The Northern Manhattan Caregiver Intervention Project: a randomised trial testing the effectiveness of a dementia caregiver intervention in Hispanics in New York City.
ABSTRACT: Dementia prevalence and its burden on families are increasing. Caregivers of persons with dementia have more depression and stress than the general population. Several interventions have proven efficacy in decreasing depression and stress in selected populations of caregivers. Hispanics in New York City tend to have a higher burden of dementia caregiving compared to non-Hispanic whites (NHW) because Hispanics have a higher prevalence of dementia, tend to have high family involvement, and tend to have higher psychosocial and economic stressors. Thus, we chose to test the effectiveness of a dementia caregiving intervention, the New York University Caregiver Intervention (NYUCI), with demonstrated efficacy in spouse caregivers in Hispanic relative caregivers of persons with dementia. Including the community health worker (CHW) intervention in both arms alleviates general psychosocial stressors and allows the assessment of the effectiveness of the intervention. Compared to two original efficacy studies of the NYUCI, which included only spouse caregivers, our study includes all relative caregivers, including common law spouses, children, siblings, a nephew and nieces. This study will be the first randomised trial to test the effectiveness of the NYUCI in Hispanic caregivers including non-spouses.The design of the study is a randomised controlled trial (RCT). Participants are randomised to two arms: case management by a CHW and an intervention arm including the NYUCI in addition to case management by the CHW. The duration of intervention is 6 months. The main outcomes in the trial are changes in the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale (ZCBS) from baseline to 6 months.This trial is approved by the Columbia University Medical Center Institutional Review Board (AAAI0022), and funded by the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities. The funding agency has no role in dissemination. www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01306695.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The prevalence of dementia is increasing without a known cure, resulting in an increasing number of informal caregivers. Caring for a person with dementia results in increased stress and depressive symptoms. There are several behavioural interventions designed to alleviate stress and depressive symptoms in caregivers of persons with dementia with evidence of efficacy. Two of the best-known interventions are the New York University Caregiver Intervention (NYUCI) and the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregivers Health (REACH). The effectiveness of the NYUCI and REACH has never been compared. There is also a paucity of data on which interventions are more effective in Hispanics in New York City. Thus, we proposed the Northern Manhattan Hispanic Caregiver intervention Effectiveness Study (NHiCE), a pragmatic clinical trial designed to compare the effectiveness of adaptations of the NYUCI and the REACH in informal Hispanic caregivers of persons with dementia in New York City. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:NHiCE is a 6-month randomised controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of adaptations of the NYUCI and REACH among 200 Hispanic informal adult caregivers of persons with dementia. The planned number of sessions of the NYUCI and REACH are similar. The primary outcome measures are changes from baseline to 6?months in the Zarit Caregiver Burden Scale and Geriatric Depression Scale. Our primary approach to analyses will be intent-to-treat. The primary analyses will use mixed random effects models, and a full information maximum likelihood approach, with sensitivity analyses using generalised estimating equation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:NHiCE is approved by the Institutional Review Board of Columbia University Medical Center (protocol AAAM5150). A Data Safety Monitoring Board monitors the progress of the study. Dissemination will include reports of the characteristics of the study participants, as well as a report of the results of the clinical trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT02092987, Pre-results.
Project description:Purpose of the Study:A noted limitation of dementia caregiver intervention research is a lack of focus on the mechanisms of successful programs. The purpose of this study was to conduct a process evaluation of the New York University Caregiver Intervention-Adult Child (NYUCI-AC) to describe its delivery and determine which of its components were associated with key outcomes (caregiver stress and well-being; care recipient residential care admission). Design and Methods:Adult child caregivers randomly assigned to receive the NYUCI-AC intervention (n = 54) were included. Detailed data on the frequency and duration of each intervention component received, 4-month review checklists, and regular caregiver assessments were collected. Quantitative (descriptive, logistic regression, Cox proportional hazards models, growth curve models) and qualitative thematic analyses were performed. Results:Adult children receiving the NYUCI-AC completed a mean of 5.19 individual and family counseling sessions; it took on average a little over 11 months to do so. All NYUCI-AC counseling components were generally well-received and improved caregivers' management of care-related stress. The individual counseling sessions' clinical benefits in reducing primary subjective stress were most apparent in the first year of the intervention. Caregivers who experienced negative outcomes over time used more family sessions. Implications:A key mechanism of benefit for adult child caregivers in the NYUCI-AC was the frequent use of individual counseling sessions. The qualitative and quantitative results emphasize the value of the NYUCI-AC's flexibility in allowing adult child caregivers to choose the timing and use of specific intervention components.
Project description:<h4>Background and objectives</h4>Many evaluations of nonpharmacologic interventions for family members of persons with Alzheimer's disease or related dementias (ADRDs) exist, but few consider effects on outcomes that are pertinent to caregivers' roles and relationships. The current study evaluated the efficacy of the New York University Caregiver Intervention-Adult Child (NYUCI-AC) on perceptions of family conflict, role conflict (effects of family caregiving and time, family, and social life), and perceived social support for adult child caregivers of relatives with ADRD over a 3-year period.<h4>Research design and methods</h4>A single-blinded randomized controlled trial design was used. One-hundred and seven adult child caregivers were enrolled in the NYUCI-AC and randomly assigned to a treatment or contact control group. Assessments were scheduled to be completed every 4 months during the first year of participation and every 6 months thereafter for up to 3 years. Individual growth curve models were utilized to ascertain the effects of the NYUCI-AC on change in family conflict, role conflict, and perceptions of social support.<h4>Results</h4>Among the entire sample, role conflict significantly (<i>p</i> < .05) declined and satisfaction with instrumental assistance increased over the course of the study, whereas family conflict slightly increased over the initial study period and then declined slightly. The findings indicated that the NYUCI-AC did not exert statistically significant effects on changes in family conflict, role conflict, or perceptions of social support over the 3-year study period.<h4>Discussion and implications</h4>Although the clinical content of some dementia caregiver interventions is tailored to the specific needs of each caregiver and family, the outcomes selected to judge the efficacy of these interventions might not follow similar principles. Incorporating clinical content and evaluation outcomes that are family-centered will help to advance the state of the art of dementia caregiving interventions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Caring for a family member with dementia is extremely stressful, contributes to psychiatric and physical illness among caregivers, and increases the risk for caregiver death. Finding better ways to support family caregivers is a major public health challenge. OBJECTIVE:To test the effects of a structured multicomponent intervention on quality of life and clinical depression in caregivers and on rates of institutional placement of care recipients in 3 diverse racial or ethnic groups. DESIGN:Randomized, controlled trial. SETTING:In-home caregivers in 5 U.S. cities. PARTICIPANTS:212 Hispanic or Latino, 219 white or Caucasian, and 211 black or African-American caregivers and their care recipients with Alzheimer disease or related disorders. INTERVENTION:Caregivers within each racial or ethnic group were randomly assigned to an intervention or to a control group. The intervention addressed caregiver depression, burden, self-care, and social support and care recipient problem behaviors through 12 in-home and telephone sessions over 6 months. Caregivers in the control group received 2 brief "check-in" telephone calls during the 6-month intervention. MEASUREMENTS:The primary outcome was a quality-of-life indicator comprising measures of 6-month caregiver depression, burden, self-care, and social support and care recipient problem behaviors. Secondary outcomes were caregiver clinical depression and institutional placement of the care recipient at 6 months. RESULTS:Hispanic or Latino and white or Caucasian caregivers in the intervention group experienced significantly greater improvement in quality of life than those in the control group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.037, respectively). Black or African-American spouse caregivers also improved significantly more (P = 0.003). Prevalence of clinical depression was lower among caregivers in the intervention group (12.6% vs. 22.7%; P = 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in institutionalization at 6 months. LIMITATIONS:The study used only a single 6-month follow-up assessment, combined heterogeneous cultures and ethnicities into a single group, and excluded some ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS:A structured multicomponent intervention adapted to individual risk profiles can increase the quality of life of ethnically diverse dementia caregivers. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00177489.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Web-based educational interventions are emerging as a potential solution to improve caregiver dementia knowledge and overall well-being.<h4>Objective</h4>To assess the feasibility of delivering a web-based intervention for dementia caregivers by examining: 1) engagement with the online platform, 2) skill implementation, and 3) changes on outcome metrics over the 30-day study period.<h4>Methods</h4>Enrolled participants were onboarded by a trained research coordinator and provided 24/7 access to the platform over 30 days. At study onset and completion, caregivers completed assessments of care recipient dementia severity and neuropsychiatric symptoms along with instruments which measured dementia knowledge, caregiver burden, and carer experience.<h4>Results</h4>Of 84 referrals, 60 caregivers met study inclusion criteria and 55 completed pre and post study measures. Caregivers completed an average of 8 hours of learning over the 30-day web-based intervention, with 84.4%of participants reporting using at least one skill they learned from the online platform. Eighty-nine percent of participants reported high satisfaction with the web-based educational intervention. There were small effect sizes for decreases in NPIQ neuropsychiatric symptom severity and caregiver distress scores from pre- to post-intervention. Small effect sizes were observed for changes in caregiver burden from pre- to post-intervention among caregivers who perceived their care recipient as having high global deterioration.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Findings show online educational programs are feasible for informal family caregivers of dementia and have perceived value. Future studies should address caregiver response to online education in less severe versus more severe care recipients, and explore the value of caregiver online platforms in diverse caregiver samples.
Project description:In Alzheimer's disease, two fundamental aspects become important for caregivers: ambiguity and ambivalence. Thus, anticipatory grief is considered an active psychological process that is very different from the mere anticipation of death. The present study aims to determine which characteristics of family caregivers of people with dementia, such as age, gender, educational level, relationship with the person with dementia, years with dementia or years as a caregiver, are related to the presence of anticipatory grief. A cross-sectional design was employed. The sample consisted of a total of 129 subjects who cared for a family member with dementia. A sociodemographic data sheet and a battery of tests measure the presence of anticipatory grief, caregiver burden and/or psychopathology. The results obtained allowed us to confirm some of the hypotheses regarding the anticipatory grief construct, the importance of the care time factor, in years and per day, as well as the relevance of the previous demographic and psychopathological profile (being female, spouse function and possible depressive symptomatology). Likewise, from the prediction analyzes performed, it seems that these variables can predict anticipatory grief. These results propose interesting opportunities to formulate care proposals to professionals and family caregivers in relation to care tasks and caregiver skills.
Project description:To evaluate the effectiveness of a combination of cholinesterase inhibitor therapy for patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and psychosocial intervention, for their spouse caregivers compared with drug treatment alone in three countries simultaneously.Randomized controlled trial. Structured questionnaires were administered at baseline and at regular follow-up intervals for 24 months by independent raters blind to group assignment.Outpatient research clinics in New York City, U.S., Manchester, U.K. and Sydney, Australia.Volunteer sample of 158 spouse caregivers of community dwelling patients with AD.Five sessions of individual and family counseling within 3 months of enrollment and continuous availability of ad hoc telephone counseling were provided for half the caregivers. Donepezil was prescribed for all patients.Depressive symptoms of spouse caregivers measured at intake and follow-up assessments for 24 months using Beck Depression Inventory (revised).Depression scores of caregivers who received counseling decreased over time, whereas the depression scores for caregivers who did not receive counseling increased. The benefit of the psychosocial intervention was significant after controlling for site, gender and country was not accounted for by antidepressant use and increased over 2 years even though the individual and family counseling sessions occurred in the first 3 months.Effective counseling and support interventions can reduce symptoms of depression in caregivers when patients are taking donepezil. Harmonized multinational psychosocial interventions are feasible. Combined drug and supportive care approaches to the management of people with AD should be a priority.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Caregivers of a family member with a chronic disability or illness such as dementia are at increased risk for chronic disease. There are many factors that contribute to dementia caregiver vulnerability and these factors can be challenging to assess in clinical settings. Self-rated health (SRH) is an independent measure of survival and physical health in the elderly. As an inclusive measure of health, SRH has been proposed as a reliable way to assess a patient's general health in primary care. Therefore, we sought to identify determinants of poor/fair SRH versus categories of at least good SRH in informal caregivers. METHODS:In a cross-sectional study, we examined 134 elderly (?55?years) providing in-home care for a spouse with dementia who rated their own health with a single-item question: "In general, would you say your health is excellent, very good, good, fair or poor?". In a multivariable model, we compared caregivers with poor/fair SRH to those with good, very good, or excellent SRH on demographics, health characteristics (health behaviors, physical health indicators, psychosocial factors) and caregiving-specific stress (a composite index/total of four caregiving-specific stressors: years of caregiving, dementia severity, care recipient functional impairment and perceived caregiver burden). RESULTS:Compared with caregivers who rated their own health as either good (31.3%), very good (38.8%) or excellent (14.2%), caregivers with poor/fair SRH (15.7%) were more likely to have lower physical function and total greater caregiving-specific stress. More years of caregiving, severe dementia and care recipient functional impairment, but not perceived caregiver burden, were also more likely among caregivers with poor/fair SRH. Additionally, high negative affect and low positive affect were more likely in caregivers with poor/fair vs. good or excellent and very good or excellent SRH, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Caregivers with poor/fair SRH were characterized by higher levels of medical comorbidity, low physical function, high negative, but low positive affect and longer duration of caregiving, as well as more severe dementia and greater functional impairment of the care recipient. These findings suggest that caregivers need to be more closely evaluated and targeted for preventive interventions in clinical practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT02317523 .
Project description:Caring for a family member with dementia is extremely stressful, and contributes to psychiatric and physical illness among caregivers. Therefore, a comprehensive programme called Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health II (REACH II) was developed in the United States to enhance the health of Alzheimer's caregivers. REACH II causes a clear reduction of the stress and burdens faced by informal caregivers at home. The aim of this protocol is to adapt, apply, and evaluate this proven intervention programme in a German-speaking area for the first time. This newly adapted intervention is called Deutsche Adaption der Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (DeREACH).A total of 138 informal caregivers at home are recruited in a single-centred, randomised controlled trial. The intervention (DeREACH) consists of nine home visits and three telephone contacts over six months, all of which focus on safety, psychological well-being and self-care, social support, problem behaviour and preventive health-related behaviours. A complex intervention assessment on effectiveness will be adopted when the primary outcome - namely, the reduction of caregiver burden - and other secondary outcomes, including changes with regard to anxiety and depression, somatisation, health-related quality of life, and perceived social support, are measured at baseline, as well as immediately and three months after the intervention. The change from baseline to post-intervention assessment with regard to the primary outcome will be compared between treatment and control group using t-tests for independent samples.It is anticipated that this study will show that DeREACH effectively reduces caregiver burden and therefore works under the conditions of a local German health-care system. If successful, this programme will provide an effective intervention programme in the German-speaking area to identify and develop the personal capabilities of informal caregivers to cope with the burdens of caring for people with dementia.
Project description:Caring for a family member with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or a related dementia is stressful, and this may especially be the case for racial/ethnic minority caregivers. This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of a pilot intervention for Vietnamese American dementia caregivers. A secondary, exploratory aim was to examine post-intervention effects on AD knowledge and psychosocial outcomes. Of the 87 individuals contacted, 32 met inclusion criteria. Of this number, 14 enrolled in the study with 11 caregivers completing the intervention, and 10 of the 11 completing 3-month follow-up data. Caregivers provided positive feedback on the intervention and had higher scores on AD knowledge and self-efficacy in seeking support services post-intervention, with the effect on self-efficacy maintained at 3-month follow-up. Recruitment for the intervention was difficult; however, once caregivers came to the first session, they were engaged and found the classes informative. Recommendations for a future intervention are discussed.