Vascular endothelial growth factor A, secreted in response to transforming growth factor-β1 under hypoxic conditions, induces autocrine effects on migration of prostate cancer cells.
ABSTRACT: Hypoxia and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) increase vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) expression in a number of malignancies. This effect of hypoxia and TGF-β1 might be responsible for tumor progression and metastasis of advanced prostate cancer. In the present study, TGF-β1 was shown to induce VEGFA(165) secretion from both normal cell lines (HPV7 and RWPE1) and prostate cancer cell lines (DU145 and PC3). Conversely, hypoxia-stimulated VEGFA(165) secretion was observed only in prostate cancer cell lines. Hypoxia induced TGF-β1 expression in PC3 prostate cancer cells, and the TGF-β type I receptor (ALK5) kinase inhibitor partially blocked hypoxia-mediated VEGFA(165) secretion. This effect of hypoxia provides a novel mechanism to increase VEGFA expression in prostate cancer cells. Although autocrine signaling of VEGFA has been implicated in prostate cancer progression and metastasis, the associated mechanism is poorly characterized. VEGFA activity is mediated via VEGF receptor (VEGFR) 1 (Flt-1) and 2 (Flk-1/KDR). Whereas VEGFR-1 mRNA was detected in normal prostate epithelial cells, VEGFR-2 mRNA and VEGFR protein were expressed only in PC3 cells. VEGFA(165) treatment induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in PC3 cells but not in HPV7 cells, suggesting that the autocrine function of VEGFA may be uniquely associated with prostate cancer. Activation of VEGFR-2 by VEGFA(165) was shown to enhance migration of PC3 cells. A similar effect was also observed with endogenous VEGFA induced by TGF-β1 and hypoxia. These findings illustrate that an autocrine loop of VEGFA via VEGFR-2 is critical for the tumorigenic effects of TGF-β1 and hypoxia on metastatic prostate cancers.
Project description:Members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family are key signaling proteins in the induction and regulation of angiogenesis, both during development and in pathological conditions. However, signaling mediated through VEGF family proteins and their receptors has recently been shown to have direct effects on neurons and glial cells. In the present study, we immunocytochemically investigated the expression and cellular distribution of VEGFA, VEGFB, and their associated receptors (VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2) in focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) type IIB from patients with medically intractable epilepsy. Histologically normal temporal cortex and perilesional regions displayed neuronal immunoreactivity (IR) for VEGFA, VEGFB, and VEGF receptors (VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2), mainly in pyramidal neurons. Weak IR was observed in blood vessels and there was no notable glial IR within the grey and white matter. In all FCD specimens, VEGFA, VEGFB, and both VEGF receptors were highly expressed in dysplastic neurons. IR in astroglial and balloon cells was observed for VEGFA and its receptors. VEGFR-1 displayed strong endothelial staining in FCD. Double-labeling also showed expression of VEGFA, VEGFB and VEGFR-1 in cells of the microglia/macrophage lineage. The neuronal expression of both VEGFA and VEGFB, together with their specific receptors in FCD, suggests autocrine/paracrine effects on dysplastic neurons. These autocrine/paracrine effects could play a role in the development of FCD, preventing the death of abnormal neuronal cells. In addition, the expression of VEGFA and its receptors in glial cells within the dysplastic cortex indicates that VEGF-mediated signaling could contribute to astroglial activation and associated inflammatory reactions.
Project description:The ETS transcription factor ETV1 is frequently overexpressed in aggressive prostate cancer, which is one underlying cause of this disease. Accordingly, transgenic mice that prostate-specifically overexpress ETV1 develop prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. However, progression to the adenocarcinoma stage is stifled in these mice, suggesting that inhibitory pathways possibly preclude ETV1 from exerting its full oncogenic potential. Here we provide evidence that TGF-β/SMAD signaling represents such an inhibitory pathway. First, we discovered that ETV1 forms complexes with SMAD4. Second, SMAD2, SMAD3 and SMAD4 overexpression impaired ETV1's ability to stimulate gene transcription. Third, TGF-β1 inhibited ETV1-induced invasion by benign RWPE-1 prostate cells. Fourth, increased expression of SMAD3 and SMAD4 was observable in prostates of ETV1 transgenic mice. Conversely, we found that ETV1 may enhance TGF-β signaling in PC3 prostate cancer cells, revealing a different facet of the ETV1/TGF-β interplay. Altogether, these data provide more insights into the regulation and action of ETV1 and additionally suggest that TGF-β/SMAD signaling exerts its tumor suppressive activity, at least in part, by curtailing the oncogenic potential of ETV1 in prostatic lesions.
Project description:Epithelial cancer cells can undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a complex genetic program that enables cells to break free from the primary tumor, breach the basement membrane, invade through the stroma and metastasize to distant organs. Myoferlin (MYOF), a protein involved in plasma membrane function and repair, is overexpressed in several invasive cancer cell lines. Depletion of myoferlin in the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 (MDA-231MYOFKD) reduced migration and invasion and caused the cells to revert to an epithelial phenotype. To test if this mesenchymal-epithelial transition was durable, MDA-231MYOFKD cells were treated with TGF-β1, a potent stimulus of EMT. After 48 hr with TGF-β1, MDA-231MYOFKD cells underwent an EMT. TGF-β1 treatment also decreased directional cell motility toward more random migration, similar to the highly invasive control cells. To probe the potential mechanism of MYOF function, we examined TGF-β1 receptor signaling. MDA-MB-231 growth and survival has been previously shown to be regulated by autocrine TGF-β1. We hypothesized that MYOF depletion may result in the dysregulation of TGF-β1 signaling, thwarting EMT. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined production of endogenous TGF-β1 and observed a decrease in TGF-β1 protein secretion and mRNA transcription. To determine if TGF-β1 was required to maintain the mesenchymal phenotype, TGF-β receptor signaling was inhibited with a small molecule inhibitor, resulting in decreased expression of several mesenchymal markers. These results identify a novel pathway in the regulation of autocrine TGF-β signaling and a mechanism by which MYOF regulates cellular phenotype and invasive capacity of human breast cancer cells.
Project description:It is well known that prostate cancer (PCa) occurs predominantly in the peripheral zone (PZ), whereas benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) typically develops in the transition zone. To identify possible mechanisms underlying zonal differences, we compared the effects of prostate stromal cells derived from the peripheral zone (PZsc) and the transition zone (TZsc) on a PCa epithelial cell line (PC3) in the presence of sex hormones. First, we observed that androgen receptor (AR) mRNA was more highly expressed in PZsc than TZsc when the cells were treated with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and β-oestradiol (E2) (P<0.05). By ELISA, we looked for differences in the secretion of peptide growth factors from PZsc and TZsc. We found that keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) secretion increased with increasing concentrations of DHT (P<0.01) and was higher in PZsc than TZsc. Under treatment with DHT plus E2, PZsc secreted more transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) than TZsc, but this pattern was reversed when the cells were treated with E2 only. With increasing concentrations of DHT, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) secretion increased in PZsc but decreased in TZsc. To further characterize the effects of PZsc and TZsc on PC3 cells, we developed a coculture model and performed MTT assays, Western blot analysis and real-time RT-PCR. We found that PZsc promoted PC3 cell proliferation and progression better than TZsc, particularly when treated with 10 nmol l(-1) DHT plus 10 nmol l(-1) E2. In conclusion, our data suggest that PZsc may have a greater capacity to induce PCa development and progression than TZsc via growth factors regulated by sex hormones. These findings provide possible mechanisms underlying zonal differences in prostate diseases, which may aid the search for novel therapeutic targets for PCa.
Project description:Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 contributes to autocrine and paracrine functions in the tumor microenvironment (TME). The present study examined the effects of TGF-β1 crosstalk in TME and its role in mediating tumor formation and progression by targeted abrogation of TGF-β1 expression in metastatic cells in situ. Using species-specific primers, we found a significant increase in MMP-9 gene expression in the tumor-reactive stroma during late-stage metastasis in the lung. This effect was also confirmed in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) when co-cultured with the tumor cells. Knockdown of TGF-β1 expression in the tumor cells negatively affected matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 gene expression. Fibroblasts, cultured in the presence of tumor cells with intact TGF-β1, showed a significant increase in proliferation rate, as well as expression of VEGF, bFGF, and SDF-1, which was not seen when TGF-β1 expression was abrogated in tumor cells. Absence of TGF-β1 in tumor cells also failed to result in myofibroblast differentiation. Co-implantation of CAFs and tumor cells with either intact TGF-β1 expression or devoid of TGF-β1 in vivo showed a significant increase in tumor growth kinetics in both cell types, suggesting a possible activation TGF-β receptor signaling in tumor cells in response to TGF-β from the TME.
Project description:VEGF-A, an angiogenic factor, is increased in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis. The cytokine TGF-β1 is thought to play a role in the establishment of endometriosis lesions. Inhibitor of DNA binding (ID) proteins are transcriptional targets of TGF-β1 and ID1 has been implicated in VEGF-A regulation during tumor angiogenesis. Herein, we determined whether peritoneal expression of VEGF-A is regulated by TGF-β1 through the ID1 pathway in women with endometriosis. VEGF-A was measured in peritoneal fluid by ELISA (n = 16). VEGF-A and ID1 expression was examined in peritoneal biopsies (n = 13), and primary peritoneal and immortalized mesothelial cells (MeT5A) by immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR and ELISA. VEGF-A was increased in peritoneal fluid from women with endometriosis and levels correlated with TGF-β1 concentrations (P < 0.05). VEGF-A was immunolocalized to peritoneal mesothelium and TGF-β1 increased VEGFA mRNA (P < 0.05) and protein (P < 0.05) in mesothelial cells. ID1 was increased in peritoneum from women with endometriosis and TGF-β1 increased concentrations of ID1 mRNA (P < 0.05) in mesothelial cells. VEGF-A regulation through ID1 was confirmed by siRNA in MeT5A cells (P < 0.05). Our data supports role for ID1 in the pathophysiology of endometriosis, as an effector of TGFβ1 dependent upregulation of VEGF-A, and highlights a novel potential therapeutic target.
Project description:Drugs that target the tumor vasculature and inhibit angiogenesis are widely used for cancer treatment. Individual tumors show large differences in vascularity, but it is uncertain how these differences affect responsiveness to antiangiogenesis. We investigated this question using two closely related prostate cancer models that differ markedly in tumor vascularity: PC3, which has very low vascularity, and the PC3-derived cancer stem-like cell holoclone PC3/2G7, which forms tumors with high microvessel density, high tumor blood flow, and low hypoxia compared with parental PC3 tumors. Three angiogenesis inhibitors (axitinib, sorafenib, and DC101) all induced significantly greater decreases in tumor blood flow and microvessel density in PC3/2G7 tumors compared with PC3 tumors, as well as significantly greater decreases in tumor cell proliferation and cell viability and a greater increase in apoptosis. The increased sensitivity of PC3/2G7 tumors to antiangiogenesis indicates they are less tolerant of low vascularity and suggests they become addicted to their oxygen- and nutrient-rich environment. PC3/2G7 tumors showed strong upregulation of the proangiogenic factors chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and VEGFA compared with PC3 tumors, which may contribute to their increased vascularity, and they have significantly lower endothelial cell pericyte coverage, which may contribute to their greater sensitivity to antiangiogenesis. Interestingly, high levels of VEGF receptor-2 were expressed on PC3 but not PC3/2G7 tumor cells, which may contribute to the growth static response of PC3 tumors to VEGF-targeted antiangiogenesis. Finally, prolonged antiangiogenic treatment led to resumption of PC3/2G7 tumor growth and neovascularization, indicating these cancer stem-like cell-derived tumors can adapt and escape from antiangiogenesis.
Project description:Transforming growth factor beta (TGF?) is believed to play a dual role in prostate cancer. Molecular mechanism by which TGF?1 suppresses early prostate tumor growth and induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in advanced stages is not known. We determined if P21-activated kinase1 (Pak1), which mediates cytoskeletal remodeling is necessary for the TGF?1 induced prostate cancer EMT. Effects of TGF?1 on control prostate cancer PC3 and DU145 cells and those with IPA 3 and siRNA mediated Pak1 inhibition were tested for prostate tumor xenograft in vivo and EMT in vitro. TGF?1 inhibited PC3 tumor xenograft growth via activation of P38-MAPK and caspase-3, 9. Long-term stimulation with TGF?1 induced PC3 and DU145 cell scattering and increased expression of EMT markers such as Snail and N-cadherin through tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF6)-mediated activation of Rac1/Pak1 pathway. Selective inhibition of Pak1 using IPA 3 or knockdown using siRNA both significantly inhibited TGF?1-induced prostate cancer cell EMT and expression of mesenchymal markers. Our study demonstrated that TGF?1 induces apoptosis and EMT in prostate cancer cells via activation of P38-MAPK and Rac1/Pak1 respectively. Our results reveal the potential therapeutic benefits of targeting TGF?1-Pak1 pathway for advanced-stage prostate cancer.
Project description:Endoglin, a transmembrane glycoprotein that acts as a transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) coreceptor, is downregulated in PC3-M metastatic prostate cancer cells. When restored, endoglin expression in PC3-M cells inhibits cell migration in vitro and attenuates the tumorigenicity of PC3-M cells in SCID mice, though the mechanism of endoglin regulation of migration in prostate cancer cells is not known. The current study indicates that endoglin is phosphorylated on cytosolic domain threonine residues by the TGF-beta type I receptors ALK2 and ALK5 in prostate cancer cells. Importantly, in the presence of constitutively active ALK2, endoglin did not inhibit cell migration, suggesting that endoglin phosphorylation regulated PC3-M cell migration. Therefore, our results suggest that endoglin phosphorylation is a mechanism with relevant functional consequences in prostate cancer cells. These data demonstrate for the first time that TGF-beta receptor-mediated phosphorylation of endoglin is a Smad-independent mechanism involved in the regulation of prostate cancer cell migration.
Project description:The fibrogenic response in tissue-resident fibroblasts is determined by the balance between activation and repression signals from the tissue microenvironment. While the molecular pathways by which transforming growth factor-1 (TGF-β1) activates pro-fibrogenic mechanisms have been extensively studied and are recognized critical during fibrosis development, the factors regulating TGF-β1 signaling are poorly understood. Here we show that macrophage hypoxia signaling suppresses excessive fibrosis in a heart via oncostatin-m (OSM) secretion. During cardiac remodeling, Ly6Chi monocytes/macrophages accumulate in hypoxic areas through a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α dependent manner and suppresses cardiac fibroblast activation. As an underlying molecular mechanism, we identify OSM, part of the interleukin 6 cytokine family, as a HIF-1α target gene, which directly inhibits the TGF-β1 mediated activation of cardiac fibroblasts through extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-dependent phosphorylation of the SMAD linker region. These results demonstrate that macrophage hypoxia signaling regulates fibroblast activation through OSM secretion in vivo.