IgH partner breakpoint sequences provide evidence that AID initiates t(11;14) and t(8;14) chromosomal breaks in mantle cell and Burkitt lymphomas.
ABSTRACT: Previous studies have implicated activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) in B-cell translocations but have failed to identify any association between their chromosomal breakpoints and known AID target sequences. Analysis of 56 unclustered IgH-CCND1 translocations in mantle cell lymphoma across the ~ 344-kb bcl-1 breakpoint locus demonstrates that half of the CCND1 breaks are near CpG dinucleotides. Most of these CpG breaks are at CGC motifs, and half of the remaining breaks are near WGCW, both known AID targets. These findings provide the strongest evidence to date that AID initiates chromosomal breaks in translocations that occur in human bone marrow B-cell progenitors. We also identify WGCW breaks at the MYC locus in Burkitt lymphoma translocations and murine IgH-MYC translocations, both of which arise in mature germinal center B cells. Finally, we propose a developmental model to explain the transition from CpG breaks in early human B-cell progenitors to WGCW breaks in later stage B cells.
Project description:BCL6 translocations are common in B-cell lymphomas and frequently have chromosomal breaks in immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) switch regions, suggesting that they occur during class-switch recombination. We analyze 120 BCL6 translocation breakpoints clustered in a 2156-bp segment of BCL6 intron 1, including 62 breakpoints (52%) joined to IgH, 12 (10%) joined to Ig light chains, and 46 (38%) joined to non-Ig partners. The BCL6 breaks in Ig-BCL6 translocations prefer known activation-induced cytosine deaminase (AID) hotspots such as WGCW and WRC (W = A/T, R = A/G), whereas BCL6 breaks in non-Ig rearrangements occur at CpG/CGC sites in addition to WGCW. Unlike previously identified CpG breaks in pro-B/pre-B-cell translocations, the BCL6 breaks do not show evidence of recombination activating gene or terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase activity. Both WGCW/WRC and CpG/CGC breaks at BCL6 are most likely initiated by AID in germinal center B-cells, and their differential use suggests subtle mechanistic differences between Ig-BCL6 and non-Ig-BCL6 rearrangements.
Project description:Chromosome translocations between Ig (Ig) and non-Ig genes are frequently associated with B-cell lymphomas in humans and mice. The best characterized of these is c-myc/IgH translocation, which is associated with Burkitt's lymphoma. These translocations are caused by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which produces double-strand DNA breaks in both genes. c-myc/IgH translocations are rare events, in part because ATM, p53, and p19 actively suppress them. To further define the mechanism of protection against the accumulation of cells that bear c-myc/IgH translocation, we assayed B cells from mice that carry mutations in cell-cycle and apoptosis regulator proteins that act downstream of p53. We find that PUMA, Bim, and PKCdelta are required for protection against c-myc/IgH translocation, whereas Bcl-XL and BAFF enhance c-myc/IgH translocation. Whether these effects are general or specific to c-myc/IgH translocation and whether AID produces dsDNA breaks in genes other than c-myc and Ig is not known. To examine these questions, we developed an assay for translocation between IgH and Igbeta, both of which are somatically mutated by AID. Igbeta/IgH, like c-myc/IgH translocations, are AID-dependent, and AID is responsible for lesions on IgH and the non-IgH translocation partners. However, ATM, p53, and p19 do not protect against Igbeta/IgH translocations. Instead, B cells are protected against Igbeta/IgH translocations by a BAFF- and PKCdelta-dependent pathway. We conclude that AID-induced double-strand breaks in non-Ig genes other than c-myc lead to their translocation, and that at least two nonoverlapping pathways protect against translocations in primary B cells.
Project description:Chromosomal translocation requires formation of paired double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) on heterologous chromosomes. One of the most well characterized oncogenic translocations juxtaposes c-myc and the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus (IgH) and is found in Burkitt's lymphomas in humans and plasmacytomas in mice. DNA breaks in IgH leading to c-myc/IgH translocations are created by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) during antibody class switch recombination or somatic hypermutation. However, the source of DNA breaks at c-myc is not known. Here, we provide evidence for the c-myc promoter region being required in targeting AID-mediated DNA damage to produce DSBs in c-myc that lead to c-myc/IgH translocations in primary B lymphocytes. Thus, in addition to producing somatic mutations and DNA breaks in antibody genes, AID is also responsible for the DNA lesions in oncogenes that are required for their translocation.
Project description:The chromosomal translocation t(8;14)(q24;q32) with juxtaposition of MYC to enhancer elements in the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene locus is the genetic hallmark of the majority of Burkitt lymphoma and a subset of Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients. Around 3% of adult B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients show this aberration. Flow cytometry mostly reveals a "mature B-ALL" or "Burkitt-type" ALL immunophenotype. Using long-distance PCR for t(8;14)/MYC-IGH fusion, we investigated bone marrow, peripheral blood and a few other samples with suspected Burkitt-ALL or mature B-ALL and identified 133 MYC-IGH-positive cases. The location of the chromosomal breaks in the IGH joining and the 8 different switch regions was determined using a set of long-distance PCRs. The chromosomal breakpoints with the adjacent MYC regions on 8q24 were characterized by direct sequencing in 49 cases. The distribution of chromosomal breaks among the IGH joining and switch regions was the following: JH 23.3%, M 21.8%, G1 15.0%, G2 7.5%, G3 3.8%, G4 4.5%, A1 12.8%, A2 3.8%, E 7.5%. Two breakpoint clusters near MYC were delineated. There was no clear correlation between the degree of somatic hypermutation and the chromosomal break locations. Epstein Barr virus was detected in 5 cases (4%). This detailed and extensive molecular analysis illustrates the molecular complexity of the MYC-IGH translocations and the detected distribution of breakpoints provides additional evidence that this translocation results from failed switch and VDJ recombinations. This study may serve as a model for the analysis of other IGH translocations in B-cell lymphoma.
Project description:Chromosomal translocations involving the immunoglobulin switch region are a hallmark feature of B-cell malignancies. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism by which primary B cells acquire or guard against these lesions. Here we find that translocations between c-myc and the IgH locus (Igh) are induced in primary B cells within hours of expression of the catalytically active form of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), an enzyme that deaminates cytosine to produce uracil in DNA. Translocation also requires uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG), which removes uracil from DNA to create abasic sites that are then processed to double-strand breaks. The pathway that mediates aberrant joining of c-myc and Igh differs from intrachromosomal repair during immunoglobulin class switch recombination in that it does not require histone H2AX, p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) or the non-homologous end-joining protein Ku80. In addition, translocations are inhibited by the tumour suppressors ATM, Nbs1, p19 (Arf) and p53, which is consistent with activation of DNA damage- and oncogenic stress-induced checkpoints during physiological class switching. Finally, we demonstrate that accumulation of AID-dependent, IgH-associated chromosomal lesions is not sufficient to enhance c-myc-Igh translocations. Our findings reveal a pathway for surveillance and protection against AID-dependent DNA damage, leading to chromosomal translocations.
Project description:Mature IgM(+) B-cell lymphomas that arise in certain ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-deficient compound mutant mice harbor translocations that fuse V(D)J recombination-initiated IgH double-strand breaks (DSBs) on chromosome 12 to sequences downstream of c-myc on chromosome 15, generating dicentric chromosomes and c-myc amplification via a breakage-fusion-bridge mechanism. As V(D)J recombination DSBs occur in developing progenitor B cells in the bone marrow, we sought to elucidate a mechanism by which such DSBs contribute to oncogenic translocations/amplifications in mature B cells. For this purpose, we applied high-throughput genome-wide translocation sequencing to study the fate of introduced c-myc DSBs in splenic IgM(+) B cells stimulated for activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-dependent IgH class switch recombination (CSR). We found frequent translocations of c-myc DSBs to AID-initiated DSBs in IgH switch regions in wild-type and ATM-deficient B cells. However, c-myc also translocated frequently to newly generated DSBs within a 35-Mb region downstream of IgH in ATM-deficient, but not wild-type, CSR-activated B cells. Moreover, we found such DSBs and translocations in activated B cells that did not express AID or undergo CSR. Our findings indicate that ATM deficiency leads to formation of chromosome 12 dicentrics via recombination-activating gene-initiated IgH DSBs in progenitor B cells and that these dicentrics can be propagated developmentally into mature B cells where they generate new DSBs downstream of IgH via breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. We propose that dicentrics formed by joining V(D)J recombination-associated IgH DSBs to DSBs downstream of c-myc in ATM-deficient B lineage cells similarly contribute to c-myc amplification and mature B-cell lymphomas.
Project description:B-cell malignancies, such as human Burkitt's lymphoma, often contain translocations that link c-myc or other proto-oncogenes to the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (IgH, encoded by Igh). The nature of elements that activate oncogenes within such translocations has been a long-standing question. Translocations within Igh involve DNA double-strand breaks initiated either by the RAG1/2 endonuclease during variable, diversity and joining gene segment (V(D)J) recombination, or by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID, also known as AICDA) during class switch recombination (CSR). V(D)J recombination in progenitor B (pro-B) cells assembles Igh variable region exons upstream of mu constant region (Cmu) exons, which are the first of several sets of C(H) exons ('C(H) genes') within a C(H) locus that span several hundred kilobases (kb). In mature B cells, CSR deletes Cmu and replaces it with a downstream C(H) gene. An intronic enhancer (iEmu) between the variable region exons and Cmu promotes V(D)J recombination in developing B cells. Furthermore, the Igh 3' regulatory region (Igh3'RR) lies downstream of the C(H) locus and modulates CSR by long-range transcriptional enhancement of C(H) genes. Transgenic mice bearing iEmu or Igh3'RR sequences fused to c-myc are predisposed to B lymphomas, demonstrating that such elements can confer oncogenic c-myc expression. However, in many B-cell lymphomas, Igh-c-myc translocations delete iEmu and place c-myc up to 200 kb upstream of the Igh3'RR. Here we address the oncogenic role of the Igh3'RR by inactivating it in two distinct mouse models for B-cell lymphoma with Igh-c-myc translocations. We show that the Igh3'RR is dispensable for pro-B-cell lymphomas with V(D)J recombination-initiated translocations, but is required for peripheral B-cell lymphomas with CSR-associated translocations. As the Igh3'RR is not required for CSR-associated Igh breaks or Igh-c-myc translocations in peripheral B-cell lymphoma progenitors, we conclude that this regulatory region confers oncogenic activity by long-range and developmental stage-specific activation of translocated c-myc genes.
Project description:Variable, diversity and joining gene segment (V(D)J) recombination assembles immunoglobulin heavy or light chain (IgH or IgL) variable region exons in developing bone marrow B cells, whereas class switch recombination (CSR) exchanges IgH constant region exons in peripheral B cells. Both processes use directed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) repaired by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). Errors in either V(D)J recombination or CSR can initiate chromosomal translocations, including oncogenic IgH locus (Igh) to c-myc (also known as Myc) translocations of peripheral B cell lymphomas. Collaboration between these processes has also been proposed to initiate translocations. However, the occurrence of V(D)J recombination in peripheral B cells is controversial. Here we show that activated NHEJ-deficient splenic B cells accumulate V(D)J-recombination-associated breaks at the lambda IgL locus (Igl), as well as CSR-associated Igh breaks, often in the same cell. Moreover, Igl and Igh breaks are frequently joined to form translocations, a phenomenon associated with specific Igh-Igl co-localization. Igh and c-myc also co-localize in these cells; correspondingly, the introduction of frequent c-myc DSBs robustly promotes Igh-c-myc translocations. Our studies show peripheral B cells that attempt secondary V(D)J recombination, and determine a role for mechanistic factors in promoting recurrent translocations in tumours.
Project description:IgH class switch recombination (CSR) occurs through the deliberate introduction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-instigated DNA double-strand breaks into the IgH loci. Because double-strand breaks are generally highly toxic, mechanisms that regulate AID expression are of much relevance to CSR and genomic integrity; however, effectors of such regulatory processes are still poorly understood. In this article, we show that the transcription factor sex determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2) is expressed in activated B cells, but almost exclusively in those that have undergone CSR. We demonstrate that enforced expression of Sox2 in splenic B cells severely inhibits AID expression and CSR, whereas deletion of Sox2 increases the frequency of IgH:c-Myc translocations. These results suggest that Sox2 may regulate AID expression in class-switched B cells to suppress genomic instability associated with CSR.
Project description:The characterization of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) translocations provides information on the diagnosis and guides therapeutic decisions in mature B-cell malignancies while enhancing our understanding of normal and malignant B-cell biology. However, existing methodologies for the detection of IGH translocations are labor intensive, often require viable cells, and are biased toward known IGH fusions. To overcome these limitations, we developed a capture sequencing strategy for the identification of IGH rearrangements at nucleotide level resolution and tested its capabilities as a diagnostic and discovery tool in 78 primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs). We readily identified IGH-BCL2, IGH-BCL6, IGH-MYC, and IGH-CCND1 fusions and discovered IRF8, EBF1, and TNFSF13 (APRIL) as novel IGH partners in these tumors. IRF8 and TNFSF13 expression was significantly higher in lymphomas with IGH rearrangements targeting these loci. Modeling the deregulation of IRF8 and EBF1 in vitro defined a lymphomagenic profile characterized by up-regulation of AID and/or BCL6, down-regulation of PRMD1, and resistance to apoptosis. Using a capture sequencing strategy, we discovered the B-cell relevant genes IRF8, EBF1, and TNFSF13 as novel targets for IGH deregulation. This methodology is poised to change how IGH translocations are identified in clinical settings while remaining a powerful tool to uncover the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies.