Intrafibrillar silicification of collagen scaffolds for sustained release of stem cell homing chemokine in hard tissue regeneration.
ABSTRACT: Traditional bone regeneration strategies relied on supplementation of biomaterials constructs with stem or progenitor cells or growth factors. By contrast, cell homing strategies employ chemokines to mobilize stem or progenitor cells from host bone marrow and tissue niches to injured sites. Although silica-based biomaterials exhibit osteogenic and angiogenic potentials, they lack cell homing capability. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) plays a pivotal role in mobilization and homing of stem cells to injured tissues. In this work, we demonstrated that 3-dimensional collagen scaffolds infiltrated with intrafibrillar silica are biodegradable and highly biocompatible. They exhibit improved compressive stress-strain responses and toughness over nonsilicified collagen scaffolds. They are osteoconductive and up-regulate expressions of osteogenesis- and angiogenesis-related genes more significantly than nonsilicified collagen scaffolds. In addition, these scaffolds reversibly bind SDF-1? for sustained release of this chemokine, which exhibits in vitro cell homing characteristics. When implanted subcutaneously in an in vivo mouse model, SDF-1?-loaded silicified collagen scaffolds stimulate the formation of ectopic bone and blood capillaries within the scaffold and abrogate the need for cell seeding or supplementation of osteogenic and angiogenic growth factors. Intrafibrillar-silicified collagen scaffolds with sustained SDF-1? release represent a less costly and complex alternative to contemporary cell seeding approaches and provide new therapeutic options for in situ hard tissue regeneration.
Project description:The effects of a biphasic mineralized collagen scaffold (BCS) containing intrafibrillar silica and apatite on osteogenesis of mouse mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs) and inhibition of receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclastogenesis were investigated in the present study. mMSCs were cultured by exposing to BCS for 7 days for cell proliferation/viability examination, and stimulated to differentiate in osteogenic medium for 7-21 days for evaluation of alkaline phosphatase activity, secretion of osteogenic deposits and expression of osteoblast lineage-specific phenotypic markers. The effect of BCS-conditioned mMSCs on osteoclastogenesis of RAW 264.7 cells was evaluated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining and resorption pit analysis. The contributions of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) signal transduction pathways to osteogenesis of mMSCs and their osteoprotegerin (OPG) and RANKL expressions were also evaluated. Compared with unmineralized, intrafibrillarly-silicified or intrafibrillarly-calcified collagen scaffolds, BCS enhanced osteogenic differentiation of mMSCs by activation of the extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK)/MAPK and p38/MAPK signaling pathways. After mMSCs were exposed to BCS, they up-regulated OPG expression and down-regulated RANKL expression through activation of the p38/MAPK and PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt) pathways, resulting in inhibition of the differentiation of RAW 264.7 cells into multinucleated osteoclasts and reduction in osteoclast function. These observations collectively suggest that BCS has the potential to be used in bone tissue engineering when the demand for anabolic activities is higher than catabolic metabolism during the initial stage of wound rehabilitation.
Project description:The use of growth factors in osteogenic constructs to promote recruitment of bone forming endogenous cells is not clear, while the advantage of circumventing cell seeding techniques before implantation is highly recognized. Therefore, the additive effect of the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1? (SDF-1?) on endogenous cell recruitment and vascularization was investigated in a hybrid construct, consisting of a ceramic biomaterial, hydrogel, and SDF-1?, in an ectopic mouse model. We demonstrated in vivo that local presence of low concentrations of SDF-1? resulted in a significant increase in recruited endogenous cells, which remained present for several weeks. SDF-1? stimulated vascularization in these hybrid constructs, as shown by the enhanced formation of erythrocyte-filled vessels. The presence of CD31-positive capillaries/small vessels after 6 weeks in vivo substantiated this finding. The SDF-1? treatment showed increased number of cells that could differentiate to the osteogenic lineage after 6 weeks of implantation, demonstrated by expression of collagen I and osteocalcin. Altogether, we show here the beneficial effects of the local application of a single growth factor in a hybrid construct on angiogenesis and osteogenic differentiation, which might contribute to the development of cell-free bone substitutes.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Design of bioactive scaffolds with osteogenic capacity is a central challenge in cell-based patient-specific bone tissue engineering. Efficient and spatially uniform seeding of (stem) cells onto such constructs is vital to attain functional tissues. Herein we developed heparin functionalized collagen gels supported by 3D printed bioceramic scaffolds, as bone extracellular matrix (ECM)-mimetic matrices. These matrices were designed to enhance cell seeding efficiency of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as well as improve their osteogenic differentiation through immobilized bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) to be used for personalized bone regeneration. METHODS:A 3D gel based on heparin-conjugated collagen matrix capable of immobilizing recombinant human bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) was synthesized. Isolated dental pulp Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were then encapsulated into the bone ECM microenvironment to efficiently and uniformly seed a bioactive ceramic-based scaffold fabricated using additive manufacturing technique. The designed 3D cell-laden constructs were comprehensively investigated trough in vitro assays and in vivo study. RESULTS:In-depth rheological characterizations of heparin-conjugated collagen gel revealed that elasticity of the matrix is significantly improved compared with freely incorporated heparin. Investigation of the MSCs laden collagen-heparin hydrogels revealed their capability to provide spatiotemporal bioavailability of BMP2 while suppressing the matrix contraction over time. The in vivo histology and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis showed that the designed construct supported the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs and induced the ectopic bone formation in rat model. SIGNIFICANCE:The presented hybrid constructs combine bone ECM chemical cues with mechanical function providing an ideal 3D microenvironment for patient-specific bone tissue engineering and cell therapy applications. The implemented methodology in design of ECM-mimetic 3D matrix capable of immobilizing BMP2 to improve seeding efficiency of customized scaffolds can be exploited for other bioactive molecules.
Project description:Contemporary models of intrafibrillar mineralization mechanisms are established using collagen fibrils as templates without considering the contribution from collagen-bound apatite nucleation inhibitors. However, collagen matrices destined for mineralization in vertebrates contain bound matrix proteins for intrafibrillar mineralization. Negatively charged, high-molecular weight polycarboxylic acid is cross-linked to reconstituted collagen to create a model for examining the contribution of collagen-ligand interaction to intrafibrillar mineralization. Cryogenic electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulation show that, after cross-linking to collagen, the bound polyelectrolyte caches prenucleation cluster singlets into chain-like aggregates along the fibrillar surface to increase the pool of mineralization precursors available for intrafibrillar mineralization. Higher-quality mineralized scaffolds with better biomechanical properties are achieved compared with mineralization of unmodified scaffolds in polyelectrolyte-stabilized mineralization solution. Collagen-ligand interaction provides insights on the genesis of heterogeneously mineralized tissues and the potential causes of ectopic calcification in nonmineralized body tissues.
Project description:Decorin (DCN) is an important small leucine-rich proteoglycan present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of many organs and tissues. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are able to interact with the surrounding ECM and bind to molecules such as DCN. Here, we recombinantly produced full-length human DCN under good laboratory practice (GLP) conditions, and after detailed immunological characterization, we investigated its potential to attract murine and human EPCs (mEPCs and hECFCs). Electrospun polymeric scaffolds were coated with DCN or stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1?) and were then dynamically cultured with both cell types. Cell viability was assessed via imaging flow cytometry. The number of captured cells was counted and compared with the non-coated controls. To characterize cell-scaffold interactions, immunofluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy analyses were performed. We identified that DCN reduced T cell responses and attracted innate immune cells, which are responsible for ECM remodeling. A significantly higher number of EPCs attached on DCN- and SDF-1?-coated scaffolds, when compared with the uncoated controls. Interestingly, DCN showed a higher attractant effect on hECFCs than SDF-1?. Here, we successfully demonstrated DCN as promising EPC-attracting coating, which is particularily interesting when aiming to generate off-the-shelf biomaterials with the potential of in vivo cell seeding.
Project description:Functional activation of stem cells after transplantation is a main concern in stem cell therapy. For local transplantation, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are usually administered via scaffolds, either by direct implantation or after preculturing of cells, and it is unclear which is better for the activation of transplanted cells. In this study, we investigated the in vivo gene expression activity of human MSCs (hMSCs) transplanted into calvarial defects either directly post-seeding on collagen sponges (Group 1) or after overnight in vitro culturing post-seeding (Group 2). Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction at days 7 and 14 after transplantation identified a time-dependent, rapid decrease in gene expression by the hMSCs, which in Group 1 was slightly more attenuated than in Group 2. Both groups exhibited a limited range of human-specific gene expression, which involved type I collagen (ColI), fibronectin, stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1), and osteoprotegerin. Among these, ColI expression was the most efficient, with higher levels in Group 1 than Group 2. There was a lack of evidence for the expression of osteoblast differentiation-related markers or trophic factors, while resident cells showed clear expression of those genes. Rat-specific ?-actin expression in Group 2 was least among the scaffold control, Group 1, and Group 2, and this pattern was repeated in the expression of other rat osteogenic genes. Group 1 transplants positively influenced the osteogenic process of the defect tissue in part, and rat IGF-1 expression was significantly increased in Group 1. This tendency of gene expression by hMSCs in a rat model was very similar to what was observed in transplantations using immunodeficient mice. The current study showed that a main gene expressed by transplanted hMSCs during the initial weeks following transplantation is ColI, with a lack of differentiation-related markers or growth factor expression by hMSCs. Our data suggest that direct transplantation of hMSCs loaded on a collagen sponge is more efficient for gene activation in transplanted hMSCs, and more favorable to the local host tissue than transplantation after preculturing of cells.
Project description:Hydrogels have gained acceptance as biomaterials in a wide range of applications, including pharmaceutical formulations, drug delivery, and tissue sealants. However, exploiting the potential of hydrogels as scaffolds for cell transplantation, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine still remains a challenge due to, in part, scaffold design limitations. Here, we describe a highly interconnected, macroporous poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate hydrogel scaffold, with pores ranging from 100 to 600 microm. The scaffold exhibits rapid cell uptake and cell seeding without the need of any external force or device with high incorporation efficiency. When human mesenchymal stem cells are seeded within the porous scaffolds, the scaffolds were found to promote long-term stem cell viability, and on exposure to osteogenic medium, elicit an mineralization response as evaluated by an increased alkaline phosphatase activity (per cell) and calcium and phosphate content within the constructs. The atomic composition of the mineralized matrix was further determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy and found to be similar to calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite, the amorphous biological precursor of bone. The macroporous design of the hydrogel appears advantageous over similar porous hydrogel scaffolds with respect to ease of synthesis, ease of stem cell seeding, and its ability to support long-term stem cell survival and possible differentiation.
Project description:Constructs intended for bone tissue engineering (TE) are influenced by the initial cell seeding density. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) density loaded onto copolymer scaffolds on bone regeneration. BMSCs were harvested from rat's bone marrow and cultured in media with or without osteogenic supplements. Cells were seeded onto poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) [poly(LLA-co-CL)] scaffolds at two different densities: low density (1 × 10(6) cells/scaffold) or high density (2 × 10(6) cells/scaffold) using spinner modified flasks and examined after 1 and 3 weeks. Initial attachment and spread of BMSC onto the scaffolds was recorded by scanning electron microscopy. Cell proliferation was assessed by DNA quantification and cell differentiation by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerized chain reaction analysis (qRT-PCR). Five-millimeter rat calvarial defects (24 defects in 12 rats) were implanted with scaffolds seeded with either low or high density expanded with or without osteogenic supplements. Osteogenic supplements significantly increased cell proliferation (p < 0.001). Scaffolds seeded at high cell density exhibited higher mRNA expressions of Runx2 p = 0.001, Col1 p = 0.001, BMP2 p < 0.001, BSP p < 0.001, and OC p = 0.013. More bone was formed in response to high cell seeding density (p = 0.023) and high seeding density with osteogenic medium (p = 0.038). Poly (LLA-co-CL) scaffolds could be appropriate candidates for bone TE. The optimal number of cells to be loaded onto scaffolds is critical for promoting Extracellular matrix synthesis and bone formation. Cell seeding density and osteogenic supplements may have a synergistic effect on the induction of new bone.
Project description:Biomineralized collagen with intrafibrillar calcium phosphate mineral provides an excellent mimic of the composition and structure of the extracellular matrix of bone, from nano- to micro-scale. Scaffolds prepared from this material have the potential to become the next-generation of synthetic bone graft substitutes, as their unique properties make them closer to the native tissue than synthetic alternatives currently available to clinicians. To understand the interaction between biomineralized collagen and cells that are relevant in the context of bone regeneration, we studied the growth and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) cultured on biomineralized collagen membranes, and compared it to the cell behavior on collagen membranes without mineral. Cells proliferated normally on both biomimetic membranes, and were more triggered to differentiate toward the osteogenic lineage by the biomineralized collagen. This was shown by the elevated mRNA levels of RUNX2, SPP1, ENPP1, and OCN after 3 days of culture, and COL1A1 after 14 days of culture on mineralized collagen. The mRNA levels of the tested markers of osteogenesis were lower on collagen membranes without mineral, with the exception of OCN, which was more highly expressed on collagen than on biomineralized collagen membranes. Expression by hMSCs of OPG, a gene involved in inhibition of osteoclastogenesis, was higher on biomineralized collagen at day 3, while M-CSF, involved in osteoblast-osteoclast communication, was upregulated on both membranes at day 3 and 14 of culture. Alkaline phosphatase activity of hMSCs was high on both biomimetic membranes when compared with cells cultured on tissue culture plastic. Cell-induced mineralization was observed on collagen membranes, while the high mineral content of the biomineralized membranes prohibited a reliable analysis of cell-induced mineralization on these membranes. In conclusion, we have identified that both collagen and biomineralized collagen support proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of hMSCs, with biomineralized membranes having a more pronounced positive effect. These findings support the existing evidence that biomineralized collagen is a promising material in the field of bone regeneration.
Project description:Biomaterials with both excellent osteogenic and angiogenic activities are desirable to repair massive bone defects. In this study, simvastatin with both osteogenic and angiogenic activities was incorporated into the mesoporous hydroxyapatite microspheres (MHMs) synthesized through a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method using fructose 1,6-bisphosphate trisodium salt (FBP) as an organic phosphorous source. The effects of the simvastatin-loaded MHMs (S-MHMs) on the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) and angiogenesis in EA.hy926 cells were investigated. The results showed that the S-MHMs not only enhanced the expression of osteogenic markers in rBMSCs but also promoted the migration and tube formation of EA.hy926 cells. Furthermore, the S-MHMs were incorporated into collagen matrix to construct a novel S-MHMs/collagen composite scaffold. With the aid of MHMs, the water-insoluble simvastatin was homogenously incorporated into the hydrophilic collagen matrix and presented a sustained release profile. In vivo experiments showed that the S-MHMs/collagen scaffolds enhanced the bone regeneration and neovascularization simultaneously. These results demonstrated that the water-insoluble simvastatin could be incorporated into the MHMs and maintained its biological activities, more importantly, the S-MHMs/collagen scaffolds fabricated in this study are of immense potential in bone defect repair by enhancing osteogenesis and angiogenesis simultaneously.