Abnormal expression of the pre-mRNA splicing regulators SRSF1, SRSF2, SRPK1 and SRPK2 in non small cell lung carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Splicing abnormalities frequently occur in cancer. A key role as splice site choice regulator is played by the members of the SR (Ser/Arg-rich) family of proteins. We recently demonstrated that SRSF2 is involved in cisplatin-mediated apoptosis of human lung carcinoma cell lines. In this study, by using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate that the SR proteins SRSF1 and SRSF2 are overexpressed in 63% and 65% of lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) as well as in 68% and 91% of squamous cell lung carcinoma (SCC), respectively, compared to normal lung epithelial cells. In addition, we show that SRSF2 overexpression correlates with high level of phosphorylated SRSF2 in both ADC (p<0.0001) and SCC (p = 0.02), indicating that SRSF2 mostly accumulates under a phosphorylated form in lung tumors. Consistently, we further show that the SR-phosphorylating kinases SRPK1 and SRPK2 are upregulated in 92% and 94% of ADC as well as in 72% and 68% of SCC, respectively. P-SRSF2 and SRPK2 scores are correlated in ADC (p = 0.01). Using lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, we demonstrate that SRSF1 overexpression leads to a more invasive phenotype, evidenced by activation of PI3K/AKT and p42/44MAPK signaling pathways, increased growth capacity in soft agar, acquisition of mesenchymal markers such as E cadherin loss, vimentin and fibronectin gain, and increased resistance to chemotherapies. Finally, we provide evidence that high levels of SRSF1 and P-SRSF2 proteins are associated with extensive stage (III-IV) in ADC. Taken together, these results indicate that a global deregulation of pre-mRNA splicing regulators occurs during lung tumorigenesis and does not predict same outcome in both Non Small Cell Lung Carcinoma histological sub-types, likely contributing to a more aggressive phenotype in adenocarcinoma.
Project description:Lineage transition in adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of non-small cell lung cancer, as implicated by clinical observation of mixed ADC and SCC pathologies in adenosquamous cell carcinoma, remains a fundamental yet unsolved question. Here we provide in vivo evidence showing the transdifferentiation of lung cancer from ADC to SCC in mice: Lkb1-deficient lung ADC progressively transdifferentiates into SCC, via a pathologically mixed mAd-SCC intermediate. We find that reduction of lysyl oxidase (Lox) in Lkb1-deficient lung ADC decreases collagen disposition and triggers extracellular matrix remodelling and upregulates p63 expression, a SCC lineage survival oncogene. Pharmacological Lox inhibition promotes the transdifferentiation, whereas ectopic Lox expression significantly inhibits this process. Notably, ADC and SCC show differential responses to Lox inhibition. Collectively, our findings demonstrate the de novo transdifferentiation of lung ADC to SCC in mice and provide mechanistic insight that may have important implications for lung cancer treatment.
Project description:Our previous study revealed that S100A7 was selectively expressed in lung squamous cell carcinoma tissues but not in adenocarcinoma. Thus far, the functions of S100A7 in lung cancer have remained largely unknown. Here, we reveal that S100A7 overexpression facilitates the transdifferentiation from adenocarcinoma (ADC) to squamous carcinoma (SCC) in several lung cancer cells, which is confirmed by an increase in DNp63 expression and a decrease in thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1) and aspartic proteinase napsin (napsin A) expression. Further study finds that activation of the Hippo pathway induces S100A7 expression and further confirms that nuclear YAP acts as a repressor of S100A7 in H292 cells. Subsequently, we verify that TEAD1 is required for YAP transcriptional repression of S100A7. More importantly, we determine that S100A7 overexpression partially rescues lung ADC to SCC transdifferentiation inhibited by YAP overexpression in all tested cells, suggesting that S100A7 and YAP have the opposite effects on lung ADC to SCC conversion. Taken together, our study demonstrates for the first time that S100A7 not only functions as a facilitator of adenous-squamous carcinoma phenotypic transition in lung cancer cells but also that its expression is differentially regulated by the Hippo-YAP pathway.
Project description:Adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) of the lung is an unusual histology type in non-small-cell lung cancers. Due to its rarity, the clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes of the lung ASC are incompletely understood. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to enroll 203,208 eligible patients, including 4,245 ASC, 124,253 adenocarcinoma (ADC) and 74,710 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients. To date, this is the largest cohort in a study for ASC of the lung. With regard to age, sex, race, year of diagnosis, tumor size and SEER stage, ASC was intermediate between ADC and SCC. However, compared with ADC and SCC patients, ASC patients presented with a higher tumor grade and lower prevalence of nodal metastasis. More ASC patients underwent surgery and a lower proportion underwent radiation treatment and chemotherapy. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that ASC patients had a better prognosis than ADC and SCC patients, but stratified analysis showed that the prognosis of ASC patients was worse than that of ADC and SCC patients in surgery and non-surgery subgroup. Multivariate analysis further confirmed that the ASC histology type was a risk factor for poor prognosis with respect to ADC and SCC. Using the propensity score matching to 1:1 match ASC with ADC or SCC, we found that ASC patients had worse survival than ADC and SCC patients. Subgroup analysis further demonstrated that ASC was a more aggressive histology type with a worse prognosis. These results provided a deep understanding of ASC, which contributed to better clinical diagnosis and treatment.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Nintedanib is a clinically approved multikinase receptor inhibitor to treat non-small cell lung cancer with adenocarcinoma (ADC) histology in combination with docetaxel, based on the clinical benefits reported on ADC but not on squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which are the two most common histologic lung cancer subtypes.<h4>Methods</h4>We examined the potential role of tumour-associated fibroblasts (TAFs) in the differential effects of nintedanib in ADC and SCC. Because TAFs are largely quiescent and activated in histologic sections, we focused on the antifibrotic effects of nintedanib on TAFs stimulated with the potent fibroblast activator TGF-β1, which is upregulated in lung cancer.<h4>Results</h4>Nintedanib dose-dependently inhibited the TGF-β1-induced expression of a panel of pro-fibrotic activation markers in both ADC-TAFs and control fibroblasts derived from uninvolved lung parenchyma, whereas such inhibition was very modest in SCC-TAFs. Remarkably, nintedanib abrogated the stimulation of growth and invasion in a panel of carcinoma cell lines induced by secreted factors from activated TAFs in ADC but not SCC, thereby supporting that TGF-β signalling and aberrant TAF-carcinoma cross-talk is regulated by different mechanisms in ADC and SCC.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These results reveal that nintedanib is an effective inhibitor of fibrosis and its associated tumour-promoting effects in ADC, and that the poor antifibrotic response of SCC-TAFs to nintedanib may contribute to the differential clinical benefit observed in both subtypes. Our findings also support that preclinical models based on carcinoma-TAF interactions may help defining the mechanisms of the poor antifibrotic response of SCC-TAFs to nintedanib and testing new combined therapies to further expand the therapeutic effects of this drug in solid tumours.
Project description:Lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the major subtypes of lung cancer. Our current knowledge of oncogenic drivers in this specific subtype of lung cancer is largely limited compared with lung adenocarcinoma (ADC). Through exon array analyses, molecular analyses and functional studies, we here identify the TRA2B-DNAH5 fusion as a novel oncogenic driver in lung SCC. We found that this gene fusion occurs exclusively in lung SCC (3.1%, 5/163), but not in lung ADC (0/119). Through mechanistic studies, we further revealed that this TRA2B-DNAH5 fusion promotes lung SCC malignant progression through regulating a SIRT6-ERK1/2-MMP1 signaling axis. We show that inhibition of ERK1/2 activation using selumetinib efficiently inhibits the growth of lung SCC with TRA2B-DNAH5 fusion expression. These findings improve our current knowledge of oncogenic drivers in lung SCC and provide a potential therapeutic strategy for lung SCC patients with TRA2B-DNAH5 fusion.
Project description:Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer, with a poor response to chemotherapy and low survival rate. This unfavorable treatment response is likely to derive from both late diagnosis and from complex, incompletely understood biology, and heterogeneity among NSCLC subtypes. To define the relative contributions of major cellular pathways to the biogenesis of NSCLC and highlight major differences between NSCLC subtypes, we studied the molecular signatures of lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), based on analysis of gene expression and comparison of tumor samples with normal lung tissue. Our results suggest the existence of specific molecular networks and subtype-specific differences between lung ADC and SCC subtypes, mostly found in cell cycle, DNA repair, and metabolic pathways. However, we also observed similarities across major gene interaction networks and pathways in ADC and SCC. These data provide a new insight into the biology of ADC and SCC and can be used to explore novel therapeutic interventions in lung cancer chemoprevention and treatment.
Project description:Our group previously reported the gene expression profiles of four stages of human lung development, and the expression of one group of genes (PTN1 genes) steadily decreased during lung development, the data included four stages of human lung development and 69 lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) samples, and their gene expression profile data are available in the GEO (GSE43767). Our group has already performed another study with 69 lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tissues, the gene expression profile data are available in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GSE67061). In the present study, we performed the whole genome gene expression mircroarray of 60 paracancerous tissues of human lung squamous cell carcinoma, we aim to show expression characteristics of PTN1 genes during the four lung developmental stages and in lung ADC, lung SCC and paracancerous samples. We examined the prognostic value of the PTN1 genes in five independent lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and five squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) microarray datasets and revealed that the expression of PTN1 genes was associated with survival in lung ADC patients but had no prognostic value for lung SCC.
Project description:There are many similarities between embryonic development and tumorigenesis, and gene expression profiles show that certain correlations exist between the gene signature during development and the clinical phenotypes of different cancers. Our group previously reported the gene expression profiles of human lung development, and the expression of one group of proliferation-related genes (PTN1 genes) steadily decreased during lung development. Here, we examined the prognostic value of PTN1 genes in 5 independent lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and 5 lung independent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) microarray datasets and found that the expression levels of PTN1 genes were associated with survival in lung ADC but not lung SCC. All of the lung ADC datasets contained a set of highly correlated genes from PTN1 genes, but the lung SCC datasets had no similar set of genes. We identified 63 unique core genes from the PTN1 genes in the 5 lung ADC datasets: 17 of these core genes appeared in at least 4 of the lung ADC datasets, and the 17 corresponding proteins clearly interacted more strongly with each other in lung ADC than in lung SCC. Moreover, 16 of the 17 core genes play major roles in the G2 /M phase of the cell cycle. These data indicate that proliferation-related genes in lung development have a significant prognostic value for lung ADC; the synergistic effects of the 17 core genes play an important role in lung ADC prognosis. These genes may have significant clinical implications for the treatment and prognosis of lung ADC.
Project description:Lung cancer is among the major causes of cancer deaths, and the survival rate of lung cancer patients is extremely low. Recent studies have demonstrated that the gene CDKN3 is related to neoplasia, but in the literature severe controversy exists over whether it is involved in cancer progression or, conversely, tumor inhibition. In this study, we investigated the expression of CDKN3 and its association with prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) using datasets in Lung Cancer Explorer (LCE; http://qbrc.swmed.edu/lce/). We found that CDKN3 was up-regulated in ADC and SCC compared to normal tissues. We also found that CDKN3 was expressed at a higher level in SCC than in ADC, which was further validated through meta-analysis (coefficient = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.50-2.67, P < 0.0001). In addition, based on meta-analysis for the prognostic value of CDKN3, we found that higher CDKN3 expression was associated with poorer survival outcomes in ADC (HR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.39-1.96, P < 0.0001), but not in SCC (HR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.84-1.44, P = 0.494). Our findings indicate that CDKN3 may be a prognostic marker in ADC, though the detailed mechanism is yet to be revealed.
Project description:Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a lethal and aggressive malignancy. Currently, the identities of prognostic and predictive makers of NSCLC have not been fully established. Dysregulated Notch signaling has been implicated in many human malignancies, including NSCLC. However, the prognostic value of measuring Notch signaling and the utility of developing Notch-targeted therapies in NSCLC remain inconclusive. The present study investigated the association of individual Notch receptor and ligand levels with lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) prognosis using the Kaplan-Meier plotte database. This online database encompasses 2437 lung cancer samples. Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The results showed that higher Notch1, Notch2, JAG1, and DLL1 mRNA expression predicted better overall survival (OS) in lung ADC, but showed no significance in SCC patients. Elevated Notch3, JAG2, and DLL3 mRNA expression was associated with poor OS of ADC patients, but not in SCC patients. There was no association between Notch4 and OS in either lung ADC or SCC patients. In conclusion, the set of Notch1, Notch2, JAG1, DLL1 and that of Notch3, JAG2, DLL3 played opposing prognostic roles in lung ADC patients. Neither set of Notch receptors and ligands was indicative of lung SCC prognosis. Notch signaling could serve as promising marker to predict outcomes in lung ADC patients. The distinct features of lung cancer subtypes and Notch components should be considered when developing future Notch-targeted therapies.