The nanomedicine revolution: part 2: current and future clinical applications.
ABSTRACT: Although many nanotherapeutic and nanodiagnostic agents are in use and have the potential to improve health care, many barriers have impeded the development and availability of these products. Despite these impediments, it is expected that nanomaterials will become an integral part of mainstream medicine.
Project description:Nanomedicine utilizes the remarkable properties of nanomaterials for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. Many of these nanomaterials have been shown to have robust antioxidative properties, potentially functioning as strong scavengers of reactive oxygen species. Conversely, several nanomaterials have also been shown to promote the generation of reactive oxygen species, which may precipitate the onset of oxidative stress, a state that is thought to contribute to the development of a variety of adverse conditions. As such, the impacts of nanomaterials on biological entities are often associated with and influenced by their specific redox properties. In this review, we overview several classes of nanomaterials that have been or projected to be used across a wide range of biomedical applications, with discussion focusing on their unique redox properties. Nanomaterials examined include iron, cerium, and titanium metal oxide nanoparticles, gold, silver, and selenium nanoparticles, and various nanoscale carbon allotropes such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, and their derivatives/variations. Principal topics of discussion include the chemical mechanisms by which the nanomaterials directly interact with biological entities and the biological cascades that are thus indirectly impacted. Selected case studies highlighting the redox properties of nanomaterials and how they affect biological responses are used to exemplify the biologically-relevant redox mechanisms for each of the described nanomaterials.
Project description:Nanomedicines including liposomes, micelles, and nanoparticles based on the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect have become the mainstream for tumor treatment owing to their superiority over conventional anticancer agents. Advanced design of nanomedicine including active targeting nanomedicine, tumor-responsive nanomedicine, and optimization of physicochemical properties to enable highly effective delivery of nanomedicine to tumors has further improved their therapeutic benefits. However, these strategies still could not conquer the delivery barriers of a tumor microenvironment such as heterogeneous blood flow, dense extracellular matrix, abundant stroma cells, and high interstitial fluid pressure, which severely impaired vascular transport of nanomedicines, hindered their effective extravasation, and impeded their interstitial transport to realize uniform distribution inside tumors. Therefore, modulation of tumor microenvironment has now emerged as an important strategy to improve nanomedicine delivery to tumors. Here, we review the existing strategies and approaches for tumor microenvironment modulation to improve tumor perfusion for helping more nanomedicines to reach the tumor site, to facilitate nanomedicine extravasation for enhancing transvascular transport, and to improve interstitial transport for optimizing the distribution of nanomedicines. These strategies may provide an avenue for the development of new combination chemotherapeutic regimens and reassessment of previously suboptimal agents.
Project description:The technological and clinical need for orthopedic replacement materials has led to significant advances in the field of nanomedicine, which embraces the breadth of nanotechnology from pharmacological agents and surface modification through to regulation and toxicology. A variety of nanostructures with unique chemical, physical, and biological properties have been engineered to improve the functionality and reliability of implantable medical devices. However, mimicking living bone tissue is still a challenge. The scope of this review is to highlight the most recent accomplishments and trends in designing nanomaterials and their applications in orthopedics with an outline on future directions and challenges.
Project description:State-of-the-art applications of nanomedicine have the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of a range of conditions and diseases affecting women's health. In this review, we provide a synopsis of potential applications of nanomedicine in some of the most dominant fields of women's health: mental health, sexual health, reproductive medicine, oncology, menopause-related conditions and dementia. We explore published studies arising from in vitro and in vivo experiments, and clinical trials where available, to reveal novel and highly promising therapeutic applications of nanomedicine in these fields. For the first time, we summarize the growing body of evidence relating to the use of nanomaterials as experimental tools for the detection, prevention, and treatment of significant diseases and conditions across the life course of a cisgender woman, from puberty to menopause; revealing the far-reaching and desirable theoretical impact of nanomedicine across different medical disciplines. We also present an overview of potential concerns regarding the therapeutic applications of nanomedicine and the factors currently restricting the growth of applied nanomedicine.
Project description:Carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, carbon nanohorns, and carbon nanotubes, are increasingly being used in various fields owing to these materials' unique, size-dependent functions and physicochemical properties. Recently, because of their high variability and stability, carbon nanomaterials have been explored as a novel tool for the delivery of therapeutic molecules including peptide and nucleic acid cancer drugs. However, insufficient information is available regarding the safety of carbon nanomaterials for human health, even though such information is vital for the development of safe and effective nanomedicine technologies. In this review, we discuss currently available information regarding the safety of carbon nanomaterials in nanomedicine applications, including information obtained from our own studies; and we discuss types of carbon nanomaterials that demonstrate particular promise for safe nanomedicine technologies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nanomedicine is a field of science that uses nanoscale materials for the diagnosis and treatment of human disease. It has emerged as an important aspect of the therapeutics, but at the same time, also raises concerns regarding the safety of the nanomaterials involved. Recent applications of functionalized biodegradable nanomaterials have significantly improved the safety profile of nanomedicine. OBJECTIVE:Our goal is to evaluate different types of biodegradable nanomaterials that have been functionalized for their biomedical applications. METHOD:In this review, we used PubMed as our literature source and selected recently published studies on biodegradable nanomaterials and their applications in nanomedicine. RESULTS:We found that biodegradable polymers are commonly functionalized for various purposes. Their property of being naturally degraded under biological conditions allows these biodegradable nanomaterials to be used for many biomedical purposes, including bio-imaging, targeted drug delivery, implantation and tissue engineering. The degradability of these nanoparticles can be utilized to control cargo release, by allowing efficient degradation of the nanomaterials at the target site while maintaining nanoparticle integrity at off-target sites. CONCLUSION:While each biodegradable nanomaterial has its advantages and disadvantages, with careful design and functionalization, biodegradable nanoparticles hold great future in nanomedicine.
Project description:The application of nanotechnology to personalized medicine provides an unprecedented opportunity to improve the treatment of many diseases. Nanomaterials offer several advantages as therapeutic and diagnostic tools due to design flexibility, small sizes, large surface-to-volume ratio, and ease of surface modification with multivalent ligands to increase avidity for target molecules. Nanomaterials can be engineered to interact with specific biological components, allowing them to benefit from the insights provided by personalized medicine techniques. To tailor these interactions, a comprehensive knowledge of how nanomaterials interact with biological systems is critical. Herein, we discuss how the interactions of nanomaterials with biological systems can guide their design for diagnostic, imaging and drug delivery purposes. A general overview of nanomaterials under investigation is provided with an emphasis on systems that have reached clinical trials. Finally, considerations for the development of personalized nanomedicines are summarized such as the potential toxicity, scientific and technical challenges in fabricating them, and regulatory and ethical issues raised by the utilization of nanomaterials.
Project description:Functionalization of nanomaterials can enhance and modulate their properties and behaviour, enabling characteristics suitable for medical applications. Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles are one of the most popular types of nanomaterials used in this field, and many technologies being already translated in clinical practice. This article makes a summary of the surface modification and functionalization approaches presented lately in the scientific literature for improving or modulating magnetite nanoparticles for their applications in nanomedicine.
Project description:Controlling the biodistribution of nanoparticles upon intravenous injection is the key to achieving target specificity. One of the impediments in nanoparticle-based tumor targeting is the inability to limit the trafficking of nanoparticles to liver and other organs leading to smaller accumulated amounts in tumor tissues, particularly via passive targeting. Here we overcome both these challenges by designing nanoparticles that combine the specificity of antibodies with favorable particle biodistribution profiles, while not exceeding the threshold for renal filtration as a combined vehicle. To that end, ultrasmall silica nanoparticles are functionalized with anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) single-chain variable fragments to exhibit high tumor-targeting efficiency and efficient renal clearance. This ultrasmall targeted nanotheranostics/nanotherapeutic platform has broad utility, both for imaging a variety of tumor tissues by suitably adopting the targeting fragment and as a potentially useful drug delivery vehicle.
Project description:Precise control over the morphological features of nanoparticles is an important requisite for their application in nanomedical research. Parameters such as size and shape have been identified as critical features for effective nanotherapeutic technologies due to their role in circulation, distribution, and internalization in vivo. Tubular PEG-PDLLA polymersomes (nanotubes) exhibit an interesting morphology with potential for immunotherapeutics, as the elongated shape can affect cell-particle interactions. Developing methodologies that permit control over the precise form of such nanotubes is important for their biomedical implementation due to the stringent physicochemical constraints for efficacious performance. Through careful control over the engineering process, we demonstrate the generation of well-defined nanotubes based on polymersomes as small as 250 and 100 nm, which can be successfully shape transformed. The quality of the resulting nanostructures was established by physical characterization using AF4-MALS and cryo-TEM. Moreover, we show the successful loading of such nanotubes with model payloads (proteins and drugs). These findings provide a promising platform for implementation in biomedical applications in which discrete structure and functionality are essential features.