A Five-year Review on the Etiology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Otitis Media Pathogens in Jordanian Children.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the bacteriological agents of otitis media in Jordanian children and to assess the in vitro susceptibility of these isolates to commonly used antibiotics. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of consecutive samples submitted for microbiological evaluation from outpatients children aged between 6 months and 15 years who were clinically diagnosed with otitis media and were treated at Princess Rahma Hospital in North Jordan between January 2005 and December 2009. RESULTS: A total of 724 isolates were recovered from cultures obtained from 863 children patients giving an isolation rate of 83.8%. The male and female isolate ratio was (1.26:1.0). The most common bacterial species isolated were S. aureus (59.9%) followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (22.4%), Pseudomonas (7.7%), E. coli (5.9%), Klebsiella spp. (3.1%) and Proteus spp. (0.9%). The most of S. aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin (94.0%) and gentamicin (87.3%). Streptococcus organisms were susceptible in highest percentage to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (87.1%). Gram-negative isolates were highly susceptible to ciprofloxacin (83.5%) and gentamicin (79.8%). Among all isolates, vancomycin was the most effective antimicrobial agent with susceptibility rate of 83.9%, whereas cefixime showed the lowest susceptibility rate of 39.7%. CONCLUSIONS: S. aureus isolates were the most frequent bacteria isolated from otitis media and were highly sensitive to vancomycin and gentamicin, while gram-negative isolates were more sensitive to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study aims to determine bacterial profile and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of chronic suppurative otitis media in the University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. RESULT:Sixty-two ear swabs were collected and 74 bacterial isolates were identified, of which 48 (77.4%) sample with mono-microbial growth, 11 (17.8%) with polymicrobial growth and the remaining 3 (4.8%) show no growth. The most common isolates were Proteus mirabilis 16 (21.6%), followed by S. aureus 12 (16.2%), Klebsiella spp. 10 (13.5%) and Providencia spp. 11 (14.9%). Proteus mirabilis was 100% susceptible to norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin while 87.5% of the isolates were susceptible to cefixime and gentamicin. S. aureus was 83.3% susceptible to gentamicin and clarithromycin, while 75% of the isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and chloramphenicol, however, 66.7% the isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and erythromycin. The overall prevalence of multidrug resistance in the current study was 35 (47.3%). In this study P. mirabilis, S. aureus, Providencia spp., and Klebsiella spp. were the most common bacterial isolate and all Gram negative isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, clarithromycin and tobramycin were relatively effective against Gram positive bacteria.
Project description:Reduced susceptibility to daptomycin in Staphylococcus aureus has now been described, leading to clinical failures. Here we determined the impact of daptomycin and gentamicin combination therapy on bactericidal activity and resistance emergence using daptomycin-susceptible and -resistant isolates with mutations linked to previous daptomycin or vancomycin exposure. Enhanced killing of S. aureus was observed when gentamicin was combined with daptomycin, most commonly with daptomycin concentrations below the peak serum free-drug concentrations achieved with standard dosing. Synergy was seen with daptomycin-susceptible isolates and with isolates resistant to vancomycin and daptomycin. Combination therapy also prevented the emergence of resistance. Daptomycin and gentamicin combination therapy may provide the synergy required to prevent emergence of resistance when daptomycin levels are below peak serum concentrations as would be found in deep-seated, complicated infections.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Staphylococcus aureus carriage is a known risk factor for staphylococcal disease. However, the carriage rates vary by country, demographic group and profession. This study aimed to determine the S. aureus carriage rate in children in Eastern Uganda, and identify S. aureus lineages that cause infection in Uganda.<h4>Methods</h4>Nasopharyngeal samples from 742 healthy children less than 5?years residing in the Iganga/Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site in Eastern Uganda were processed for isolation of S. aureus. Antibiotic susceptibility testing based on minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) was determined by the BD Phoenix™ system. Genotyping was performed by spa and SCCmec typing.<h4>Results</h4>The processed samples yielded 144?S. aureus isolates (one per child) therefore, the S. aureus carriage rate in children was 19.4% (144/742). Thirty one percent (45/144) of the isolates were methicillin resistant (MRSA) yielding a carriage rate of 6.1% (45/742). All isolates were susceptible to rifampicin, vancomycin and linezolid. Moreover, all MRSA were susceptible to vancomycin, linezolid and clindamycin. Compared to methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates (68.8%, 99/144), MRSA isolates were more resistant to non-beta-lactam antimicrobials -trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 73.3% (33/45) vs. 27.3% (27/99) [p?<?0.0001]; erythromycin 75.6% (34/45) vs. 24.2% (24/99) [p?<?0.0001]; chloramphenicol 60% (27/45) vs. 19.2% (19/99) [p?<?0.0001]; gentamicin 55.6% (25/45) vs. 25.3% (25/99) [p?=?0.0004]; and ciprofloxacin 35.6% (16/45) vs. 2% (2/99) [p?<?0.0001]. Furthermore, 42 MRSA (93.3%) were multidrug resistant (MDR) and one exhibited high-level resistance to mupirocin. Overall, 61 MSSA (61.6%) were MDR, including three mupirocin and clindamycin resistant isolates. Seven spa types were detected among MRSA, of which t037 and t064 were predominant and associated with SCCmec types I and IV, respectively. Fourteen spa types were detected in MSSA which consisted mainly of t645 and t4353.<h4>Conclusions</h4>S. aureus carriage rate in healthy children in Eastern Uganda is high and comparable to rates for hospitalized patients in Kampala. The detection of mupirocin resistance is worrying as it could rapidly increase if mupirocin is administered in a low-income setting. S. aureus strains of spa types t064, t037 (MRSA) and t645, t4353 (MSSA) are prevalent and could be responsible for majority of staphylococcal infections in Uganda.
Project description:PURPOSE:To investigate the risk factors, microbiological profiles, antibiotic susceptibility patterns, and treatment outcome in patients with bacterial keratitis at a Korean tertiary hospital. METHODS:A retrospective chart review was performed of patients who were diagnosed with infectious keratitis and underwent corneal scrapings for cultures at Seoul National University Hospital between 2007 and 2016. Demographics, clinical characteristics, microbiological data, antibiotic resistance and sensitivity, and treatment outcome were collected. RESULTS:Out of 129 scrapings, bacteria were isolated in 101 samples (78.3%). The most frequent isolates were coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) (15.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (12.1%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.3%). All gram-positive isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, but methicillin resistance was found in 29.4% of CNS and 15.4% of Staphylococcus aureus. All gram-negative isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime and carbapenem while 11.5%, 3.3% and 2.8% of gram-negative isolates were resistant to gentamicin, tobramycin and amikacin, respectively. Ciprofloxacin resistance was observed in 10.3% of gram-positive isolates and 8.8% of gram-negative isolates. No significant changes were observed in profiles of microbial isolates and antibiotic sensitivity over time. Eight eyes of 101 eyes (7.9%) eventually underwent evisceration for infection control. The use of topical glaucoma medication (p = 0.006) and history of ocular surgery (p = 0.019) were significant risk factors related to evisceration. CONCLUSIONS:CNS, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most common microorganisms responsible for bacterial keratitis. The duo-therapy using vancomycin and ceftazidime should be considered for empirical treatment until the culture and sensitivity results become available.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger) are popular as pets and are often used as laboratory animals for various studies. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major infectious agent that causes otitis media, pneumonia, septicaemia enteritis, and sudden death in chinchillas. This bacterium is also a leading cause of nosocomial infections in humans. To prevent propagation of P. aeruginosa infection among humans and animals, detailed characteristics of the isolates, including antibiotic susceptibility and genetic features, are needed. In this study, we surveyed P. aeruginosa distribution in chinchillas bred as pets or laboratory animals. We also characterized the isolates from these chinchillas by testing for antibiotic susceptibility and by gene analysis. RESULTS: P. aeruginosa was isolated from 41.8% of the 67 chinchillas included in the study. Slide agglutination and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis discriminated 5 serotypes and 7 unique patterns, respectively. For the antibiotic susceptibility test, 40.9% of isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, 77.3% to ciprofloxacin, 77.3% to imipenem, and 72.7% to ceftazidime. DNA analyses confirmed that none of the isolates contained the gene encoding extended-spectrum β-lactamases; however, 2 of the total 23 isolates were found to have a gene similar to the pilL gene that has been identified in the pathogenicity island of a clinical isolate of P. aeruginosa. CONCLUSIONS: P. aeruginosa is widely spread in chinchillas, including strains with reduced susceptibility to the antibiotics and highly virulent strains. The periodic monitoring should be performed to help prevent the propagation of this pathogen and reduce the risk of infection from chinchillas to humans.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is a main cause of bovine mastitis and a major pathogen affecting human health. The emergence and spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a significant concern for both animal health and public health. This study investigated the incidence of MRSA in milk samples collected from dairy cows with clinical mastitis and characterized the MRSA isolates using antimicrobial susceptibility tests and genetic typing methods. In total, 103 S. aureus isolates were obtained from dairy farms in 4 different provinces in China, including Gansu, Shanghai, Sichuan, and Guizhou. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of these isolates revealed that the resistance rates to penicillin and sulfamethoxazole were high, while the resistance rates to ciprofloxacin and vancomycin were low. Among the 103 isolates, 49 (47.6%) were found to be mecA-positive, indicating the high incidence of MRSA. However, 37 of the 49 mecA-positive isolates were susceptible to oxacillin as determined by antimicrobial susceptibility assays and were thus classified as oxacillin-susceptible mecA-positive S. aureus (OS-MRSA). These isolates could be misclassified as methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) if genetic detection of mecA was not performed. Molecular characterization of selected mecA-positive isolates showed that they were all negative with Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), but belonged to different spa types and SCCmec types. These results indicate that OS-MRSA is common in bovine mastitis in China and underscore the need for genetic methods (in addition to phenotypic tests) to accurately identify MRSA.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Ertapenem is a once-a-day carbapenem and has excellent activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic, facultative, and anaerobic bacteria. The susceptibility of isolates of community-acquired bacteremia to ertapenem has not been reported yet. The present study assesses the in vitro activity of ertapenem against aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with community-acquired bacteremia by determining and comparing the MICs of cefepime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin. The prevalence of extended broad spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) producing strains of community-acquired bacteremia and their susceptibility to these antibiotics are investigated. METHODS: Aerobic and facultative bacteria isolated from blood obtained from hospitalized patients with community-acquired bacteremia within 48 hours of admission between August 1, 2004 and September 30, 2004 in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Taiwan, were identified using standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated by Etest according to the standard guidelines provided by the manufacturer and document M100-S16 Performance Standards of the Clinical Laboratory of Standard Institute. Antimicrobial agents including cefepime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin were used against the bacterial isolates to test their MICs as determined by Etest. For Staphylococcus aureus isolates, MICs of oxacillin were also tested by Etest to differentiate oxacillin-sensitive and oxacillin-resistant S. aureus. RESULTS: Ertapenem was highly active in vitro against many aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens commonly recovered from patients with community-acquired bacteremia (128/159, 80.5 %). Ertapenem had more potent activity than ceftriaxone, piperacillin-tazobactam, or ciprofloxacin against oxacillin-susceptible S. aureus (17/17, 100%)and was more active than any of these agents against enterobacteriaceae (82/82, 100%). CONCLUSION: Based on the microbiology pattern of community-acquired bacteremia, initial empiric treatment that requires coverage of a broad spectrum of both gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic bacteria, such as ertapenem, may be justified in moderately severe cases of community-acquired bacteremia in non-immunocompromised hosts.
Project description:It has been reported that penicillin-binding protein 4 (PBP4) activity decreases when a vancomycin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolate is passaged in vitro to vancomycin resistance. We analyzed the PBP profiles of four vancomycin intermediately susceptible S. aureus (VISA) clinical isolates and found that PBP4 was undetectable in three isolates (HIP 5827, HIP 5836, and HIP 6297) and markedly reduced in a fourth (Mu50). PBP4 was readily visible in five vancomycin-susceptible, oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (ORSA) isolates. The nucleotide sequences of the pbp4 structural gene and flanking sequences did not different between the VISA and vancomycin-susceptible isolates. Overproduction of PBP4 on a high-copy-number plasmid in the VISA isolates produced a two- to threefold decrease in vancomycin MICs. Inactivation of pbp4 by allelic replacement mutagenesis in three vancomycin-susceptible ORSA strains (COL, RN450M, and N315) led to a decrease in vancomycin susceptibility, an increase in highly vancomycin-resistant subpopulations, and decreased cell wall cross-linking by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Complementation of the COL mutant with plasmid-encoded pbp4 restored the vancomycin MIC and increased cell wall cross-linking. These data suggest that alterations in PBP4 expression are at least partially responsible for the VISA phenotype.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most frequently isolated pathogens in neonatal cases of early and late-onset sepsis. Drug resistance profiles and carriage of toxin genes may affect the treatment and outcome of an infection. The present study aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns and frequencies of the toxin-associated genes conserved virulence factor B (CvfB), staphylococcal enterotoxin Q (SEQ) and staphylococcal enterotoxin K (SEK) among S. aureus isolates recovered from paediatric patients with bloodstream infections (BSIs) in Guangzhou (China). Of the 53 isolates, 43.4% were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and resistance rates to penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin of 92.5, 66.0, 62.3, 13.2, 20.8 and 1.9% were recorded, respectively. However, no resistance to nitrofurantoin, dalfopristin/quinupristin, rifampicin, gentamicin, linezolid or vancomycin was detected. Resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline in the MRSA group was significantly higher than that in the methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) group. No significant differences in antimicrobial resistance patterns were noted between two age groups (≤1 year and >1 year). The proportion of S. aureus isolates positive for CvfB, SEQ and SEK was 100, 34.0 and 35.8%, respectively, with 24.5% (13/53) of strains carrying all three genes. Compared with those in MSSA isolates, the rates of SEK, SEQ and SEK + SEQ carriage among MRSA isolates were significantly higher. Correlations were identified between the carriage of SEQ, SEK and SEQ + SEK genes and MRSA (contingency coefficient 0.500, 0.416, 0.546, respectively; P<0.01). In conclusion, MRSA isolated from the blood of paediatric patients with BSIs not only exhibited higher rates of antimicrobial resistance than MSSA from the same source, but also more frequently harboured SEK and SEQ genes. The combination of the two aspects influenced the dissemination of MRSA among children. The present study clarified the characteristics of BSI-associated S. aureus and enhanced the current understanding of the pathogenicity and treatment of MRSA.
Project description:The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (TEST) was designed to monitor global longitudinal changes in bacterial susceptibility to a panel of antimicrobial agents, including tigecycline. In this study, we examine susceptibility among Gram-positive isolates collected from pediatric patients globally between 2004 and 2011. A total of 9,422 Gram-positive isolates were contributed by 1,255 centers, predominantly from Europe and North America. One-third of Staphylococcus aureus isolates were methicillin resistant, peaking in prevalence in 2007. All S. aureus isolates (n = 3,614) were susceptible to linezolid, tigecycline, and vancomycin; minocycline, imipenem, and meropenem were also highly active (>92% susceptibility). Ampicillin and penicillin susceptibility increased significantly during the study period (P < 0.0001 for both). Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (n = 3,373) were highly susceptible to vancomycin (100%), linezolid (>99%), and levofloxacin and tigecycline (both >96%); imipenem susceptibility was low (32%) in Africa while minocycline susceptibility was low in Asia-Pacific Rim (38%). Penicillin resistance occurred in one-fifth of all S. pneumoniae isolates, with penicillin susceptibility ranging from 14% in Africa to 65% in Europe. Streptococcus agalactiae isolates (n = 1,056) were highly susceptible to most antimicrobials, although only 16% were susceptible to minocycline. Enterococcus faecalis isolates (n = 1,112) were highly susceptible (>97%) to ampicillin, linezolid, penicillin, tigecycline, and vancomycin globally, but only 34% were minocycline susceptible; minocycline susceptibility decreased significantly from 2004 to 2011 (P < 0.001). Tigecycline and linezolid were highly active against Enterococcus faecium (n = 267) globally (100% and 98% susceptible, respectively). Tigecycline and linezolid were highly active against Gram-positive pathogens from pediatric patients in TEST 2004 to 2011, with vancomycin and the carbapenems performing well against most pathogens.