocytes serve a critical function in host organisms by recognizing and destroying invading microbes, as well as propagating and maintaining inflammation at sites of infection. However, the molecular pathways underpinning the development of granulocytes are poorly understood. Here, we identify a role for CaMKK2 in the restriction of granulocytic fate commitment and differentiation of myeloid progenitor cells. Following BMT, engraftment by Camkk2(-/-) donor cells resulted in the increased production of mature granulocytes in the BM and peripheral blood. Similarly, Camkk2(-/-) mice possessed elevated numbers of CMP cells and exhibited an accelerated granulopoietic phenotype in the BM. Camkk2(-/-) myeloid progenitors expressed increased levels of C/EBPα and PU.1 and preferentially differentiated into Gr1(+)Mac1(+) granulocytes and CFU-G in vitro. During normal granulopoiesis in vivo or G-CSF-induced differentiation of 32D myeloblast cells in vitro, CaMKK2 mRNA and protein were decreased as a function of time and were undetectable in mature granulocytes. Expression of ectopic CaMKK2 in Camkk2(-/-) CMPs was sufficient to rescue aberrant granulocyte differentiation and when overexpressed in 32D cells, was also sufficient to impede granulocyte differentiation in a kinase activity-dependent manner. Collectively, our results reveal a novel role for CaMKK2 as an inhibitor of granulocytic fate commitment and differentiation in early myeloid progenitors.
Project description:Granulocyte-monocyte progenitor (GMP) cells play a vital role in the immune system by maturing into a variety of white blood cells, including neutrophils and macrophages, depending on exposure to cytokines such as various types of colony stimulating factors (CSF). Granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF) induces granulopoiesis and macrophage-CSF (M-CSF) induces monopoiesis, while granulocyte/macrophage-CSF (GM-CSF) favors monocytic and granulocytic differentiation at low and high concentrations, respectively. Although these differentiation pathways are well documented, the mechanisms behind the diverse behavioral responses of GMP cells to CSFs are not well understood. In this paper, we propose a mechanism of interacting CSF-receptors and transcription factors that control GMP differentiation, convert the mechanism into a set of differential equations, and explore the properties of this mathematical model using dynamical systems theory. Our model reproduces numerous experimental observations of GMP cell differentiation in response to varying dosages of G-CSF, M-CSF, and GM-CSF. In particular, we are able to reproduce the concentration-dependent behavior of GM-CSF induced differentiation, and propose a mechanism driving this behavior. In addition, we explore the differentiation of a fourth phenotype, monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSC), showing how they might fit into the classical pathways of GMP differentiation and how progenitor cells can be primed for M-MDSC differentiation. Finally, we use the model to make novel predictions that can be explored by future experimental studies.
Project description:Commitment of HL-60 cells to macrophage or granulocytic differentiation was achieved by incubation with 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) for 30-60 min or with dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) for 24 h respectively. The commitment stage towards PMA-induced macrophage differentiation was associated with increases in jun B and c-fos mRNA levels, as well as with an increase in the binding activity of transcription factor AP-1. Nevertheless, gel retardation analysis indicated that the AP-1 activity detected in untreated cells was drastically reduced during the commitment stage of DMSO-induced HL-60 differentiation towards granulocytes. When HL-60 cells were treated with sodium butyrate, which induced monocytic differentiation, a remarkable increase in AP-1 binding activity was detected. Treatment of HL-60 cells with 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, another monocytic differentiation agent, induced a weak, but appreciable, increase in AP-1 activity. Furthermore, addition of sodium butyrate or 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to HL-60 cells induced the expression of c-fos, c-jun, jun B and jun D proto-oncogenes. In contrast, when HL-60 cells were treated with retinoic acid, a granulocytic differentiation inducer, no enhanced AP-1 binding activity was observed, and only a weak increase in jun D mRNA level was detected. These data indicate that formation of AP-1 is not required for the induction of HL-60 differentiation towards granulocytes, whereas induction of monocytic differentiation is correlated with an increase in AP-1 activity. The differential expression of AP-1 activity may be critical in the differentiation of HL-60 cells towards monocytic or granulocytic lineages.
Project description:Myeloid cells of the granulocytic-monocytic (GM) lineage develop in a process orchestrated mainly by the transcription factors PU.1 and CEBPA, but how these factors collaborate on a global scale during GM-lineage differentiation remains uncharacterized. To address this question we have combined epigenetic profiling, transcription factor binding and gene expression analyses of successive stages of murine GM-lineage differentiation and show that PU.1 and CEBPA binds to GM enhancers with distinct kinetics. Surprisingly, we find no evidence of a pioneering function of PU.1 during GM-lineage differentiation but instead delineate a set of GM enhancers that appears to open in a CEBPA-dependent manner. Analyses of Cebpa null bone marrow demonstrate that CEBPA controls PU.1 levels and, unexpectedly, that the loss of CEBPA results in a very early differentiation block. These data are consistent with a model involving an extensive functional interplay between PU.1 and CEBPA in driving GM-lineage differentiation. Overall design: Examined 2 replicates each of H3K4me1, H3K27ac histone marks, 2 replicates each of PU.1 and CEBPA transcription factors across four granulocytic-monocytic differentiation stages and CEBPA KO condition Examined transcriptome from LSK, preGMs, GMP, CFU-G, CFU-M, granulocytes and monocytes in biological triplicates
Project description:BACKGROUND: Transcription factors play a key role in lineage commitment and differentiation of stem cells into distinct mature cells. In hematopoiesis, they regulate lineage-specific gene expression in a stage-specific manner through various physical and functional interactions with regulatory proteins that are simultanously recruited and activated to ensure timely gene expression. The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? (C/EBP?) is such a factor and is essential for the development of granulocytic/monocytic cells. The activity of C/EBP? is regulated on several levels including gene expression, alternative translation, protein interactions and posttranslational modifications, such as phosphorylation. In particular, the phosphorylation of serine 248 of the transactivation domain has been shown to be of crucial importance for granulocytic differentiation of 32Dcl3 cells in vitro. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we use mouse genetics to investigate the significance of C/EBP? serine 248 in vivo through the construction and analysis of Cebpa(S248A/S248A) knock-in mice. Surprisingly, 8-week old Cebpa(S248A/S248A) mice display normal steady-state hematopoiesis including unaltered development of mature myeloid cells. However, over time some of the animals develop a hematopoietic disorder with accumulation of multipotent, megakaryocytic and erythroid progenitor cells and a mild impairment of differentiation along the granulocytic-monocytic lineage. Furthermore, BM cells from Cebpa(S248A/S248A) animals display a competitive advantage compared to wild type cells in a transplantation assay. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our data shows that the substitution of C/EBP? serine 248 to alanine favors the selection of the megakaryocytic/erythroid lineage over the monocytic/granulocytic compartment in old mice and suggests that S248 phosphorylation may be required to maintain proper hematopoietic homeostasis in response to changes in the wiring of cellular signalling networks. More broadly, the marked differences between the phenotype of the S248A variant in vivo and in vitro highlight the need to exert caution when extending in vitro phenotypes to the more appropriate in vivo context.
Project description:GM-CSF promotes myeloid differentiation of cultured bone marrow cells into cells of the granulocytic and monocytic lineage; the latter can further differentiate into monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells. How GM-CSF selects for these different myeloid fates is unresolved. GM-CSF levels can change either iatrogenically (e.g., augmenting leukopoiesis after radiotherapy) or naturally (e.g., during infection or inflammation) resulting in different immunological outcomes. Therefore, we asked whether the dose of GM-CSF may regulate the development of three types of myeloid cells. Here, we showed that GM-CSF acted as a molecular rheostat where the quantity determined which cell type was favored; moreover, the cellular process by which this was achieved was different for each cell type. Thus, low quantities of GM-CSF promoted the granulocytic lineage, mainly through survival. High quantities promoted the monocytic lineage, mainly through proliferation, whereas moderate quantities promoted moDCs, mainly through differentiation. Finally, we demonstrated that monocytes/macrophages generated with different doses of GM-CSF differed in function. We contend that this selective effect of GM-CSF dose on myeloid differentiation and function should be taken into consideration during pathophysiological states that may alter GM-CSF levels and during GM-CSF agonistic or antagonistic therapy.
Project description:CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP?) is an essential transcription factor for myeloid lineage commitment. Here we demonstrate that acetylation of C/EBP? at lysine residues K298 and K302, mediated at least in part by general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5), impairs C/EBP? DNA-binding ability and modulates C/EBP? transcriptional activity. Acetylated C/EBP? is enriched in human myeloid leukaemia cell lines and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) samples, and downregulated upon granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)- mediated granulocytic differentiation of 32Dcl3 cells. C/EBP? mutants that mimic acetylation failed to induce granulocytic differentiation in C/EBP?-dependent assays, in both cell lines and in primary hematopoietic cells. Our data uncover GCN5 as a negative regulator of C/EBP? and demonstrate the importance of C/EBP? acetylation in myeloid differentiation.
Project description:The MN1 oncogene is deregulated in human acute myeloid leukemia and its overexpression induces proliferation and represses myeloid differentiation of primitive human and mouse hematopoietic cells, leading to myeloid leukemia in mouse models. To delineate the sequences within MN1 necessary for MN1-induced leukemia, we tested the transforming capacity of in-frame deletion mutants, using retroviral transduction of mouse bone marrow. We found that integrity of the regions between amino acids 12 to 458 and 1119 to 1273 are required for MN1's in vivo transforming activity, generating myeloid leukemia with some mutants also producing T-cell lympho-leukemia and megakaryocytic leukemia. Although both full length MN1 and a mutant that lacks the residues between 12-228 (?12-228 mutant) repressed myeloid differentiation and increased myeloproliferative activity in vitro, the mutant lost its transforming activity in vivo. Both MN1 and ?12-228 increased the frequency of common myeloid progentiors (CMP) in vitro and microarray comparisons of purified MN1-CMP and ?12-228-CMP cells showed many differentially expressed genes including Hoxa9, Meis1, Myb, Runx2, Cebpa, Cebpb and Cebpd. This collection of immediate MN1-responsive candidate genes distinguishes the leukemic activity from the in vitro myeloproliferative capacity of this oncoprotein.
Project description:Previously, we reported that although the HSPC frequency in bone marrow cells (BMC) was comparable between ?2-/- and ?2+/+ mice, transplantation of ?2-/- BMC into lethally irradiated CD45.1 recipient resulted in more myeloid cell production than ?2+/+ BMC. The objective of this study is to address if integrin ?2 deficiency skews granulocyte/macrophage progenitor (GMP) proliferation. FACS analysis demonstrated that GMP frequency and cell number were higher and megakaryocyte/erythrocyte progenitor frequency and cell number were lower in ?2-/- mice than ?2+/+ mice. However, the common myeloid progenitors (CMP) frequency and cell number were similar between the two groups. The increased GMP number was due to GMP proliferation as evidenced by the percentage of BrdU-incorporating GMP. Whole genome transcriptome analysis identified increased Fc?RI? expression in ?2-/- CMP compared to ?2+/+ CMP. Fc?RI? expression on ?2-/- GMP was detected increased in ?2-/- mice by qRT-PCR and FACS. Although transplantation of Fc?RI?hi GMP or Fc?RI?lo GMP into lethally irradiated CD45.1 recipient resulted in comparable myeloid cell production, transplantation of ?2 deficient Fc?RI?hi GMP generated more myeloid cells than ?2+/+ Fc?RI?hi GMP. GATA2 expression was increased in ?2-/- GMP. Using a luciferase reporter assay, we demonstrated that mutation of the GATA2 binding site in the Fc?RI? promoter region diminished Fc?RI? transcription. In vitro, the addition of IgE, the ligand of Fc?RI?, promoted GMP expansion, which was abrogated by inhibition of JNK phosphorylation. Integrin ?2 deficiency promoted GMP proliferation and myeloid cell production, which was mediated via Fc?RI?/IgE-induced JNK phosphorylation in GMP. Stem Cells 2019;37:430-440.
Project description:ZBTB7A is frequently mutated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(8;21) translocation. However, the oncogenic collaboration between mutated ZBTB7A and the RUNX1-RUNX1T1 fusion gene in AML t(8;21) remains unclear. Here, we investigate the role of ZBTB7A and its mutations in the context of normal and malignant hematopoiesis. We demonstrate that clinically relevant ZBTB7A mutations in AML t(8;21) lead to loss of function and result in perturbed myeloid differentiation with block of the granulocytic lineage in favor of monocytic commitment. In addition, loss of ZBTB7A increases glycolysis and hence sensitizes leukemic blasts to metabolic inhibition with 2-deoxy-D-glucose. We observed that ectopic expression of wild-type ZBTB7A prevents RUNX1-RUNX1T1-mediated clonal expansion of human CD34+ cells, whereas the outgrowth of progenitors is enabled by ZBTB7A mutation. Finally, ZBTB7A expression in t(8;21) cells lead to a cell cycle arrest that could be mimicked by inhibition of glycolysis. Our findings suggest that loss of ZBTB7A may facilitate the onset of AML t(8;21), and that RUNX1-RUNX1T1-rearranged leukemia might be treated with glycolytic inhibitors.