Reducing postnatal depression, anxiety and stress using an infant sleep intervention.
ABSTRACT: To examine the psychological well-being of mothers following participation in a behavioural modification programme previously shown to improve infant sleep.A 45 min consultation with either a general practitioner (GP) or trained nurse providing verbal and written information describing sleep physiology in infants and strategies to improve infant sleep. Eighty mothers of infants 6-12 months of age with established infant sleep problems at a single general practice, Adelaide, South Australia.The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS21) immediately prior to the first consultation and again at follow-up approximately 3 weeks later. The number of infant nocturnal awakenings requiring parental support was also reported by mothers on both occasions.All measures of maternal well-being and infant nocturnal awakenings improved significantly. The mean number of maximum nocturnal awakenings decreased from 5.0 to 0.5 (mean difference 4.4, 95% CI 3.4 to 5.5). All measures of DASS21 improved significantly. The mean total DASS21 decreased from 29.1 to 14.9 (mean decrease 14.2, 95% CI 10.2 to 18.2); mean depression decreased from 7.9 to 2.8 (mean difference 5.2, 95% CI 3.7 to 6.7); mean anxiety decreased from 4.6 to 2.6 (mean difference 2.0, 95% CI 0.7 to 3.2); mean stress decreased from 16.6 to 9.5 (mean difference 7.0, 95% CI 5.1 to 9.0). The proportion of mothers assessed as having any degree of depression decreased by 85% from 26/80 (32.5%) to 4/80 (5%).The number of nocturnal awakenings requiring parental support among infants aged 6-12 months significantly decreased following a single consultation on infant sleep physiology and teaching behavioural strategies to improve sleep. Significant improvements in maternal stress, anxiety and depression were also observed.
Project description:To evaluate the effectiveness of a behavioural-educational sleep intervention delivered in the early postpartum in improving maternal and infant sleep.Randomised controlled trial.Postpartum units of two university affiliated hospitals.246 primiparous women and their infants randomised while in hospital with an internet based randomisation service to intervention (n=123) or usual care (n=123) groups.The behavioural-educational sleep intervention included a 45-60 minute meeting with a nurse to discuss sleep information and strategies to promote maternal and infant sleep, a 20 page booklet with the content discussed, and phone contacts at one, two, and four weeks postpartum to reinforce information, provide support, and problem solve. The usual care group received calls at weeks one, two, and four to maintain contact without provision of advice.Primary outcome was maternal nocturnal (9 pm to 9 am) sleep (minutes) and secondary outcome was longest stretch of infant nocturnal sleep (minutes) measured at six and 12 weeks postpartum by actigraphy. Other outcomes measured at six and 12 weeks were number of maternal and infant night time awakenings by actigraphy, fatigue visual analogue scale, general sleep disturbance scale, and Edinburgh postnatal depression scale. Rates of exclusive breast feeding were measured at 12 weeks postpartum only.All women who completed any outcome measures at six or 12 weeks were included in analysis. Sleep outcomes were completed at one or both of six and 12 weeks postpartum for 215 of 246 (87%) women (110/123 intervention and 105/123 usual care). Longitudinal mixed effects model analyses indicated no significant differences between the groups on any of the outcomes. The estimated mean difference in maternal nocturnal sleep between the intervention and usual care groups was 5.97 minutes (95% confidence interval -7.55 to 19.5 minutes, P=0.39). No differences in any outcomes were noted based on the specific nurse delivering the intervention or the number of phone contacts received.A behavioural-educational intervention delivered in the early postpartum, in hospital, and in the first weeks at home, was ineffective in improving maternal and infant sleep or other health outcomes in the first months postpartum.ISRCT No 13501166.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:A number of studies have established an association between antenatal maternal depression and infant sleep. One key question is whether all infants are equally susceptible to environmental influences, including the intrauterine environment. Reactive temperament has been examined as a plasticity factor, with accumulating evidence suggesting that infants with reactive temperament may be more susceptible to both positive and negative environmental influences. This study examines whether infant reactivity moderates any association between antenatal depression and infant sleep in 2 longitudinal studies: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and Generation R cohorts. METHODS:Maternal depression scores were assessed during pregnancy using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Brief Symptom Inventory. Infant sleep duration and awakenings, in ALSPAC (N = 8318) and Generation R (N = 2241), were assessed at 18 and 24 months of age, respectively. Infant reactivity was assessed by temperament questionnaire at 6 months of age. RESULTS:Hierarchical linear regression models indicated a 3-way interaction between reactivity and gender moderating the effect of antenatal depression on infant sleep, on sleep duration in Generation R at 24 months (? = .085, p < .001) in the whole sample and when limited to the Dutch/European group (? = .055, p = .030), and on night awakenings at 18 months in ALSPAC (? = -.085, p = .013). Boys with more reactive temperament exhibited shorter sleep duration and a higher number of awakenings when previously exposed to maternal symptoms of antenatal depression. CONCLUSION:For the first time, these findings highlight, in 2 large cohorts, that children with temperamental reactivity may be more vulnerable to antenatal depression, raising the possibility of targeted interventions to improve infant outcomes.
Project description:Nocturnal awakenings are one of the most prevalent sleep disturbances in the general population. Little is known, however, about the frequency of these episodes and how difficulty resuming sleep once awakened affects subjective sleep quality and quantity.This is a cross-sectional telephone study with a representative sample consisting of 8937 non-institutionalized individuals aged 18 or over living in Texas, New York and California. The interviews included questions on sleeping habits, health, sleep and mental disorders. Nocturnal awakenings were evaluated according to their frequency per week and per night, as well as their duration.A total of 35.5% of the sample reported awakening at least three nights per week. Of this 35.5%, 43% (15.2% of the total sample) reported difficulty resuming sleep once awakened. More than 80% of subjects with insomnia symptoms (difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep or non-restorative sleep) also had nocturnal awakenings. Difficulty resuming sleep was associated with subjective shorter sleep duration, poorer sleep quality, greater daytime impairment, greater consultations for sleep disturbances and greater likelihood of receiving a sleep medication.Nocturnal awakenings disrupt the sleep of about one-third of the general population. Using difficulty resuming sleep identifies individuals with significant daytime impairment who are most likely to seek medical help for their sleep disturbances. In the absence of other insomnia symptoms, nocturnal awakenings alone are unlikely to be associated with daytime impairments.
Project description:Nocturia (nocturnal awakenings associated with urination) is so common a nocturnal behavior that its association with poor sleep is often overlooked. This study examined nocturia and its potential role in poor sleep by examining reported nightly awakenings and associated bathroom trips.Sleep diaries were kept by 119 adults with poor sleep for intervals up to 14 days. Diaries collected data on nightly number of awakenings and nightly number of bathroom trips. The proportion of nocturnal awakenings accompanied by voiding for each night was calculated and averaged within each individual. Demographics and various health conditions were examined in relation to this measure.Nocturia was defined when at least two-thirds of all awakenings were associated with nocturnal voiding. Absence of nocturia was defined when less than one-third of awakenings were associated with voiding. Remaining cases were defined as having possible nocturia. Estimates of nocturia derived from prestudy screening were related to nocturia as defined by sleep diaries. Neither gender nor sleep apnea was associated with nocturia. Unadjusted analyses indicated that individuals with nocturia were more likely to have arthritis and attribute their nighttime awakenings to urge to void than individuals without nocturia.Nocturia is an exceedingly common phenomenon and may be associated with multiple morbidities. RESULTS are discussed in terms of causality and whether the perceived urge to void precedes or follows nocturnal awakening. Correlates of nocturia have important implications, because they can inform interventions that target brain (e.g., cognitive-behavioral treatments for insomnia, sedative/hypnotic medications) versus bladder (e.g., bladder control exercises, medications affecting urine production or urgency).
Project description:Peripartum depression is a common, serious complication in mothers. To assess the influence of infant care, sleep and growth on the risk of peripartum depression, 1,271 mothers of healthy one-month-old infants completed comprehensive questionnaires including the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Relationships between high depression scores and variables related to infants' care, sleep and growth were assessed adjusting for other variables. High depression scores were found in 233 mothers, which were associated with variables related to infants' care (poor satisfaction with infant care support, p < 0.001; mothers' passive response to night-time fussing, p = 0.001), sleep (dim bedroom lighting, p < 0.05; short sleep duration, p < 0.05) and growth (poor weight gain, p < 0.05), as well as maternal variables (primiparas, p < 0.001; poor income satisfaction, p < 0.001; poor sleep satisfaction, p < 0.001; daytime sleepiness, p = 0.001). Considering the observed association between high depression scores and infants' care, sleep and growth, a multidisciplinary approach accounting for infant care would be required to prevent peripartum depression.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing, inflammatory skin disease characterized by eczema and pruritus, and frequently impairs sleep quality. Although cyclosporine improves symptoms of AD, objective evaluation of sleep in patients with AD treated with cyclosporine has not been reported. This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of cyclosporine on sleep quality for patients with AD. METHODS:Twelve patients with moderate-to-severe AD were recruited. Nocturnal sleep quality was evaluated for 7 days using a sleep analyzer, which patients wore at the waist before and after cyclosporine was administered at 2.0-4.0 mg/kg per day. Seven parameters of sleep quality were measured before and after cyclosporine administration for a period of 7 days for each patient. RESULTS:The administration of cyclosporine significantly improved total sleep time in four cases, sleep latency in two cases, wake after sleep onset in six cases, number of awakenings in two cases, sleep efficiency in seven cases, number of awakenings for more than 8 min in three cases, and number of position changes recorded every 2 min in three cases. The mean values of sleep latency significantly decreased after cyclosporine administration (P?=?0.023). The mean value of sleep efficiency significantly increased after the administration (P?=?0.002). CONCLUSION:Cyclosporine improves sleep quality in patients with moderate-to-severe AD.
Project description:Our goal was to examine associations of infant sleep and feeding patterns with maternal sleep and mood among women at risk for postpartum depression. Participants were 30 women (age?±?SD?=?28.3?±?5.1 years) with a history of MDD (but not in a mood episode at enrollment) who completed daily sleep diaries, wore wrist actigraphs to estimate sleep, and had their mood assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-17) during four separate weeks of the perinatal period (33 weeks pregnancy and weeks 2, 6, and 16 postpartum). They logged their infants' sleep and feeding behaviors daily and reported postnatal stress on the Childcare Stress Inventory (CSI) at week 16. Mothers' actigraphically estimated sleep showed associations with infant sleep and feeding patterns only at postpartum week 2. Shorter duration of the longest infant-sleep bout was associated with shorter maternal sleep duration (p?=?.02) and lower sleep efficiency (p?=?.04), and maternal sleep efficiency was negatively associated with the number of infant-sleep bouts (p?=?.008) and duration of infant feeding (p?=?.008). Neither infant sleep nor feeding was associated with maternal sleep at 6 or 16 weeks, but more disturbed infant sleep and more frequent feeding at 6 weeks were associated with higher HAM-D scores at 6 and 16 weeks and higher CSI scores. Sleep in the mother-infant dyad is most tightly linked in the early postpartum weeks, but mothers continue to experience disturbed sleep and infant sleep and feeding behaviors continue to be associated with mothers' depressive symptoms and stress ratings as long as 16 weeks postpartum. These data imply that interventions designed to improve maternal sleep and postpartum mood should include both mothers and infants because improving infant sleep alone is not likely to improve maternal sleep, and poor infant sleep is linked to postpartum depression and stress.
Project description:Importance:Poor sleep during early childhood is associated with adverse outcomes, including obesity, cognitive impairment, and mental and behavioral disorders. Objective:To assess the efficacy of an educational intervention in the promotion of nighttime sleep duration. Design, Setting, and Participants:This single-blind, intent-to-treat randomized clinical trial included participants in Pelotas, Brazil, aged 3 months who were followed up until age 24 months. Eligibility criteria included healthy infants aged approximately 3 months who slept less than 15 hours per 24 hours. Infants were randomized to the intervention group or control group. Interventions:Information on sleep characteristics, improvements in the environment, establishment of a nighttime sleep routine, and waiting before attending nocturnal awakenings was delivered to mothers in the intervention group by trained home-visitors at baseline. The intervention group received a telephone call on the first and second day after the intervention and a home visit on the third day after the intervention. The intervention's content was reinforced at health care visits for ages 6 months and 12 months. Mothers allocated to the control group were counseled on the benefits of breastfeeding for the mother's and child's health and given written material with content on breastfeeding. Main Outcomes and Measures:Nighttime sleep duration was measured by interview and actigraphy at baseline and ages 6, 12, and 24 months and diaries at baseline and age 6 months. At ages 3 and 6 months, nighttime sleep self-regulation was calculated by subtracting nighttime sleep duration recorded by actigraphy from nighttime sleep duration recorded in the diaries and at ages 12 and 24 months by subtracting nighttime sleep duration recorded by actigraphy from nighttime sleep duration obtained by interview. Results:Among 1812 mother-infant dyads invited to participate, 798 met the inclusion criteria and 586 agreed to participate. The intervention group included 298 infants (154 [52.9%] boys), and the control group included 288 infants (164 [58.2%] boys). At age 6 months, mean (SD) nighttime sleep duration recorded in diaries was 9.80 (1.85) hours in the intervention group and 9.49 (2.07) hours in the control group, a difference of 19 minutes longer for the intervention group. At age 12 months, mean (SD) nighttime sleep duration based on the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire was 8.43 (1.35) hours in the intervention group and 8.52 (1.35) hours in the control group, a difference of 5 minutes shorter for the intervention group. At age 24 months, compared with information from the interview, actigraphy records showed that children in the intervention group stayed awake at night without signalizing for a mean (SD) of 0.52 (2.52) hours, whereas children in the control group stayed awake at night without signalizing for a mean (SD) of 0.23 (2.43) hours. There were no statistically significant difference between groups in any of the sleep parameters investigated. Conclusions and Relevance:This randomized clinical trial found that the educational intervention did not achieve longer nighttime sleep duration among infants in the intervention group. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02788630.
Project description:Purpose:A possible relationship between sleep bruxism (SB) and several sleep disorders has been suggested in children, which could influence sleep quality and quality of life. This study aims to assess such correlations in a large sample of school children. Methods:Parents of 741 consecutive children aged between 8 and 12 years filled the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC). It evaluated 45 items grouped in 8 components: duration of night-time sleep, sleep latency, bedtime problems, sleep quality, night awakenings, nocturnal symptoms, morning symptoms, and daytime sleepiness. An item evaluating parental-reported tooth grinding was also included. Correlation analysis was performed between parental-reported tooth grinding and all the other items. Results:A significant correlation between parental-reported tooth grinding and several sleep disorders concerning bedtime problems, night awakenings, nocturnal symptoms, and morning symptoms has been found. In general, correlation strength of significant pairs was low, ranging from 0.092 (sleep apnea) to 0.234 (movement while falling asleep). Conclusions:Parental-reported tooth grinding in children is correlated, even if weakly, with some sleep disorders concerning the sphere of bedtime problems, night awakenings, nocturnal symptoms, breathing symptoms, and morning symptoms. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings, with particular regard to the consistency of correlation outcomes between the parental reports and the sleep laboratory measures.
Project description:To determine the contribution of infant temperament to the relationship between maternal sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms. Utilizing a repeated measures design, 112 couples recruited from childbirth education classes were assessed in third trimester and postpartum. Instruments included Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, General Sleep Disturbance Scale, wrist actigraphy, and an investigator-developed tool to assess infant temperament completed by mothers and fathers. Regardless of infant temperament, mothers who slept < 4 h between midnight and 6 am and mothers who napped < 60 min during the day were at increased risk for depression at three months postpartum. Infant temperament was associated with maternal sleep but was not a significant predictor of depressive symptoms after controlling for other contextual factors. Postpartum clinical visits should include questions about maternal sleep so interventions can be directed toward sufficient sleep to minimize risk of postpartum depression.