IL-11 is a parietal cell cytokine that induces atrophic gastritis.
ABSTRACT: IL-is important in gastric damage, mucosal repair and gastric cancer progression. We analysed IL-11 expression in H.pylori infected mouse stomach, the site of gastric IL-11 expression in mice and humans, and the effect of exogenous IL-11 on gastric mucosal homeostasis.IL-11 protein was localised in mouse and human stomach. The impact of chronic, exogenous IL-11 on normal mouse stomach was examined histologically and transcriptionally by microarray, confirmed by mRNA and protein analysis. Functional impact of IL-11 on gastric acid secretion was determined.In mice infected with H.pylori, IL-11 was increased in fundic mucosa with temporal expression similar to IL-1b. IL-11 protein was localised predominantly to parietal cells in mouse and human stomach. Application of exogenous IL-11 to resulted in fundic parietal and chief cell loss, hyperplasia, mucous cell metaplasia and inflammation. Coincident with cellular changes were an increased gastric pH, altered parietal cell ultrastructure and altered gene expression, particularly genes involved in immune response and ion transport which could result in compromised acid secretion. We confirmed that a single dose of IL-11 effectively ablated the gastric response to histamine.IL-11 is a parietal cell cytokine that blocks gastric acid secretion, likely via reducing expression of parietal cell ion transport genes, CCKb and histamine H2 receptors. IL-11 expression is increased in H. pylori infected mouse stomach and treatment of wild type mice with IL-11 induced changes in the gastric fundic mucosa reminiscent of chronic atrophic gastritis, a precursor to gastric cancer.
Project description:Despite the global prevalence of gastric disease, there are few adequate models in which to study the fundus epithelium of the human stomach. We differentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into gastric organoids containing fundic epithelium by first identifying and then recapitulating key events in embryonic fundus development. We found that disruption of Wnt/?-catenin signalling in mouse embryos led to conversion of fundic to antral epithelium, and that ?-catenin activation in hPSC-derived foregut progenitors promoted the development of human fundic-type gastric organoids (hFGOs). We then used hFGOs to identify temporally distinct roles for multiple signalling pathways in epithelial morphogenesis and differentiation of fundic cell types, including chief cells and functional parietal cells. hFGOs are a powerful model for studying the development of the human fundus and the molecular bases of human gastric physiology and pathophysiology, and also represent a new platform for drug discovery.
Project description:The loss of parietal cells from the fundic mucosa leads to the emergence of metaplastic lineages associated with an increased susceptibility to neoplastic transformation. Both intestinal metaplasia (IM) and spasmolytic polypeptide (TFF2/SP) expressing metaplasia (SPEM) have been identified in human stomach, but only SPEM is present in most mouse models of gastric metaplasia. We previously determined that loss of amphiregulin (AR) promotes SPEM induced by acute oxyntic atrophy. We have now examined whether SPEM in the AR-/- mouse predisposes the stomach to gastric neoplasia.Gross pathology of 18-month-old wild-type, AR-/-, and TGF-alpha-/- mice were examined. Ki-67, beta-catenin, Pdx-1, TFF3, and TFF2/SP expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Metaplastic gastric mucosa was analyzed by dual immunostaining for TFF2/SP with MUC2 or TFF3.By 18 months of age, more than 70% of AR-/- mice developed SPEM while 42% showed goblet cell IM labeled with MUC2, TFF3, and Pdx-1. A total of 28% had invasive gastric lesions in the fundus. No antral abnormalities were observed in AR-/- mice. Metaplastic cell lineages in AR-/- mice showed increases in cell proliferation and cytosolic beta-catenin expression. Dual staining for TFF2/SP with MUC2 or TFF3 showed glands containing both SPEM and IM with intervening cells expressing both TFF2/SP and MUC2 or TFF2/SP and TFF3.AR-/- mice develop SPEM, which gives rise to goblet cell IM and invasive fundic dysplastic lesions. The AR-/- mouse represents the first mouse model for spontaneous development of fundic SPEM with progression to IM.
Project description:A role for WNT signalling in gastric carcinogenesis has been suggested due to two major observations. First, patients with germline mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) are susceptible to stomach polyps and second, in gastric cancer, WNT activation confers a poor prognosis. However, the functional significance of deregulated WNT signalling in gastric homoeostasis and cancer is still unclear. In this study we have addressed this by investigating the immediate effects of WNT signalling activation within the stomach epithelium. We have specifically activated the WNT signalling pathway within the mouse adult gastric epithelium via deletion of either glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) or APC or via expression of a constitutively active ?-catenin protein. WNT pathway deregulation dramatically affects stomach homoeostasis at very short latencies. In the corpus, there is rapid loss of parietal cells with fundic gland polyp (FGP) formation and adenomatous change, which are similar to those observed in familial adenomatous polyposis. In the antrum, adenomas occur from 4 days post-WNT activation. Taken together, these data show a pivotal role for WNT signalling in gastric homoeostasis, FGP formation and adenomagenesis. Loss of the parietal cell population and corresponding FGP formation, an early event in gastric carcinogenesis, as well as antral adenoma formation are immediate effects of nuclear ?-catenin translocation and WNT target gene expression. Furthermore, our inducible murine model will permit a better understanding of the molecular changes required to drive tumourigenesis in the stomach.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection leads to acute induction of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) in the stomach that is associated with the initiation of gastritis. The mechanism by which H. pylori induces Shh is unknown. Shh is a target gene of transcription factor Nuclear Factor-?B (NF?B). We hypothesize that NF?B mediates H. pylori-induced Shh.To visualize Shh ligand expression in response to H. pylori infection in vivo, we used a mouse model that expresses Shh fused to green fluorescent protein (Shh::GFP mice) in place of wild-type Shh. In vitro, changes in Shh expression were measured in response to H. pylori infection using 3-dimensional epithelial cell cultures grown from whole dissociated gastric glands (organoids). Organoids were generated from stomachs collected from the fundic region of control and mice expressing a parietal cell-specific deletion of Shh (PC-Shh(KO) mice).Within 2 days of infection, H. pylori induced Shh expression within parietal cells of Shh::GFP mice. Organoids expressed all major gastric cell markers, including parietal cell marker H(+) ,K(+) -ATPase and Shh. H. pylori infection of gastric organoids induced Shh expression; a response that was blocked by inhibiting NF?B signaling and correlated with I?B degradation. H. pylori infection of PC-Shh(KO) mouse-derived organoids did not result in the induction of Shh expression.Gastric organoids allow for the study of the interaction between H. pylori and the differentiated gastric epithelium independent of the host immune response. H. pylori induces Shh expression from the parietal cells, a response mediated via activation of NF?B signaling.
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>This study aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms for the parietal cell loss and fundic hyperplasia observed in gastric mucosa of mice lacking the carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX).<h4>Methods</h4>We assessed the ability of CAIX-knockout and WT gastric surface epithelial cells to withstand a luminal acid load by measuring the pH<sub>i</sub> of exteriorized gastric mucosa in vivo using two-photon confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cytokines and claudin-18A2 expression was analysed by RT-PCR.<h4>Results</h4>CAIX-knockout gastric surface epithelial cells showed significantly faster pH<sub>i</sub> decline after luminal acid load compared to WT. Increased gastric mucosal IL-1? and iNOS, but decreased claudin-18A2 expression (which confer acid resistance) was observed shortly after weaning, prior to the loss of parietal and chief cells. At birth, neither inflammatory cytokines nor claudin-18 expression were altered between CAIX and WT gastric mucosa. The gradual loss of acid secretory capacity was paralleled by an increase in serum gastrin, IL-11 and foveolar hyperplasia. Mild chronic proton pump inhibition from the time of weaning did not prevent the claudin-18 decrease nor the increase in inflammatory markers at 1 month of age, except for IL-1?. However, the treatment reduced the parietal cell loss in CAIX-KO mice in the subsequent months.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We propose that CAIX converts protons that either backflux or are extruded from the cells rapidly to CO<sub>2</sub> and H<sub>2</sub> O, contributing to tight junction protection and gastric epithelial pH<sub>i</sub> regulation. Lack of CAIX results in persistent acid backflux via claudin-18 downregulation, causing loss of parietal cells, hypergastrinaemia and foveolar hyperplasia.
Project description:Both Helicobacter pylori and "Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii" infections are associated with peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. However, good animal models of H. pylori clinical diseases are rare. In this study, we aimed to establish an animal model of "Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii" gastric MALT lymphoma. We used a urease-positive gastric mucosal and mucus homogenate from a cynomolgus monkey maintained in C57BL/6 mouse stomachs. The bacterium in the homogenate was identified as "Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii" based on a DNA sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and urease genes. Mucosal and mucus homogenates were used to inoculate C57BL/6 mice, which were then examined for 24 months. We observed a gradual increase in the surface area of protrusive lesions in almost all infected C57BL/6 mouse fundic stomachs 6 months after infection. Light microscopic observations revealed an accumulation of B lymphocytes along with destruction of glandular elements and the presence of lymphoepithelial lesions consistent with low-grade MALT lymphomas. Electron microscopic observation revealed numerous "Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii" bacilli in the fundic glandular lumen, the intracellular canaliculi, and the cytoplasm of intact cells, as well as damaged parietal cells. In conclusion, "Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii" induced gastric MALT lymphomas in almost 100% of infected C57BL/6 mice after a 6-month period associated with the destruction of parietal cells.
Project description:Gastric mRNA expression of markers for acid secretion and inflammation and presence of gastric ulceration was studied in naturally Helicobacter suis-infected and non-infected 2-3 months old, 6-8 months old and adult pigs. In H. suis-infected 2-3 months old pigs, IL-8 and IL-1? transcript levels were upregulated in the pyloric gland zone, indicating an innate immune response. A similar response was demonstrated in the fundic gland zone of adult pigs, potentially due to a shift of H. suis colonization from the pyloric to the fundic gland zone. A Treg response in combination with decreased expressions of IL-8, IL-17A and IFN-? was indicated to be present in the H. suis-infected 6-8 months old pigs, which may have contributed to persistence of H. suis. In H. suis-infected adult pigs, a Treg response accompanied by a Th17 response was indicated, which may have played a role in the decreased number of H. suis bacteria in the stomach of this age group. The decreased G-cell mass and upregulated expression of somatostatin indicated decreased acid secretion in H. suis-infected 6-8 months old pigs. In H. suis-infected adult pigs, upregulation of most markers for gastric acid secretion and increased G-cell mass was detected. Presence of severe hyperkeratosis and erosions in the non-glandular part of the stomach were mainly seen in the H. suis-positive groups. These results show that H. suis infection affects the expression of markers for acid secretion and inflammation and indicate that these effects differ depending on the infection phase.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Loss of gastric parietal cells is a critical precursor to gastric metaplasia and neoplasia. However, the origin of metaplasia remains obscure. Acute parietal cell loss in gastrin-deficient mice treated with DMP-777 leads to the rapid emergence of spasmolytic polypeptide/trefoil factor family 2 (TFF2)-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) from the bases of fundic glands. We now sought to characterize more definitively the pathway for emergence of SPEM. METHODS:Emerging SPEM lineages in gastrin-deficient mice treated with DMP-777 were examined for immunolocalization of TFF2, intrinsic factor, and Mist1, and morphologically with electron microscopy. Emerging SPEM was isolated with laser-capture microdissection and RNA was analyzed using gene microarrays. Immunohistochemistry in mouse and human samples was used to confirm up-regulated transcripts. RESULTS:DMP-777-induced SPEM was immunoreactive for TFF2 and the differentiated chief cell markers, Mist1 and intrinsic factor, suggesting that SPEM derived from transdifferentiation of chief cells. Microarray analysis of microdissected SPEM lineages induced by DMP-777 showed up-regulation of transcripts associated with G1/S cell-cycle transition including minichromosome maintenance deficient proteins, as well as a number of secreted factors, including human epididymis 4 (HE4). HE4, which was absent in the normal stomach, was expressed in SPEM of human and mouse and in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer in human beings. CONCLUSIONS:Although traditionally metaplasia was thought to originate from normal mucosal progenitor cells, these studies indicate that SPEM evolves through either transdifferentiation of chief cells or activation of a basal cryptic progenitor. In addition, induction of metaplasia elicits the expression of secreted factors, such as HE4, relevant to gastric preneoplasia.
Project description:Mist1+ cells and parietal cells in mouse stomach were separatedly sorted, and RNAs were isolated. Mist1 (also known as Bhlha15) is expressed in gastric chief cells and gastric stem cells in mice. However, more specific genes for each population needs to be identified to better understand the precise biology in these cell populations. In order to address cell specific gene signature, we separately sorted Mist1+ gastric chief cells and Mist1+ gastric stem cells by FACS, and performed microarray analysis. Mist1+ gastric chief cells were sorted by using Mist1-CreERT; R26-TdTomato mouse stomach, immediately after tamoxifen administration. Mist1+ gastric stem cells were sorted by chief cell-ablated Mist1-CreERT; R26-TdTomato mouse stomach, combining with Lgr5-DTR mice. Lgr5-expressing chief cells were ablated by giving DT into these mice. As a control, acid-secreting gastric parietal cell samples were used. Mice were treated with or without Lgr5-DT ablation before sorting. Overall design: Mist1+TdTomato+ cells were sorted by FACS. Each group has 3 replicates. Groups contain parietal cell samples, Mist1+ cell samples, Mist1+ cell after Lgr5-ablation samples.