Identification of cytoskeleton-associated proteins essential for lysosomal stability and survival of human cancer cells.
ABSTRACT: Microtubule-disturbing drugs inhibit lysosomal trafficking and induce lysosomal membrane permeabilization followed by cathepsin-dependent cell death. To identify specific trafficking-related proteins that control cell survival and lysosomal stability, we screened a molecular motor siRNA library in human MCF7 breast cancer cells. SiRNAs targeting four kinesins (KIF11/Eg5, KIF20A, KIF21A, KIF25), myosin 1G (MYO1G), myosin heavy chain 1 (MYH1) and tropomyosin 2 (TPM2) were identified as effective inducers of non-apoptotic cell death. The cell death induced by KIF11, KIF21A, KIF25, MYH1 or TPM2 siRNAs was preceded by lysosomal membrane permeabilization, and all identified siRNAs induced several changes in the endo-lysosomal compartment, i.e. increased lysosomal volume (KIF11, KIF20A, KIF25, MYO1G, MYH1), increased cysteine cathepsin activity (KIF20A, KIF25), altered lysosomal localization (KIF25, MYH1, TPM2), increased dextran accumulation (KIF20A), or reduced autophagic flux (MYO1G, MYH1). Importantly, all seven siRNAs also killed human cervix cancer (HeLa) and osteosarcoma (U-2-OS) cells and sensitized cancer cells to other lysosome-destabilizing treatments, i.e. photo-oxidation, siramesine, etoposide or cisplatin. Similarly to KIF11 siRNA, the KIF11 inhibitor monastrol induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization and sensitized several cancer cell lines to siramesine. While KIF11 inhibitors are under clinical development as mitotic blockers, our data reveal a new function for KIF11 in controlling lysosomal stability and introduce six other molecular motors as putative cancer drug targets.
Project description:Kinesins are a superfamily of motor proteins and often deregulated in different cancers. However, the mechanism of their deregulation has been poorly understood. Through examining kinesin gene family expression in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cells, we found that estrogen stimulation of cancer cell proliferation involves a concerted regulation of specific kinesins. Estrogen strongly induces expression of 19 kinesin genes such as Kif4A/4B, Kif5A/5B, Kif10, Kif11, Kif15, Kif18A/18B, Kif20A/20B, Kif21, Kif23, Kif24, Kif25, and KifC1, whereas suppresses the expression of seven others, including Kif1A, Kif1C, Kif7, and KifC3. Interestingly, the bromodomain protein ANCCA/ATAD2, previously shown to be an estrogen-induced chromatin regulator, plays a crucial role in the up- and downregulation of kinesins by estrogen. Its overexpression drives estrogen-independent upregulation of specific kinesins. Mechanistically, ANCCA (AAA nuclear coregulator cancer associated) mediates E2-dependent recruitment of E2F and MLL1 histone methyltransferase at kinesin gene promoters for gene activation-associated H3K4me3 methylation. Importantly, elevated levels of Kif4A, Kif15, Kif20A, and Kif23 correlate with that of ANCCA in the tumors and with poor relapse-free survival of patients with ER-positive breast cancer. Their knockdown strongly impeded proliferation and induced apoptosis of both tamoxifen-sensitive and resistant cancer cells. Together, the study reveals ANCCA as a key mediator of kinesin family deregulation in breast cancer and the crucial role of multiple kinesins in growth and survival of the tumor cells.These findings support the development of novel inhibitors of cancer-associated kinesins and their regulator ANCCA for effective treatment of cancers including tamoxifen-resistant breast cancers.
Project description:Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent type of cell death distinct from apoptosis or necrosis characterized by accumulation of reactive oxygen species. The combination of siramesine, a lysosomotropic agent, and lapatinib, a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), synergistically induced cell death in breast cancer cells mediated by ferroptosis. In this study, we showed that this combination of siramesine and lapatinib induces synergistic cell death in glioma cell line U87 and lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. This cell death was characterized by the increase in iron content, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and lipid peroxidation accumulation after 24 hours of treatment. Moreover, iron chelator DFO and ferrostatin-1, a ferroptosis inhibitor, significantly reduced cell death. The mechanism underlying the activation of the ferroptotic pathway involves lysosomal permeabilization and increase in reactive iron levels in these cells. In addition, the downregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein occurred. Overexpression of HO-1 resulted in reduction of ROS and lipid peroxidation production and cell death. Furthermore, knocking down of HO-1 combined with siramesine treatment resulted in increased cell death. Finally, we found that the inhibition of the proteasome system rescued HO-1 expression levels. Our results suggest that the induction of ferroptosis by combining a lysosomotropic agent and a tyrosine kinase inhibitor is mediated by iron release from lysosomes and HO-1 degradation by the proteasome system.
Project description:A sigma-2 receptor agonist siramesine has been shown to trigger cell death of cancer cells and to exhibit a potent anticancer activity in vivo. However, its mechanism of action is still poorly understood. We show that siramesine can induce rapid cell death in a number of cell lines at concentrations above 20 ?M. In HaCaT cells, cell death was accompanied by caspase activation, rapid loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cytochrome c release, cardiolipin peroxidation and typical apoptotic morphology, whereas in U-87MG cells most apoptotic hallmarks were not notable, although MMP was rapidly lost. In contrast to the rapid loss of MMP above 20 ?M siramesine, a rapid increase in lysosomal pH was observed at all concentrations tested (5-40 ?M); however, it was not accompanied by lysosomal membrane permeabilisation (LMP) and the release of lysosomal enzymes into the cytosol. Increased lysosomal pH reduced the lysosomal degradation potential as indicated by the accumulation of immature forms of cysteine cathepsins. The lipophilic antioxidant ?-tocopherol, but not the hydrophilic antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine, considerably reduced cell death and destabilisation of mitochondrial membranes, but did not prevent the increase in lysosomal pH. At concentrations below 15 ?M, siramesine triggered cell death after 2 days or later, which seems to be associated with a general metabolic and energy imbalance due to defects in the endocytic pathway, intracellular trafficking and energy production, and not by a specific molecular event. Overall, we show that cell death in siramesine-treated cells is induced by destabilisation of mitochondria and is independent of LMP and the release of cathepsins into the cytosol. Moreover, it is unlikely that siramesine acts exclusively through sigma-2 receptors, but rather through multiple molecular targets inside the cell. Our findings are therefore of significant importance in designing the next generation of siramesine analogues with high anticancer potential.
Project description:Despite significant efforts to improve pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) clinical outcomes, overall survival remains dismal. The poor response to current therapies is partly due to the existence of pancreatic cancer stem cells (PaCSCs), which are efficient drivers of PDAC tumorigenesis, metastasis and relapse. To find new therapeutic agents that could efficiently kill PaCSCs, we screened a chemical library of 680 compounds for candidate small molecules with anti-CSC activity, and identified two compounds of a specific chemical series with potent activity in vitro and in vivo against patient-derived xenograft (PDX) cultures. The anti-CSC mechanism of action of this specific chemical series was found to rely on induction of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), which is likely associated with the increased lysosomal mass observed in PaCSCs. Using the well characterized LMP-inducer siramesine as a tool molecule, we show elimination of the PaCSC population in mice implanted with tumors from two PDX models. Collectively, our approach identified lysosomal disruption as a promising anti-CSC therapeutic strategy for PDAC.
Project description:Kinesins play an important role in many physiological functions including intracellular vesicle transport and mitosis. The emerging role of kinesins in different cancers led us to investigate the expression and functional role of kinesins in meningioma. Therefore, we re-analyzed our previous microarray dataset of benign, atypical, and anaplastic meningiomas (n = 62) and got evidence for differential expression of five kinesins (KIFC1, KIF4A, KIF11, KIF14 and KIF20A). Further validation in an extended study sample (n = 208) revealed a significant upregulation of these genes in WHO°I to °III meningiomas (WHO°I n = 61, WHO°II n = 88, and WHO°III n = 59), which was most pronounced in clinically more aggressive tumors of the same WHO grade. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed a WHO grade-associated upregulated protein expression in meningioma tissues. Furthermore, high mRNA expression levels of KIFC1, KIF11, KIF14 and KIF20A were associated with shorter progression-free survival. On a functional level, knockdown of kinesins in Ben-Men-1 cells and in the newly established anaplastic meningioma cell line NCH93 resulted in a significantly inhibited tumor cell proliferation upon siRNA-mediated downregulation of KIF11 in both cell lines by up to 95% and 71%, respectively. Taken together, in this study we were able to identify the prognostic and functional role of several kinesin family members of which KIF11 exhibits the most promising properties as a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic target, which may offer new treatment options for aggressive meningiomas.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal cancers globally. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection might cause chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, leading to HCC. To screen prognostic genes and therapeutic targets for HCC by bioinformatics analysis and determine the mechanisms underlying HBV-related HCC, three high-throughput RNA-seq based raw datasets, namely GSE25599, GSE77509, and GSE94660, were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, and one RNA-seq raw dataset was acquired from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Overall, 103 genes were up-regulated and 127 were down-regulated. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was established using Cytoscape software, and 12 pivotal genes were selected as hub genes. The 230 differentially expressed genes and 12 hub genes were subjected to functional and pathway enrichment analyses, and the results suggested that cell cycle, nuclear division, mitotic nuclear division, oocyte meiosis, retinol metabolism, and p53 signaling-related pathways play important roles in HBV-related HCC progression. Further, among the 12 hub genes, kinesin family member 11 (KIF11), TPX2 microtubule nucleation factor (TPX2), kinesin family member 20A (KIF20A), and cyclin B2 (CCNB2) were identified as independent prognostic genes by survival analysis and univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. These four genes showed higher expression levels in HCC than in normal tissue samples, as identified upon analyses with Oncomine. In addition, in comparison with normal tissues, the expression levels of KIF11, TPX2, KIF20A, and CCNB2 were higher in HBV-related HCC than in HCV-related HCC tissues. In conclusion, our results suggest that KIF11, TPX2, KIF20A, and CCNB2 might be involved in the carcinogenesis and development of HBV-related HCC. They can thus be used as independent prognostic genes and novel biomarkers for the diagnosis of HBV-related HCC and development of pertinent therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Background:Kinesin superfamily (KIFs) has a long-reported significant influence on the initiation, development, and progress of breast cancer. However, the prognostic value of whole family members was poorly done. Our study intends to demonstrate the value of kinesin superfamily members as prognostic biomarkers as well as a therapeutic target of breast cancer. Methods:Comprehensive bioinformatics analyses were done using data from TCGA, GEO, METABRIC, and GTEx. LASSO regression was done to select tumor-related members. Nomogram was constructed to predict the overall survival (OS) of breast cancer patients. Expression profiles were testified by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Transcription factor, GO and KEGG enrichments were done to explore regulatory mechanism and functions. Results:A total of 20 differentially expressed KIFs were identified between breast cancer and normal tissue with 4 (KIF17, KIF26A, KIF7, KIFC3) downregulated and 16 (KIF10, KIF11, KIF14, KIF15, KIF18A, KIF18B, KIF20A, KIF20B, KIF22, KIF23, KIF24, KIF26B, KIF2C, KIF3B, KIF4A, KIFC1) overexpressed. Among which, 11 overexpressed KIFs (KIF10, KIF11, KIF14, KIF15, KIF18A, KIF18B, KIF20A, KIF23, KIF2C, KIF4A, KIFC1) significantly correlated with worse OS, relapse-free survival (RFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) of breast cancer. A 6-KIFs-based risk score (KIF10, KIF15, KIF18A, KIF18B, KIF20A, KIF4A) was generated by LASSO regression with a nomogram validated an accurate predictive efficacy. Both mRNA and protein expression of KIFs are experimentally demonstrated upregulated in breast cancer patients. Msh Homeobox 1 (MSX1) was identified as transcription factors of KIFs in breast cancer. GO and KEGG enrichments revealed functions and pathways affected in breast cancer. Conclusion:Overexpression of tumor-related KIFs correlate with worse outcomes of breast cancer patients and can work as potential prognostic biomarkers.
Project description:Kinesin motor proteins exert essential cellular functions in all eukaryotes. They control mitosis, migration and intracellular transport through interaction with microtubules. Small molecule inhibitors of the mitotic kinesin KiF11/Eg5 are a promising new class of anti-neoplastic agents currently evaluated in clinical cancer trials for solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Here we report induction of Eg5 and four other mitotic kinesins including KIF20A/Mklp2 upon stimulation of in vivo angiogenesis with vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). Expression analyses indicate up-regulation of several kinesin-encoding genes predominantly in lymphoblasts and endothelial cells. Chemical blockade of Eg5 inhibits endothelial cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Mitosis-independent vascular outgrowth in aortic ring cultures is strongly impaired after Eg5 or Mklp2 protein inhibition. In vivo, interfering with KIF11/Eg5 function causes developmental and vascular defects in zebrafish and chick embryos and potent inhibition of tumor angiogenesis in experimental tumor models. Besides blocking tumor cell proliferation, impairing endothelial function is a novel mechanism of action of kinesin inhibitors.
Project description:Oral cancer has a high mortality rate, and its incidence is increasing gradually worldwide. As the effectiveness of standard treatments is still limited, the development of new therapeutic strategies is eagerly awaited. Kinesin family member 11 (KIF11) is a motor protein required for establishing a bipolar spindle in cell division. The role of KIF11 in oral cancer is unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the role of KIF11 in oral cancer and evaluate its role as a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for treating oral cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that KIF11 was expressed in 64 of 99 (64.6%) oral cancer tissues but not in healthy oral epithelia. Strong KIF11 expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis among oral cancer patients (P=0.034), and multivariate analysis confirmed its independent prognostic value. In addition, inhibition of KIF11 expression by transfection of siRNAs into oral cancer cells or treatment of cells with a KIF11 inhibitor significantly suppressed cell proliferation, probably through G2/M arrest and subsequent induction of apoptosis. These results suggest that KIF11 could be a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for oral cancer.
Project description:Productive HIV infection of CD4(+) T cells leads to a caspase-independent cell death pathway associated with lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and cathepsin release, resulting in mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). Herein, we demonstrate that HIV infection induces damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM) expression in a p53-dependent manner. Knocking down the expression of DRAM and p53 genes with specific siRNAs inhibited autophagy and LMP. However, inhibition of Atg5 and Beclin genes that prevents autophagy had a minor effect on LMP and cell death. The knock down of DRAM gene inhibited cytochrome C release, MOMP and cell death. However, knocking down DRAM, we increased viral infection and production. Our study shows for the first time the involvement of DRAM in host-pathogen interactions, which may represent a mechanism of defense via the elimination of infected cells.