Defining the cellular repertoire of GPCRs identifies a profibrotic role for the most highly expressed receptor, protease-activated receptor 1, in cardiac fibroblasts.
ABSTRACT: G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have many roles in cell regulation and are commonly used as drug targets, but the repertoire of GPCRs expressed by individual cell types has not been defined. Here we use an unbiased approach, GPCR RT-PCR array, to define the expression of nonchemosensory GPCRs by cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) isolated from Rattus norvegicus. CFs were selected because of their importance for cardiac structure and function and their contribution to cardiac fibrosis, which occurs with advanced age, after acute injury (e.g., myocardial infarction), and in disease states (e.g., diabetes mellitus, hypertension). We discovered that adult rat CFs express 190 GPCRs and that activation of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), the most highly expressed receptor, raises the expression of profibrotic markers in rat CFs, resulting in a 60% increase in collagen synthesis and conversion to a profibrogenic myofibroblast phenotype. We use siRNA knockdown of PAR1 (90% decrease in mRNA) to show that the profibrotic effects of thrombin are PAR1-dependent. These findings, which define the expression of GPCRs in CFs, provide a proof of principle of an approach to discover previously unappreciated, functionally relevant GPCRs and reveal a potential role for thrombin and PAR1 in wound repair and pathophysiology of the adult heart.
Project description:Fibrotic lung disease, most notably idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), is thought to result from aberrant wound-healing responses to repetitive lung injury. Increased vascular permeability is a cardinal response to tissue injury, but whether it is mechanistically linked to lung fibrosis is unknown. We previously described a model in which exaggeration of vascular leak after lung injury shifts the outcome of wound-healing responses from normal repair to pathological fibrosis. Here we report that the fibrosis produced in this model is highly dependent on thrombin activity and its downstream signaling pathways. Direct thrombin inhibition with dabigatran significantly inhibited protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) activation, integrin ?v?6 induction, TGF-? activation, and the development of pulmonary fibrosis in this vascular leak-dependent model. We used a potentially novel imaging method - ultashort echo time (UTE) lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the gadolinium-based, fibrin-specific probe EP-2104R - to directly visualize fibrin accumulation in injured mouse lungs, and to correlate the antifibrotic effects of dabigatran with attenuation of fibrin deposition. We found that inhibition of the profibrotic effects of thrombin can be uncoupled from inhibition of hemostasis, as therapeutic anticoagulation with warfarin failed to downregulate the PAR1/?v?6/TGF-? axis or significantly protect against fibrosis. These findings have direct and important clinical implications, given recent findings that warfarin treatment is not beneficial in IPF, and the clinical availability of direct thrombin inhibitors that our data suggest could benefit these patients.
Project description:Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for thrombin and promotes inflammatory responses through multiple pathways including p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. The mechanisms that govern PAR1-induced p38 activation remain unclear. Here, we define an atypical ubiquitin-dependent pathway for p38 activation used by PAR1 that regulates endothelial barrier permeability. Activated PAR1 K63-linked ubiquitination is mediated by the NEDD4-2 E3 ubiquitin ligase and initiated recruitment of transforming growth factor-?-activated protein kinase-1 binding protein-2 (TAB2). The ubiquitin-binding domain of TAB2 was essential for recruitment to PAR1-containing endosomes. TAB2 associated with TAB1, which induced p38 activation independent of MKK3 and MKK6. The P2Y1 purinergic GPCR also stimulated p38 activation via NEDD4-2-mediated ubiquitination and TAB1-TAB2. TAB1-TAB2-dependent p38 activation was critical for PAR1-promoted endothelial barrier permeability in vitro, and p38 signaling was required for PAR1-induced vascular leakage in vivo. These studies define an atypical ubiquitin-mediated signaling pathway used by a subset of GPCRs that regulates endosomal p38 signaling and endothelial barrier disruption.
Project description:Tissue fibrosis is a pathological condition characterized by uncontrolled fibroblast activation that ultimately leads to organ failure. The TGF?1 pathway, one of the major players in establishment of the disease phenotype, is dependent on the transcriptional co-activators YAP/TAZ. We were interested whether fibroblasts can be sensitized to TGF?1 by activation of the GPCR/YAP/TAZ axis and whether this mechanism explains the profibrotic properties of diverse GPCR ligands. We found that LPA, S1P and thrombin cooperate in human dermal fibroblasts with TGF?1 to induce extracellular matrix synthesis, myofibroblast marker expression and cytokine secretion. Whole genome expression profiling identified a YAP/TAZ signature behind the synergistic profibrotic effects of LPA and TGF?1. LPA, S1P and thrombin stimulation led to activation of the Rho-YAP axis, an increase of nuclear YAP-Smad2 complexes and enhanced expression of profibrotic YAP/Smad2-target genes. More generally, dermal, cardiac and lung fibroblast responses to TGF?1 could be enhanced by increasing YAP nuclear levels (with GPCR ligands LPA, S1P, thrombin or Rho activator) and inhibited by decreasing nuclear YAP (with Rho inhibitor, forskolin, latrunculin B or 2-deoxy-glucose). Thus, we present here a conceptually interesting finding that fibroblast responses to TGF?1 can be predicted based on the nuclear levels of YAP and modulated by stimuli/treatments that change YAP nuclear levels. Our study contributes to better understanding of fibrosis as a complex interplay of signalling pathways and proposes YAP/TAZ as promising targets in the treatment of fibrosis.
Project description:Signaling by protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for thrombin, is regulated by desensitization and internalization. PAR1 desensitization is mediated by ?-arrestins, like most classic GPCRs. In contrast, internalization of PAR1 occurs through a clathrin- and dynamin-dependent pathway independent of ?-arrestins. PAR1 displays two modes of internalization. Constitutive internalization of unactivated PAR1 is mediated by the clathrin adaptor protein complex-2 (AP-2), where the ?2-adaptin subunit binds directly to a tyrosine-based motif localized within the receptor C-tail domain. However, AP-2 depletion only partially inhibits agonist-induced internalization of PAR1, suggesting a function for other clathrin adaptors in this process. Here, we now report that AP-2 and epsin-1 are both critical mediators of agonist-stimulated PAR1 internalization. We show that ubiquitination of PAR1 and the ubiquitin-interacting motifs of epsin-1 are required for epsin-1-dependent internalization of activated PAR1. In addition, activation of PAR1 promotes epsin-1 de-ubiquitination, which may increase its endocytic adaptor activity to facilitate receptor internalization. AP-2 also regulates activated PAR1 internalization via recognition of distal C-tail phosphorylation sites rather than the canonical tyrosine-based motif. Thus, AP-2 and epsin-1 are both required to promote efficient internalization of activated PAR1 and recognize discrete receptor sorting signals. This study defines a new pathway for internalization of mammalian GPCRs.
Project description:Protease-activated receptor-4 (PAR4) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for thrombin and is proteolytically activated, similar to the prototypical PAR1. Due to the irreversible activation of PAR1, receptor trafficking is intimately linked to signal regulation. However, unlike PAR1, the mechanisms that control PAR4 trafficking are not known. Here, we sought to define the mechanisms that control PAR4 trafficking and signaling. In HeLa cells depleted of clathrin by siRNA, activated PAR4 failed to internalize. Consistent with clathrin-mediated endocytosis, expression of a dynamin dominant-negative K44A mutant also blocked activated PAR4 internalization. However, unlike most GPCRs, PAR4 internalization occurred independently of β-arrestins and the receptor's C-tail domain. Rather, we discovered a highly conserved tyrosine-based motif in the third intracellular loop of PAR4 and found that the clathrin adaptor protein complex-2 (AP-2) is important for internalization. Depletion of AP-2 inhibited PAR4 internalization induced by agonist. In addition, mutation of the critical residues of the tyrosine-based motif disrupted agonist-induced PAR4 internalization. Using Dami megakaryocytic cells, we confirmed that AP-2 is required for agonist-induced internalization of endogenous PAR4. Moreover, inhibition of activated PAR4 internalization enhanced ERK1/2 signaling, whereas Akt signaling was markedly diminished. These findings indicate that activated PAR4 internalization requires AP-2 and a tyrosine-based motif and occurs independent of β-arrestins, unlike most classical GPCRs. Moreover, these findings are the first to show that internalization of activated PAR4 is linked to proper ERK1/2 and Akt activation.
Project description:The sorting of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to lysosomes is critical for proper signaling and cellular responses. We previously showed that the adaptor protein ALIX regulates lysosomal degradation of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), a GPCR for thrombin, independent of ubiquitin-binding ESCRTs and receptor ubiquitination. However, the mechanisms that regulate ALIX function during PAR1 lysosomal sorting are not known. Here we show that the mammalian ?-arrestin arrestin domain-containing protein-3 (ARRDC3) regulates ALIX function in GPCR sorting via ubiquitination. ARRDC3 colocalizes with ALIX and is required for PAR1 sorting at late endosomes and degradation. Depletion of ARRDC3 by small interfering RNA disrupts ALIX interaction with activated PAR1 and the CHMP4B ESCRT-III subunit, suggesting that ARRDC3 regulates ALIX activity. We found that ARRDC3 is required for ALIX ubiquitination induced by activation of PAR1. A screen of nine mammalian NEDD4-family E3 ubiquitin ligases revealed a critical role for WWP2. WWP2 interacts with ARRDC3 and not ALIX. Depletion of WWP2 inhibited ALIX ubiquitination and blocked ALIX interaction with activated PAR1 and CHMP4B. These findings demonstrate a new role for the ?-arrestin ARRDC3 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP2 in regulation of ALIX ubiquitination and lysosomal sorting of GPCRs.
Project description:Coagulation is a host defense system that limits the spread of pathogens. Coagulation proteases, such as thrombin, also activate cells by cleaving PARs. In this study, we analyzed the role of PAR-1 in coxsackievirus B3-induced (CVB3-induced) myocarditis and influenza A infection. CVB3-infected Par1(-/-) mice expressed reduced levels of IFN-? and CXCL10 during the early phase of infection compared with Par1(+/+) mice that resulted in higher viral loads and cardiac injury at day 8 after infection. Inhibition of either tissue factor or thrombin in WT mice also significantly increased CVB3 levels in the heart and cardiac injury compared with controls. BM transplantation experiments demonstrated that PAR-1 in nonhematopoietic cells protected mice from CVB3 infection. Transgenic mice overexpressing PAR-1 in cardiomyocytes had reduced CVB3-induced myocarditis. We found that cooperative signaling between PAR-1 and TLR3 in mouse cardiac fibroblasts enhanced activation of p38 and induction of IFN-? and CXCL10 expression. Par1(-/-) mice also had decreased CXCL10 expression and increased viral levels in the lung after influenza A infection compared with Par1(+/+) mice. Our results indicate that the tissue factor/thrombin/PAR-1 pathway enhances IFN-? expression and contributes to the innate immune response during single-stranded RNA viral infection.
Project description:Cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) activation is a hallmark feature of cardiac fibrosis caused by cardiac remodeling. The purinergic signaling molecules have been proven to participate in the activation of CFs. In this study, we explored the expression pattern of P2Y receptor family in the cardiac fibrosis mice model induced by the transverse aortic constriction (TAC) operation and in the activation of CFs triggered by transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) stimulation. We then investigated the role of P2Y1receptor (P2Y1R) in activated CFs. The results showed that among P2Y family members, only P2Y1R was downregulated in the heart tissues of TAC mice. Consistent with our <i>in vivo</i> results, the level of P2Y1R was decreased in the activated CFs, when CFs were treated with TGF-?1. Silencing P2Y1R expression with siP2Y1R accelerated the effects of TGF-?1 on CFs activation. Moreover, the P2Y1R selective antagonist BPTU increased the levels of mRNA and protein of profibrogenic markers, such as connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), periostin (POSTN). periostin (POSTN), and ?-smooth muscle actin(?-SMA). Further, MRS2365, the agonist of P2Y1R, ameliorated the activation of CFs and activated the p38 MAPK and ERK signaling pathways. In conclusion , our findings revealed that upregulating of P2Y1R may attenuate the abnormal activation of CFs via the p38 MAPK and ERK signaling pathway.
Project description:G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are remarkably versatile signaling systems that are activated by a large number of different agonists on the outside of the cell. However, the inside surface of the receptors that couple to G proteins has not yet been effectively modulated for activity or treatment of diseases. Pepducins are cell-penetrating lipopeptides that have enabled chemical and physical access to the intracellular face of GPCRs. The structure of a third intracellular (i3) loop agonist, pepducin, based on protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) was solved by NMR and found to closely resemble the i3 loop structure predicted for the intact receptor in the on-state. Mechanistic studies revealed that the pepducin directly interacts with the intracellular H8 helix region of PAR1 and allosterically activates the receptor through the adjacent (D/N)PXXYYY motif through a dimer-like mechanism. The i3 pepducin enhances PAR1/Gα subunit interactions and induces a conformational change in fluorescently labeled PAR1 in a very similar manner to that induced by thrombin. As pepducins can potentially be made to target any GPCR, these data provide insight into the identification of allosteric modulators to this major drug target class.
Project description:Platelet protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is a cell surface G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that acts as a thrombin receptor promoting platelet aggregation. Targeting the PAR1 pathway by vorapaxar, a PAR1 antagonist, leads to a reduction in ischemic events in cardiovascular patients with a history of myocardial infarction or with peripheral arterial disease. In platelets, specialized microdomains highly enriched in cholesterol act as modulators of the activity of several GPCRs and play a pivotal role in the signaling pathway. However, their involvement in platelet PAR1 function remains incompletely characterized. In this context, we aimed to investigate whether activation of PAR1 in human platelets requires its localization in the membrane cholesterol-rich microdomains. Using confocal microscopy, biochemical isolation, and proteomics approaches, we found that PAR1 was not localized in cholesterol-rich microdomains in resting platelets, and only a small fraction of the receptor relocated to the microdomains following its activation. Vorapaxar treatment increased the level of PAR1 at the platelet surface, possibly by reducing its endocytosis, while its colocalization with cholesterol-rich microdomains remained weak. Consistent with a cholesterol-dependent activation of Akt and p38 MAP kinase in thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP)-activated platelets, the proteomic data of cholesterol-rich microdomains isolated from TRAP-activated platelets showed the recruitment of proteins contributing to these signaling pathways. In conclusion, contrary to endothelial cells, we found that PAR1 was only weakly present in cholesterol-rich microdomains in human platelets but used these microdomains for efficient activation of downstream signaling pathways following TRAP activation.