Interaction between interleukin-10 (IL-10) polymorphisms and dietary fibre in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a Danish case-cohort study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: More than 50% of the colorectal cancer (CRC) etiology has been attributed to diet. Established or suspected dietary factors modifying risk of CRC are red meat, cereals, fish, and fibre. Diet and lifestyle may be linked to cancer through inflammation. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. We wanted to test if dietary factors and IL10 polymorphisms interact in relation to colorectal carcinogenesis. METHODS: The functional IL10 polymorphism C-592A (rs1800872) and the marker rs3024505 were assessed in relation to diet and lifestyle in a nested case-cohort study of 378 CRC cases and 775 randomly selected participants from a prospective study of 57,053 persons. Genotyping data on the IL10 polymorphism C-592A, smoking and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) was retrieved from Vogel et al. (Mutat Res, 2007; 624:88). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were calculated. RESULTS: No associations were found between the IL10 rs3024505 polymorphism and risk of CRC. There was interaction between rs3024505 and dietary fibre (P-value for interaction?=?0.01). IL10 rs3024505 homozygous wildtype carriers were at 27% reduced risk of CRC per 10?g fibre per day (95% CI: 0.60-0.88) whereas variant carriers had no risk reduction by fibre intake. Also, interaction between IL10 C-592A and intake of fibre was found (P-value for interaction?=?0.02). Among those eating <17.0 grams of fibre per day, carriers of an C-592A variant allele had a statistically significantly higher risk of colorectal cancer compared to homozygous wildtypes. No significant differences in colorectal cancer risk were observed between the reference group (CC and <17.0?g/day) and carriers of one C-592A variant allele eating 17.0 or more grams of dietary fibre per day. This suggests that the increased risk due to carrying the variant allele can be overcome by higher fibre intake. No interactions between IL10 polymorphisms and dietary meat, cereal, or fish intake, or between IL10 rs3024505 and smoking or NSAID use were found. CONCLUSIONS: In this northern Caucasian cohort we found interaction between IL10 and dietary fibre in CRC carcinogenesis. High intake of fibre seems to protect against CRC among individuals with IL10 related genetic susceptibility to CRC. This finding should be evaluated in other prospective and population-based cohorts with different ethnic groups.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Diet contributes to colorectal cancer development and may be potentially modified. We wanted to identify the biological mechanisms underlying colorectal carcinogenesis by assessment of diet-gene interactions. METHODS:The polymorphisms IL10 C-592A (rs1800872), C-rs3024505-T, IL1b C-3737T (rs4848306), G-1464C (rs1143623), T-31C (rs1143627) and PTGS2 (encoding COX-2) A-1195G (rs689466), G-765C (rs20417), and T8473C (rs5275) were assessed in relation to risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and interaction with diet (red meat, fish, fibre, cereals, fruit and vegetables) and lifestyle (non-steroid-anti-inflammatory drug use and smoking status) was assessed in a nested case-cohort study of nine hundred and seventy CRC cases and 1789 randomly selected participants from a prospective study of 57,053 persons. RESULTS:IL1b C-3737T, G-1464C and PTGS2 T8473C variant genotypes were associated with risk of CRC compared to the homozygous wildtype genotype (IRR=0.81, 95%CI: 0.68-0.97, p=0.02, and IRR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.04-1.44, p=0.02, IRR=0.75, 95%CI: 0.57-0.99, p=0.04, respectively). Interactions were found between diet and IL10 rs3024505 (P-value for interaction (P(int)); meat=0.04, fish=0.007, fibre=0.0008, vegetables=0.0005), C-592A (P(int); fibre=0.025), IL1b C-3737T (Pint; vegetables=0.030, NSAID use=0.040) and PTGS2 genotypes G-765C (P(int); meat=0.006, fibre=0.0003, fruit 0.004), and T8473C (P(int); meat 0.049, fruit=0.03) and A-1195G (P(int); meat 0.038, fibre 0.040, fruit=0.059, vegetables=0.025, and current smoking=0.046). CONCLUSIONS:Genetically determined low COX-2 and high IL-1? activity were associated with increased risk of CRC in this northern Caucasian cohort. Furthermore, interactions were found between IL10, IL1b, and PTGS2 and diet and lifestyle factors in relation to CRC. The present study demonstrates that gene-environment interactions may identify genes and environmental factors involved in colorectal carcinogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) include aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA). Long-term use of NSAIDs has been associated with lowered risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the use is hampered by adverse effects. Also, the anti-carcinogenic effects of NSAIDs are incompletely understood. Understanding biological effects of NSAIDs may help developing new preventive medical strategies. AIM: To identify gene-environment interactions between genetic variation and NSAID use in relation to risk of CRC. METHODS: We performed a PubMed literature search and all studies reporting original data on interactions between NSAIDs and polymorphisms in relation to CRC were evaluated. RESULTS: We found indications that aspirin interacted with rs6983267 close to MYC (encoding a transcription factor involved in cell cycle progression, apoptosis and cellular transformation) and NSAIDs interacted with rs3024505 and rs1800872 in or close to IL10 (encoding IL-10) in preventing CRC. Homozygous carriers of the variant allele of rs6983267 (ca. 25% of the population) halved their risk for CRC by aspirin use compared to homozygous wildtype carriers who did not benefit from aspirin intake. No interaction between use of NSAIDs and PTGS-2 (encoding COX-2) in relation to CRC risk was detected. Other findings of interactions between genes in inflammatory and oncogenic pathways and NSAIDs were considered suggestive. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of underlying biological effects of NSAIDs in relation to CRC is scarce and the basis for stratifying the patients for preventive treatment is not yet available. Further studies assessing interactions between long-term NSAID exposure and genetic variation in relation to CRC are warranted in large well-characterised prospective cohorts.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Diet contributes significantly to colorectal cancer (CRC) aetiology and may be potentially modifiable.<h4>Aim</h4>To review diet-gene interactions, aiming to further the understanding of the underlying biological pathways in CRC development.<h4>Methods</h4>The PubMed and Medline were systematically searched for prospective studies in relation to diet, colorectal cancer and genetics.<h4>Results</h4>In a meta-analysis, no interaction between NAT1 phenotypes and meat intake in relation to risk of CRC was found (P-value for interaction 0.95). We found a trend towards interaction between NAT2 phenotypes and meat intake in relation to risk of CRC. High meat intake was not associated with risk of CRC among carriers of the slow NAT2 phenotype, whereas NAT2 fast acetylators with high meat intake were at increased risk of CRC (OR = 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92-2.01) compared with slow acetylators with low meat intake (reference), P-value for interaction = 0.07. Low meat intake in the studied populations may influence the result. Interactions between meat, cruciferous vegetables, fibres, calcium, vitamins, and alcohol and ABCB1, NFKB1, GSTM1, GSTT1, CCND1, VDR, MGTM, IL10 and PPARG are suggested.<h4>Conclusions</h4>A number of interactions between genetic variation and diet are suggested, but the findings need replication in independent, prospective, and well-characterised cohorts before conclusions regarding the underlying biological mechanisms can be reached. When the above criteria are met, studies on diet-gene interactions may contribute valuable insight into the biological mechanisms underlying the role of various dietary items in colorectal carcinogenesis.
Project description:Improvements in colorectal cancer (CRC) detection and treatment have led to greater numbers of CRC survivors, for whom there is limited evidence on which to provide dietary guidelines to improve survival outcomes. Higher intake of red and processed meat and lower intake of fibre are associated with greater risk of developing CRC, but there is limited evidence regarding associations with survival after CRC diagnosis. Among 3789 CRC cases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, pre-diagnostic consumption of red meat, processed meat, poultry and dietary fibre was examined in relation to CRC-specific mortality (n 1008) and all-cause mortality (n 1262) using multivariable Cox regression models, adjusted for CRC risk factors. Pre-diagnostic red meat, processed meat or fibre intakes (defined as quartiles and continuous grams per day) were not associated with CRC-specific or all-cause mortality among CRC survivors; however, a marginal trend across quartiles of processed meat in relation to CRC mortality was detected (P 0·053). Pre-diagnostic poultry intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality among women (hazard ratio (HR)/20 g/d 0·92; 95 % CI 0·84, 1·00), but not among men (HR 1·00; 95 % CI 0·91, 1·09) (P for heterogeneity=0·10). Pre-diagnostic intake of red meat or fibre is not associated with CRC survival in the EPIC cohort. There is suggestive evidence of an association between poultry intake and all-cause mortality among female CRC survivors and between processed meat intake and CRC-specific mortality; however, further research using post-diagnostic dietary data is required to confirm this relationship.
Project description:PURPOSE: Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 10 (IL-10), play an essential role in atherogenesis. Increased IL-10 production has been found among carriers of the IL10 [TCATA] haplotype, which is formed by five polymorphisms at position -3575, -2763, -1082, -819, and -592 in the promoter region of the IL10 gene. Due to linkage disequilibrium, the presence of the [TCATA] haplotype can be unequivocally determined by analysis of the IL10-592C>A polymorphism. The purpose of the present study was to investigate a hypothesized association between the haplotype-tagging IL10 -592C>A polymorphism and the presence of retinal artery occlusion (RAO). METHODS: The present case-control study was comprised of 194 patients with RAO and 257 normal control subjects. Genotypes of the IL10 -592C>A polymorphism were determined by fluorogenic exonuclease (TaqMan) assay. RESULTS: Carriers of the IL10 -592A-allele, indicating the presence of the IL10 [TCATA] haplotype, were found significantly more often in controls than among patients with RAO (48.6% versus 36.1%; p=0.008). In a logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age, sex, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking habits, carriage of the IL10 -592A-allele was associated with an odds ratio of 0.65 (95% CI: 0.44-0.97) for RAO. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the IL10 [TCATA] haplotype, identified by the presence of the IL10 -592A-allele, may exert a protective effect against RAO.
Project description:Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory response to normal constituents of the intestinal flora in the genetically predisposed host. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1/HMOX1) is a powerful anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant enzyme, whereas the pro-inflammatory interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta/IL1B) and anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL-10/IL10) are key modulators for the initiation and maintenance of inflammation. We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL-1 beta, IL-10, and HO-1 genes, together with smoking, were associated with risk of CD and UC.Allele frequencies of the IL-1 beta T-31C (rs1143627), and IL-10 rs3024505, G-1082A (rs1800896), C-819T (rs1800871), and C-592A (rs1800872) and HO-1 A-413T (rs2071746) SNPs were assessed using a case-control design in a Danish cohort of 336 CD and 498 UC patients and 779 healthy controls. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated by logistic regression models.Carriers of rs3024505, a marker polymorphism flanking the IL-10 gene, were at increased risk of CD (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.06-1.85, P = 0.02) and UC (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.12-1.82, P = 0.004) and, furthermore, with risk of a diagnosis of CD and UC at young age (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.10-1.96) and OR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.04-1.76), respectively). No association was found between the IL-1 beta, IL-10 G-1082A, C-819T, C-592A, and HO-1 gene polymorphisms and CD or UC. No consistent interactions between smoking status and CD or UC genotypes were demonstrated.The rs3024505 marker polymorphism flanking the IL-10 gene was significantly associated with risk of UC and CD, whereas no association was found between IL-1 beta or HO-1 gene polymorphisms and risk of CD and UC in this Danish study, suggesting that IL-10, but not IL-1 beta or HO-1, has a role in IBD etiology in this population.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Earlier analyses within the EPIC study showed that dietary fibre intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, but results from some large cohort studies do not support this finding. We explored whether the association remained after longer follow-up with a near threefold increase in colorectal cancer cases, and if the association varied by gender and tumour location.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>After a mean follow-up of 11.0 years, 4,517 incident cases of colorectal cancer were documented. Total, cereal, fruit, and vegetable fibre intakes were estimated from dietary questionnaires at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models stratified by age, sex, and centre, and adjusted for total energy intake, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, education, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy, oral contraceptive use, and intakes of alcohol, folate, red and processed meats, and calcium. After multivariable adjustments, total dietary fibre was inversely associated with colorectal cancer (HR per 10 g/day increase in fibre 0.87, 95% CI: 0.79-0.96). Similar linear associations were observed for colon and rectal cancers. The association between total dietary fibre and risk of colorectal cancer risk did not differ by age, sex, or anthropometric, lifestyle, and dietary variables. Fibre from cereals and fibre from fruit and vegetables were similarly associated with colon cancer; but for rectal cancer, the inverse association was only evident for fibre from cereals.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Our results strengthen the evidence for the role of high dietary fibre intake in colorectal cancer prevention.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>People with a DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutation have a substantially elevated risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) but the modifiers of this risk are not well established. We investigated the association between dietary supplement intake and CRC risk for carriers.<h4>Methods</h4>This study included 1966 (56% female) carriers of an MMR gene mutation (719 MLH1, 931 MSH2, 211 MSH6 and 105 PMS2) who were recruited from the USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand into the Colon Cancer Family Registry between 1997 and 2012. Information on lifestyle factors including supplement intake was collected at the time of recruitment. Using Cox proportional hazards regression weighted to correct for ascertainment bias, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between self-reported multivitamin, calcium and folic acid supplement intake and CRC risk.<h4>Results</h4>Of 744 carriers with CRC, 18%, 6% and 5% reported intake of multivitamin, calcium and folic acid supplements for at least 1 month, respectively, compared with 27%, 11% and 10% of 1222 carriers without CRC. After adjusting for identified confounding variables, a decreased CRC risk was associated with multivitam inintake for at least 3 years (HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.32-0.69) and calcium intake for at least 3 years(HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.23-0.74), compared with never users. There was no evidence of an association between folic acid supplement intake and CRC risk (P = 0.82).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Intake of multivitamin and calcium supplements might be associated with a decreased risk of CRC for MMR gene mutation carriers.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To estimate the number and proportion of cancers occurring in Australia in 2010 attributable to consumption deficits in fruit, non-starchy vegetables and dietary fibre.<h4>Methods</h4>We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) for cancers causally associated with inadequate intake of fruit and non-starchy vegetables (oral cavity, pharynx, oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, stomach, larynx); inadequate intake of fruit (lung); and insufficient intake of fibre (colorectum). We used standard formulae incorporating prevalence of exposure (1995 National Nutrition Survey) and relative risks from independent studies.<h4>Results</h4>Overall, 1,555 (1.4% of all) and 311 (0.3% of all) cancers were attributable to inadequate intakes of fruit and non-starchy vegetables, respectively. A further 2,609 colorectal cancers (18% of colorectal) were attributable to insufficient fibre intake. If Australians increased their fibre intake by eating the recommended daily intakes of fruit and vegetables, an estimated 1,293 (8.8%) colorectal cancers could be prevented.<h4>Conclusions</h4>One in six colorectal cancer cases was attributable to inadequate intake of dietary fibre and about 1,800 cancers at other sites were attributable to insufficient fruit and non-starchy vegetable consumption.<h4>Implications</h4>Increasing the proportion of Australians who consume the recommended intake of fruit, vegetables and fibre could prevent up to 4% of all cancers.
Project description:<h4>Aims/hypothesis</h4>The T allele of transcription factor 7-like 2 gene variant, TCF7L2 rs7903146, increases the risk of type 2 diabetes by 40-50%. As TCF7L2 rs7903146 has been associated with diminished incretin effect we investigated whether interaction between dietary intake of carbohydrate, fat, protein or fibre and this variant affects the risk of type 2 diabetes.<h4>Methods</h4>A cohort of 24,799 non-diabetic individuals from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS), with dietary data obtained by a modified diet history method, were followed up for 12 years, with 1,649 recordings of incident type 2 diabetes made. Risk of type 2 diabetes in strata of diet quintiles was analysed prospectively adjusting for potential confounders. Cross-sectional analyses were performed on baseline fasting glucose and HbA(1c) levels in a subset of 5,216 randomly selected individuals from the MDCS.<h4>Results</h4>The elevated risk of type 2 diabetes with rs7903146 (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.33, 1.56, p = 4.6 × 10(-19)) increased with higher intake of dietary fibre (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.04, 1.47 to OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.31, 1.86 from the lowest to highest quintile; p (interaction) = 0.049). High intake of dietary fibre was inversely associated with diabetes incidence only among CC genotype carriers (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58, 0.94 per quintile, p = 0.025). The T allele was associated with 0.027% elevated HbA(1c) (p = 0.02) and this effect increased with higher intake of fibre (from -0.021% to 0.079% for the lowest to the highest quintile, p (interaction) = 0.02). Each quintile of higher fibre intake was associated with lower HbA(1c) levels among CC and CT but not among TT genotype carriers (-0.036%, p = 6.5 × 10(-7); -0.023%, p = 0.009; and 0.012%, p = 0.52, respectively).<h4>Conclusions/interpretation</h4>Our study suggests that dietary fibre intake may modify the association between TCF7L2 rs7903146 and incidence of type 2 diabetes, and that higher fibre intake may associate with protection from type 2 diabetes only among non-risk allele carriers.