Effect of exercise on blood pressure in type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: Increased blood pressure (BP) in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) markedly increases cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality risk compared to having increased BP alone.To investigate whether exercise reduces suboptimal levels of untreated suboptimal BP or treated hypertension.Prospective, randomized controlled trial for 6 months.Single center in Baltimore, MD, USA.140 participants with T2DM not requiring insulin and untreated SBP of 120-159 or DBP of 85-99 mmHg, or, if being treated for hypertension, any SBP <159 mmHg or DBP<99 mmHg; 114 completed the study.Supervised exercise, 3 times per week for 6 months compared with general advice about physical activity.Resting SBP and DBP (primary outcome); diabetes status, arterial stiffness assessed as carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (PWV), body composition and fitness (secondary outcomes).Overall baseline BP was 126.8 ± 13.5 / 71.7 ± 9.0 mmHg, with no group differences. At 6 months, BP was unchanged from baseline in either group, BP 125.8 ± 13.2 / 70.7 ± 8.8 mmHg in controls; and 126.0 ± 14.2 / 70.3 ± 9.0 mmHg in exercisers, despite attaining a training effects as evidenced by increased aerobic and strength fitness and lean mass and reduced fat mass (all p<0.05), Overall baseline PWV was 959.9 ± 333.1 cm/s, with no group difference. At 6-months, PWV did not change and was not different between group; exercisers, 923.7 ± 319.8 cm/s, 905.5 ± 344.7, controls.A completion rate of 81 %.Though exercisers improve fitness and body composition, there were no reductions in BP. The lack of change in arterial stiffness suggests a resistance to exercise-induced BP reduction in persons with T2DM.
Project description:Regular exercise training is a recognized lifestyle strategy to lower resting blood pressure (BP), but little is known about substrate metabolism in population with high BP. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 16-weeks of HIIT on body composition, BP, cardiorespiratory fitness by V. O2 max , and substrate utilization during exercise among prehypertensive and hypertensive patients with excessive adiposity. We also aimed to test the potential association between changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, substrate utilization during exercise and BP. Forty-two physically inactive overweight/obese participants participated in 16-weeks of HIIT intervention. The HIIT frequency was three times a week (work ratio 1:2:10, for interval cycling: rest period: repeated times; 80-100% of the maximum heart rate). Groups were distributed based on their baseline BP: HIIT-hypertensive (H-HTN: age 47.7 ± 12.0 years; body mass index [BMI] 30.3 ± 5.5 kg/m2; systolic [SBP]/diastolic BP [DBP] 151.6 ± 10/81.9 ± 4.2 mmHg), HIIT-pre-hypertensive (H-PreHTN: age 37.6 ± 12.0 years; BMI 31.9 ± 5.3 kg/m2; SBP/DBP 134.4 ± 3.2/74.9 ± 7.0 mmHg), and a normotensive control group (H-CG: age 40.7 ± 11.0 years; BMI 29.5 ± 4.2 kg/m2; SBP/DBP 117.0 ± 6.2/72.4 ± 4.1 mmHg). Anthropometry/body composition, BP, and metabolic substrate utilization during exercise (fat [FATox], carbohydrate [CHOox] oxidation, respiratory exchange ratio [RER], and V. O2 max), were measured before and after the 16-week HIIT intervention. Adjusted mixed linear models revealed a significant improved in V. O2 max were + 3.34 in the H-CG, + 3.63 in the H-PreHTN, and + 5.92 mL?kg-1?min-1, in the H-HTN group, however, the Time × Group interaction were not significant (p = 0.083). All the exercise types induced similar decreases on SBP (-8.70) in the H-HTN, (-7.14) in the H-CG, and (-5.11) mmHg in the H-PreHTN, as well as DBP levels (-5.43) mmHg in H-CG group (p = 0.032 vs. H-HTN group). At 16-week, no significant correlations were noted for the changes of blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness or exercise metabolism substrates outcomes. In conclusion, our results suggest that a 16-week HIIT-intervention improved V. O2 max and blood pressure BP, but these changes are independent of substrate utilization during exercise in normotensive and hypertensive participants with excessive adiposity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Physiologic determinants, such as pulse pressure [difference between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP)], mean arterial pressure (2/3 DBP + 1/3 SBP), and double product [beats per minute (bpm) × SBP], are linked to cardiovascular outcomes. The effects of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, on pulse pressure, mean arterial pressure, and double product were assessed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS:This post hoc analysis was based on pooled data from four 26-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies evaluating canagliflozin in patients with T2DM (N = 2313) and a 6-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) study evaluating canagliflozin in patients with T2DM and hypertension (N = 169). Changes from baseline in SBP, DBP, pulse pressure, mean arterial pressure, and double product were assessed using seated BP measurements (pooled studies) or averaged 24-h BP assessments (ABPM study). Safety was assessed based on adverse event reports. RESULTS:In the pooled studies, canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg reduced SBP (-4.3 and -5.0 vs -0.3 mmHg) and DBP (-2.5 and -2.4 vs -0.6 mmHg) versus placebo at week 26. Reductions in pulse pressure (-1.8 and -2.6 vs 0.2 mmHg), mean arterial pressure (-3.1 and -3.3 vs -0.5 mmHg), and double product (-381 and -416 vs -30 bpm × mmHg) were also seen with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg versus placebo. In the ABPM study, canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg reduced mean 24-h SBP (-4.5 and -6.2 vs -1.2 mmHg) and DBP (-2.2 and -3.2 vs -0.3 mmHg) versus placebo at week 6. Canagliflozin 300 mg provided reductions in pulse pressure (-3.3 vs -0.8 mmHg) and mean arterial pressure (-4.2 vs -0.6 mmHg) compared with placebo, while canagliflozin 100 mg had more modest effects on these parameters. Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated in both study populations. CONCLUSIONS:Canagliflozin improved all three cardiovascular physiologic markers, consistent with the hypothesis that canagliflozin may have beneficial effects on some cardiovascular outcomes in patients with T2DM. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01081834 (registered March 2010); NCT01106677 (registered April 2010); NCT01106625 (registered April 2010); NCT01106690 (registered April 2010); NCT01939496 (registered September 2013).
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors decrease hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and blood pressure (BP) and slightly increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The effects of baseline BP and LDL-C on the safety and efficacy of canagliflozin in patients were analyzed post hoc in a phase III study.<h4>Methods</h4>Japanese patients with T2DM were classified by baseline systolic BP (SBP) of <130 or ≥130 mmHg, diastolic BP (DBP) of <80 or ≥80 mmHg, and LDL-C of <120 or ≥120 mg/dL. Canagliflozin was administered daily to patients for 52 weeks at doses of either 100 mg (n = 584) or 200 mg (n = 715). The effects of canagliflozin on the incidence of adverse events (AEs), BP, and LDL-C were evaluated.<h4>Results</h4>No clear differences were observed in overall safety among the subgroups classified by baseline SBP, DBP, or LDL-C, except for a slight imbalance in AEs associated with volume depletion with 200 mg of canagliflozin. The decrease in mean SBP and DBP was evident in subgroups with baseline SBP ≥130 mmHg and DBP ≥80 mmHg. Mean LDL-C was decreased in subgroups with baseline LDL-C ≥120 mg/dL at both canagliflozin doses, and they were slightly increased, but did not exceed 120 mg/dL in subgroups with baseline LDL-C <120 mg/dL. The changes in HbA1c and body weight from those observed at baseline were not different between subgroups classified by SBP, DBP, and LDL-C at either dose.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The present post hoc analysis indicates that canagliflozin is well tolerated irrespective of baseline BP and LDL-C in patients with T2DM.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01387737.<h4>Funding</h4>Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Exercise training lowers blood pressure (BP), while BP increases and returns to pre-training values with detraining. Yet, there is considerable variability in these BP responses. We examined the relationship between the BP responses after 6 months of training followed by 2 weeks of detraining among the same people.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Subjects (n = 75) (X+SD, 50.2 ± 10.6 yr) were sedentary, obese, and had prehypertension. They completed an aerobic (n = 34); resistance (n = 28); or aerobic + resistance or concurrent (n = 13) exercise training program. We calculated a metabolic syndrome z score (MetSz). Subjects were classified as BP responders (BP decreased) or non-responders (BP increased) to training and detraining. Linear and multivariable regression tested the BP response. Chi Square tested the frequency of responders and non-responders. The systolic BP (SBP, r = ?-0.474) and diastolic (DBP, r =? -0.540) response to training negatively correlated with detraining (p<0.01), independent of modality (p>0.05). Exercise responders reduced SBP 11.5 ± 7.8 (n = 29) and DBP 9.8 ± 6.2 mmHg (n = 31); non-responders increased SBP 7.9.± 10.9 (n = 46) and DBP 4.9 ± 7.1 mmHg (n = 44) (p<0.001). We found 65.5% of SBP training responders were SBP detraining non-responders; while 60.9% of SBP training non-responders were SBP detraining responders (p = 0.034). Similarly, 80.6% of DBP training responders were DBP detraining non-responders; while 59.1% of DBP training non-responders were DBP detraining responders (p<0.001). The SBP detraining response (r = ?-0.521), resting SBP (r =? -0.444), and MetSz (r = 0.288) explained 44.8% of the SBP training response (p<0.001). The DBP detraining response (r =? -0.553), resting DBP (r = ?-0.450), and MetSz (r = 0.463) explained 60.1% of the DBP training response (p<0.001).<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>As expected most subjects that decreased BP after exercise training, increased BP after detraining. An unanticipated finding was most subjects that increased BP after exercise training, decreased BP after detraining. Reasons why the negative effects of exercise training on BP maybe reversed with detraining among some people should be explored further.<h4>Trial registration information</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov 1R01HL57354; 2003-2008; NCT00275145.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) is defined as diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥80 mmHg and systolic blood pressure (SBP) <130 mmHg according to 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines. The effective cardiovascular risk linked to IDH is debated.<h4>Hypothesis</h4>IDH might contribute marginally to hypertension-related target organ damage (TOD) development.<h4>Methods</h4>In this cross-sectional analysis 1605 subjects from the STANISLAS cohort, a large familiar longitudinal study from Eastern France, were included. Participants were categorized according to average values at 24-h ABP recording as having normal BP (SBP < 130/DBP < 80 mmHg); combined hypertension (SBP ≥130/DBP ≥80 mmHg or on antihypertensive treatment); IDH (SBP <130/DBP >80 mmHg); isolated systolic hypertension (ISH: SBP ≥130/DBP <80 mmHg). The association between hypertension status and TOD was assessed by multivariable-adjusted logistic models.<h4>Results</h4>Using normotension as reference, IDH was not significantly associated with NTproBNP levels (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.04 [95%CI 0.82;1.32], p = .750), microalbuminuria (OR 0.99 [0.69; 1.42], p = .960), diastolic dysfunction (OR 1.53 [0.88; 2.68], p = .130), left ventricular (LV) mass index (OR per 10 g/m<sup>2</sup> increase 1.07 [0.95; 1.21], p = .250), LV longitudinal strain (global: OR 1.07 [0.99; 1.14], p = .054; subendocardial: OR 1.06 [0.99; 1.13], p = .087), carotid intima media thickness (OR 1.27 [0.79; 2.06], p = .320), reduced ankle-brachial index (<0.9; OR 1.59 [0.19; 13.55], p = .670) and pulse wave velocity (PWV; OR 1.07 [0.93; 1.23], p = .360). In contrast, combined hypertension and ISH were independently associated with LV mass index and PWV increase (all p ≤ .01).<h4>Conclusions</h4>IDH was not significantly associated with TOD. Further studies are needed to clarify the clinical role of IDH. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01391442.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Professional health organizations are not currently recommending Tai Ji Quan alongside aerobic exercise to treat hypertension. We aimed to examine the efficacy of Tai Ji Quan as antihypertensive lifestyle therapy.<h4>Methods</h4>Tai Ji Quan interventions published in English and Chinese were included when they involved healthy adults, reported pre- and post-intervention blood pressure (BP), and had a non-exercise/non-diet control group. We systematically searched 11 electronic databases for studies published through July 31, 2018, yielding 31 qualifying controlled trials. We (1) evaluated the risk of bias and methodological study quality, (2) performed meta-regression analyses following random-effects assumptions, and (3) generated additive models representing the largest possible clinically relevant BP reductions.<h4>Results</h4>Participants (n = 3223) were middle-aged (56.6 ± 15.1 years of age, mean ± SD) adults with prehypertension (systolic BP (SBP) = 136.9 ± 15.2 mmHg, diastolic BP (DBP) = 83.4 ± 8.7 mmHg). Tai Ji Quan was practiced 4.0 ± 1.4 sessions/week for 54.0 ± 10.6 min/session for 22.3 ± 20.2 weeks. Overall, Tai Ji Quan elicited significant reductions in SBP (-11.3 mmHg, 95%CI: -14.6 to -8.0; d<sub>+</sub> = -0.75) and DBP (-4.8 mmHg, 95%CI: -6.4 to -3.1; d<sub>+</sub> = -0.53) vs. control (p < 0.001). Controlling for publication bias among samples with hypertension, Tai Ji Quan trials published in English elicited SBP reductions of 10.4 mmHg and DBP reductions of 4.0 mmHg, which was half the magnitude of trials published in Chinese (SBP reductions of 18.6 mmHg and DBP reductions of 8.8 mmHg).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our results indicate that Tai Ji Quan is a viable antihypertensive lifestyle therapy that produces clinically meaningful BP reductions (i.e., 10.4 mmHg and 4.0 mmHg of SBP and DBP reductions, respectively) among individuals with hypertension. Such magnitude of BP reductions can lower the incidence of cardiovascular disease by up to 40%.
Project description:Increased arterial stiffness and aortic blood pressure (BP) are independent predictors of cardiovascular outcomes in end-stage renal disease. The 3-day interdialytic interval is associated with elevated risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in haemodialysis. This study investigated differences in ambulatory aortic BP and arterial stiffness between the second and third day of the long interdialytic interval.Ambulatory BP monitoring with Mobil-O-Graph monitor (IEM, Stolberg, Germany) was performed in 55 haemodialysis patients during a 3-day interval. Mobil-O-Graph records oscillometric brachial BP and pulse waves and calculates aortic BP and augmentation index (AIx) as measure of wave reflections, and pulse wave velocity (PWV) as measure of arterial stiffness.Ambulatory aortic systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were higher during the third versus second interdialytic day (123.6 ± 17.0 versus 118.5 ± 17.1 mmHg, P < 0.001; 81.5 ± 11.8 versus 78 ± 11.9 mmHg, P < 0.001, respectively). Similar differences were noted for brachial BP. Ambulatory AIx and PWV were also significantly increased during the third versus second day (30.5 ± 9.9 versus 28.8 ± 9.9%, P < 0.05; 9.6 ± 2.3 versus 9.4 ± 2.3 m/s, P < 0.001, respectively). Differences between Days 2 and 3 remained significant when day-time and night-time periods were compared separately. Aortic SBP and DBP, AIx and PWV showed gradual increases from the end of dialysis session onwards. Interdialytic weight gain was a strong determinant of the increase in the above parameters.This study showed significantly higher ambulatory aortic BP, AIx and PWV levels during the third compared with the second interdialytic day. These findings support a novel pathway for increased cardiovascular risk during the third interdialytic day in haemodialysis.
Project description:In the general population, an increased potassium (K) intake lowers blood pressure (BP). The effects of K have not been well-studied in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This randomized feeding trial with a 2-period crossover design compared the effects of diets containing 100 and 40 mmol K/day on BP in 29 adults with stage 3 CKD and treated or untreated systolic BP (SBP) 120-159 mmHg and diastolic BP (DBP) <100 mmHg. The primary outcome was 24 h ambulatory systolic BP. The higher-versus lower-K diet had no significant effect on 24 h SBP (-2.12 mm Hg; <i>p</i> = 0.16) and DBP (-0.70 mm Hg; <i>p</i> = 0.44). Corresponding differences in clinic BP were -4.21 mm Hg for SBP (<i>p</i> = 0.054) and -0.08 mm Hg for DBP (<i>p</i> = 0.94). On the higher-K diet, mean serum K increased by 0.21 mmol/L (<i>p</i> = 0.003) compared to the lower-K diet; two participants had confirmed hyperkalemia (serum K ≥ 5.5 mmol/L). In conclusion, a higher dietary intake of K did not lower 24 h SBP, while clinic SBP reduction was of borderline statistical significance. Additional trials are warranted to understand the health effects of increased K intake in individuals with CKD.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>To assess real-life effectiveness of a perindopril/indapamide (Per/Ind) single-pill combination (SPC) in patients with hypertension (HT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity and/or metabolic syndrome (MetS).<h4>Methods</h4>This post hoc analysis pooled raw data from four large observational studies (FORTISSIMO, FORSAGE, ACES, PICASSO). Patients, most with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) on previous treatments were switched to Per/Ind (10 mg/2.5 mg) SPC at study entry. Office systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP) were measured at baseline, 1 month and 3 months.<h4>Results</h4>In the overall pooled population (N = 16,763), mean age was 61 ± 12 years, HT duration 11 ± 8 years, and baseline SBP/DBP 162/94 mmHg. T2DM, obesity and MetS were present in 21%, 49% and 27% of patients, respectively. Subgroups had similar mean age and HT duration to the overall population; patients with T2DM were slightly older (64 ± 10 years) with a longer HT duration (13 ± 8 years). Mean BP was approximately 160/95 mmHg in each subgroup. At 1 month, mean SBP decreased by approximately 20 mmHg in the overall population, and by a further 10 mmHg at 3 months. Similar results were observed in the three subgroups, with mean changes from baseline at 3 months of - 28 ± 15/- 13 ± 10 in T2DM; - 30 ± 15/- 14 ± 10 in obesity; and - 31 ± 15/- 15 ± 9 mmHg in MetS. BP decreases were greatest in patients with grade II or grade III HT. BP control rates (< 140/90 mmHg or 140/85 mmHg for T2DM) at 3 months were 59% in T2DM, 67% in obese, and 66% in MetS. No specific safety concerns were raised, particularly concerning ionic (Na, K) or metabolic profiles.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Switching to Per/Ind SPC led to rapid and effective BP decreases in patients with T2DM, obesity, or MetS. BP control was achieved in 6-7 out of 10 previously treated but uncontrolled patients. Treatment was well tolerated. The results confirm the beneficial effects of a Per/Ind SPC for difficult-to-control patient populations.
Project description:Background:Experimental evidence indicates that oral L-citrulline (L-Cit) may reduce resting blood pressure (BP) as well as BP responses to exercise and cold exposure (non-resting). However, results from human intervention trials are inconsistent. This study aims to summarize the clinical evidence regarding the effects of L-Cit supplementation on brachial systolic blood pressure (SBP), brachial diastolic blood pressure (DBP), in addition to aortic SBP and aortic DBP at rest and non-resting conditions. Methods:Multiple databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, Web of Science, and Clinical Trials were searched systematically. Randomized controlled trials of human participants were quantitatively meta-analyzed. Results:Fourteen trials contained in eight studies were available for quantitative syntheses for brachial BP. Results showed that L-Cit supplementation significantly reduced both brachial SBP (-?4.490?mmHg, 95% CI: -?7.332 to -?1.648, P?=?0.002) and brachial DBP (-?3.629?mmHg, 95% CI: -?5.825 to -?1.434, P?=?0.001). Nine of the trials were meta-analyzed for aortic BP which showed that L-Cit intervention significantly reduced aortic SBP (-?6.763?mmHg, 95% CI: -?10.991 to -?2.534, P?=?0.002), but not aortic DBP (-?3.396?mmHg, 95% CI: -?7.418 to 0.627, P?=?0.098). The observed reducing effects of L-Cit appeared stronger for non-resting than for resting brachial SBP (P for difference?=?0.044). Conclusion:L-Cit supplementation significantly decreased non-resting brachial and aortic SBP. Brachial DBP was significantly lowered by L-Cit regardless of resting status. Given the relatively small number of available trials in the stratified analyses and the potential limitations of these trials, the present findings should be interpreted cautiously and need to be confirmed in future well-designed trials with a larger sample size.