Biochemical and structural insights into xylan utilization by the thermophilic bacterium Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus.
ABSTRACT: Hemicellulose is the next most abundant plant cell wall component after cellulose. The abundance of hemicellulose such as xylan suggests that their hydrolysis and conversion to biofuels can improve the economics of bioenergy production. In an effort to understand xylan hydrolysis at high temperatures, we sequenced the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus. Analysis of the partial genome sequence revealed a gene cluster that contained both hydrolytic enzymes and also enzymes key to the pentose-phosphate pathway. The hydrolytic enzymes in the gene cluster were demonstrated to convert products from a large endoxylanase (Xyn10A) predicted to anchor to the surface of the bacterium. We further use structural and calorimetric studies to demonstrate that the end products of Xyn10A hydrolysis of xylan are recognized and bound by XBP1, a putative solute-binding protein, likely for transport into the cell. The XBP1 protein showed preference for xylo-oligosaccharides as follows: xylotriose > xylobiose > xylotetraose. To elucidate the structural basis for the oligosaccharide preference, we solved the co-crystal structure of XBP1 complexed with xylotriose to a 1.8-Å resolution. Analysis of the biochemical data in the context of the co-crystal structure reveals the molecular underpinnings of oligosaccharide length specificity.
Project description:Microbial hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is becoming increasingly important for the production of renewable biofuels to address global energy concerns. Hemicellulose is the second most abundant lignocellulosic biopolymer consisting of mostly xylan and other polysaccharides. A variety of enzymes is involved in complete hydrolysis of xylan into its constituent sugars for subsequent biofuel fermentation. Two enzymes, endo-?-xylanase and ?-xylosidase, are particularly important in hydrolyzing the xylan backbone into xylooligosaccharides and individual xylose units. In this study, we describe the cloning, expression, and characterization of xylanase and ?-xylosidase isolated from Bacillus subtilis M015 in Escherichia coli. The genes were identified to encode a 213 amino acid protein for xylanase (glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 11) and a 533 amino acid protein for ?-xylosidase (GH family 43). Recombinant enzymes were produced by periplasmic-leaky E. coli JE5505 and therefore secreted into the supernatant during growth. Temperature and pH optima were determined to be 50 °C and 5.5-6 for xylanase and 35 °C and 7.0-7.5 for ?-xylosidase using beech wood xylan and p-nitrophenyl-?-D-xylopyranoside as the substrates, respectively. We have also investigated the synergy of two enzymes on xylan hydrolysis and observed 90 % increase in total sugar release (composed of xylose, xylobiose, xylotriose, and xylotetraose) for xylanase/?-xylosidase combination as opposed to xylanase alone.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Endo-xylanases are essential in degrading hemicellulose of various lignocellulosic substrates. Hemicellulose degradation by Geobacillus spp. is facilitated by the hemicellulose utilization (HUS) locus that is present in most strains belonging to this genus. As part of the HUS locus, the xynA gene encoding an extracellular endo-xylanase is one of the few secreted enzymes and considered to be the key enzyme to initiate hemicellulose degradation. Several Geobacillus endo-xylanases have been characterized for their optimum temperature, optimum pH and generation of degradation products. However, these analyses provide limited details on the mode of action of the enzymes towards various substrates resulting in a lack of understanding about their hydrolytic potential. RESULTS:A HUS-locus associated gene (GtxynA1) from the thermophile Geobacillus thermodenitrificans T12 encodes an extracellular endo-xylanase that belongs to the family 10 glycoside hydrolases (GH10). The GtxynA1 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The resulting endo-xylanase (termed GtXynA1) was purified to homogeneity and showed activity between 40 °C and 80 °C, with an optimum activity at 60 °C, while being active between pH 3.0 to 9.0 with an optimum at pH 6.0. Its thermal stability was high and GtXynA1 showed 85% residual activity after 1 h of incubation at 60 °C. Highest activity was towards wheat arabinoxylan (WAX), beechwood xylan (BeWX) and birchwood xylan (BiWX). GtXynA1 is able to degrade WAX and BeWX producing mainly xylobiose and xylotriose. To determine its mode of action, we compared the hydrolysis products generated by GtXynA1 with those from the well-characterized GH10 endo-xylanase produced from Aspergillus awamori (AaXynA). The main difference in the mode of action between GtXynA1 and AaXynA on WAX is that GtXynA1 is less hindered by arabinosyl substituents and can therefore release shorter oligosaccharides. CONCLUSIONS:The G. thermodenitrificans T12 endo-xylanase, GtXynA1, shows temperature tolerance up to 80 °C and high activity to a variety of xylans. The mode of action of GtXynA1 reveals that arabinose substituents do not hamper substrate degradation by GtXynA1. The extensive hydrolysis of branched xylans makes this enzyme particularly suited for the conversion of a broad range of lignocellulosic substrates.
Project description:Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus 6A, an anaerobic and extremely thermophilic bacterium, uses natural xylan as carbon source. The encoded genes of C. lactoaceticus 6A for glycoside hydrolase (GH) provide a platform for xylan degradation. The GH family 10 xylanase (Xyn10A) and GH67 ?-glucuronidase (Agu67A) from C. lactoaceticus 6A were heterologously expressed, purified and characterized. Both Xyn10A and Agu67A are predicted as intracellular enzymes as no signal peptides identified. Xyn10A and Agu67A had molecular weight of 47.0 kDa and 80.0 kDa respectively as determined by SDS-PAGE, while both appeared as homodimer when analyzed by gel filtration. Xyn10A displayed the highest activity at 80 °C and pH 6.5, as 75 °C and pH 6.5 for Agu67A. Xyn10A had good stability at 75 °C, 80 °C, and pH 4.5-8.5, respectively, and was sensitive to various metal ions and reagents. Xyn10A possessed hydrolytic activity towards xylo-oligosaccharides (XOs) and beechwood xylan. At optimum conditions, the specific activity of Xyn10A was 44.6 IU/mg with beechwood xylan as substrate, and liberated branched XOs, xylobiose, and xylose. Agu67A was active on branched XOs with methyl-glucuronic acids (MeGlcA) sub-chains, and primarily generated XOs equivalents and MeGlcA. The specific activity of Agu67A was 1.3 IU/mg with aldobiouronic acid as substrate. The synergistic action of Xyn10A and Agu67A was observed with MeGlcA branched XOs and xylan as substrates, both backbone and branched chain of substrates were degraded, and liberated xylose, xylobiose, and MeGlcA. The synergism of Xyn10A and Agu67A provided not only a thermophilic method for natural xylan degradation, but also insight into the mechanisms for xylan utilization of C. lactoaceticus.
Project description:Xylanases decrease the xylan content in pretreated biomass releasing it from hemicellulose, thus improving the accessibility of cellulose for cellulases. In this work, an endo-?-1,4-xylanase from Aspergillus fumigatus var. niveus (AFUMN-GH10) was successfully expressed. The structural analysis and biochemical characterization showed this AFUMN-GH10 does not contain a carbohydrate-binding module. The enzyme retained its activity in a pH range from 4.5 to 7.0, with an optimal temperature at 60?°C. AFUMN-GH10 showed the highest activity in beechwood xylan. The mode of action of AFUMN-GH10 was investigated by hydrolysis of APTS-labeled xylohexaose, which resulted in xylotriose and xylobiose as the main products. AFUMN-GH10 released 27% of residual xylan from hydrothermally-pretreated corn stover and 14% of residual xylan from hydrothermally-pretreated sugarcane bagasse. The results showed that environmentally friendly pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis with AFUMN-GH10 in low concentration is a suitable method to remove part of residual and recalcitrant hemicellulose from biomass.
Project description:Caldicellulosiruptor kronotskyensis grows on lignocellulosic biomass by the catalysis of intrinsic glycoside hydrolase, and has potential application for consolidated bioprocessing. In current study, two predicted extra- (Xyn10A) and intracellular (Xyn10B) xylanase from C. kronotskyensis were comparatively characterized. Xyn10A and Xyn10B share GH10 catalytic domain with similarity of 41%, while the former contains two tandem N-terminus CBM22s. Xyn10A showed higher hydrolytic capability than Xyn10B on both beechwood xylan (BWX) and oat spelt xylan (OSX). Truncation mutation experiments revealed the importance of CBMs for hydrolytic activity, substrate binding and thermostability of Xyn10A.While the quantity of CBM was not directly related to bind and thermostability. Although CBM was considered to be crucial for substrate binding, Xyn10B and Xyn10A as well as truncations performed similar binding affinity to insoluble substrate OSX. Analysis of point mutation revealed similar key residues, Glu493, Glu601 and Trp658 for Xyn10A and Glu139, Glu247 and Trp305 for Xyn10B. Both Xyn10A and Xyn10B exhibited hydrolytic activity on the mechanical pretreated corncob. After pre-digested by Xyn10A or Xyn10B, the micropores inthe the mechanical pretreated corncob were observed, which enhanced the accessibility for cellulase. Compared with corncob hydrolyzed with cellulase alone, enhanced hydrolytic performance of was observed after pre-digestion by Xyn10A or Xyn10B.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Xylanase is an important component of hemicellulase enzyme system. Since it plays an important role in the hydrolysis of hemicellulose into xylooligosaccharides (XOs), high thermostable xylanase has been the focus of much recent attention as powerful enzyme as well as in the field of biomass utilization. RESULTS:A xylanase gene (xyn10A) with 3,474 bp was cloned from the extremely thermophilic bacterium Thermotoga thermarum that encodes a protein containing 1,158 amino acid residues. Based on amino acid sequence homology, hydrophobic cluster and three dimensional structure analyses, it was attested that the xylanase belongs to the glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 10 with five carbohydrate binding domains. When the xylanase gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), the specific enzyme activity of xylanase produced by the recombinant strain was up to 145.8 U mg-1. The xylanase was optimally active at 95°C, pH 7.0. In addition, it exhibited high thermostability over broad range of pH 4.0-8.5 and temperature 55-90°C upon the addition of 5 mM Ca2+. Confirmed by Ion Chromatography System (ICS) analysis, the end products of the hydrolysis of beechwood xylan were xylose, xylobiose, xylotriose, xylotetraose, xylopentaose and xylohexaose. CONCLUSIONS:The xylanase from T. thermarum is one of the hyperthermophilic xylanases that exhibits high thermostability, and thus, is a suitable candidate for generating XOs from cellulosic materials such as agricultural and forestry residues for the uses as prebiotics and precursors for further preparation of furfural and other chemicals.
Project description:A novel xylanase gene, xyn10A, was cloned from Flavobacterium johsoniae, overexpressed in a flavobacterial expression system, the recombinant enzyme purified by Ni-affinity chromatography, and enzyme structure and activity analyzed. Xyn10A was found to be a modular xylanase with an Fn3 accessory domain on its N-terminal and a catalytic region on the C-terminal. The optimum pH and temperature for Xyn10A was 8.0 and 30 °C, but Xyn10A retained 50% activity at 4 °C, indicating that Xyn10A is a cold-active xylanase. A Fn3-deletion xylanase had relative activity ca. 3.6-fold lower than the wild-type, indicating that Fn3 promotes xylanase activity. The Fn3 region also contributed to stability of the enzyme at elevated temperatures. However, Fn3 did not bind this xylanase to insoluble substrates. The enzyme hydrolyzed xylo-oligosaccharides into xylobiose, and xylose with xylobiose as the main product, confirming that Xyn10A is a strict endo-?-1,4-xylanase. Xyn10A also hydrolyzed birchwood and beechwood xylan to yield mainly xylose, xylobiose and xylotriose.
Project description:The economical production of fuels and commodity chemicals from lignocellulose requires the utilization of both the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions. Xylanase enzymes allow greater utilization of hemicellulose while also increasing cellulose hydrolysis. Recent metabolic engineering efforts have resulted in a strain of Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum that can convert C(5) and C(6) sugars, as well as insoluble xylan, into ethanol at high yield. To better understand the process of xylan solubilization in this organism, a series of targeted deletions were constructed in the homoethanologenic T. saccharolyticum strain M0355 to characterize xylan hydrolysis and xylose utilization in this organism. While the deletion of ?-xylosidase xylD slowed the growth of T. saccharolyticum on birchwood xylan and led to an accumulation of short-chain xylo-oligomers, no other single deletion, including the deletion of the previously characterized endoxylanase XynA, had a phenotype distinct from that of the wild type. This result indicates a multiplicity of xylanase enzymes which facilitate xylan degradation in T. saccharolyticum. Growth on xylan was prevented only when a previously uncharacterized endoxylanase encoded by xynC was also deleted in conjunction with xynA. Sequence analysis of xynC indicates that this enzyme, a low-molecular-weight endoxylanase with homology to glycoside hydrolase family 11 enzymes, is secreted yet untethered to the cell wall. Together, these observations expand our understanding of the enzymatic basis of xylan hydrolysis by T. saccharolyticum.
Project description:Xylan, the major constituent of hemicellulose, is composed of ?-(1,4)-linked xylopyranosyl units that for the backbone, with side chains formed by other chemical moieties such as arabinose, galactose, mannose, ferulic acid and acetyl groups. Acetyl xylan esterases and ?-L-arabinofuranosidases are two important accessory enzymes that remove side chain residues from xylan backbones and may act in synergy with other xylanolytic enzymes. Compared with enzymes possessing a single catalytic activity, multifunctional enzymes can achieve lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis using a less complex mixture of enzymes.Here, we cloned an acetyl xylan esterase (PcAxe) from Penicillium chrysogenum P33 and expressed it in Pichia pastoris GS115. The optimal pH and temperature of the recombinant PcAxe (rPcAxe) for 4-nitrophenyl acetate were 7.0 and 40 °C, respectively. rPcAxe is stable across a broad pH range, retaining 100% enzyme activity om pH 6-9 after a 1 h incubation. The enzyme tolerates the presence of a wide range of metal ions. Sequence alignment revealed a GH62 domain exhibiting ?-L-arabinofuranosidase activity with pH and temperature optima of pH 7.0 and 50 °C, in addition to the expected esterase domain. rPcAxe displayed significant synergy with a recombinant xylanase, with a degree of synergy of 1.35 for the hydrolysis of delignified corn stover. Release of glucose was increased by 51% from delignified corn stover when 2 mg of a commercial cellulase was replaced by an equivalent amount of rPcAxe, indicating superior hydrolytic efficiency.The novel bifunctional enzyme PcAxe was identified in P. chrysogenum P33. rPcAxe includes a carbohydrate esterase domain and a glycosyl hydrolase family 62 domain. This is the first detailed report on a novel bifunctional enzyme possessing acetyl xylan esterase and ?-L-arabinofuranosidase activities. These findings expand our current knowledge of glycoside hydrolases and pave the way for the discovery of similar novel enzymes.
Project description:Hemicellulose is one of the major forms of biomass in lignocellulose, and its essential component is xylan. We used a cell surface engineering system based on alpha-agglutinin to construct a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain codisplaying two types of xylan-degrading enzymes, namely, xylanase II (XYNII) from Trichoderma reesei QM9414 and beta-xylosidase (XylA) from Aspergillus oryzae NiaD300, on the cell surface. In a high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, xylose was detected as the main product of the yeast strain codisplaying XYNII and XylA, while xylobiose and xylotriose were detected as the main products of a yeast strain displaying XYNII on the cell surface. These results indicate that xylan is sequentially hydrolyzed to xylose by the codisplayed XYNII and XylA. In a further step toward achieving the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of xylan, a xylan-utilizing S. cerevisiae strain was constructed by codisplaying XYNII and XylA and introducing genes for xylose utilization, namely, those encoding xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase from Pichia stipitis and xylulokinase from S. cerevisiae. After 62 h of fermentation, 7.1 g of ethanol per liter was directly produced from birchwood xylan, and the yield in terms of grams of ethanol per gram of carbohydrate consumed was 0.30 g/g. These results demonstrate that the direct conversion of xylan to ethanol is accomplished by the xylan-utilizing S. cerevisiae strain.