Activation of the pyrin inflammasome by intracellular Burkholderia cenocepacia.
ABSTRACT: Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that causes chronic infection and induces progressive respiratory inflammation in cystic fibrosis patients. Recognition of bacteria by mononuclear cells generally results in the activation of caspase-1 and processing of IL-1?, a major proinflammatory cytokine. In this study, we report that human pyrin is required to detect intracellular B. cenocepacia leading to IL-1? processing and release. This inflammatory response involves the host adapter molecule ASC and the bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS). Human monocytes and THP-1 cells stably expressing either small interfering RNA against pyrin or YFP-pyrin and ASC (YFP-ASC) were infected with B. cenocepacia and analyzed for inflammasome activation. B. cenocepacia efficiently activates the inflammasome and IL-1? release in monocytes and THP-1. Suppression of pyrin levels in monocytes and THP-1 cells reduced caspase-1 activation and IL-1? release in response to B. cenocepacia challenge. In contrast, overexpression of pyrin or ASC induced a robust IL-1? response to B. cenocepacia, which correlated with enhanced host cell death. Inflammasome activation was significantly reduced in cells infected with T6SS-defective mutants of B. cenocepacia, suggesting that the inflammatory reaction is likely induced by an as yet uncharacterized effector(s) of the T6SS. Together, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that in human mononuclear cells infected with B. cenocepacia, pyrin associates with caspase-1 and ASC forming an inflammasome that upregulates mononuclear cell IL-1? processing and release.
Project description:Activation of inflammasomes is an important aspect of innate immune responses to bacterial infection. Recent studies have linked Vibrio cholerae secreted toxins to inflammasome activation by using murine macrophages. To increase relevance to human infection, studies of inflammasome-dependent cytokine secretion were conducted with the human THP-1 monocytic cell line and corroborated in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Both El Tor and classical strains of V. cholerae activated ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein-containing a CARD domain)-dependent release of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) when cultured with human THP-1 cells, but the pattern of induction was distinct, depending on the repertoire of toxins the strains produced. El Tor biotype strains induced release of IL-1? dependent on NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) and ASC due to the secreted pore-forming toxin hemolysin. Unlike in studies with mouse macrophages, the MARTX toxin did not contribute to IL-1? release from human monocytic cells. Classical biotype strains, which do not produce either hemolysin or the MARTX toxin, activated low-level IL-1? release that was induced by cholera toxin (CT) and dependent on ASC but independent of NLRP3 and pyroptosis. El Tor strains likewise showed increased IL-1? production dependent on CT when the hemolysin gene was deleted. In contrast to studies with murine macrophages, this phenotype was dependent on a catalytically active CT A subunit capable of inducing production of cyclic AMP and not on the B subunit. These studies demonstrate that the induction of the inflammasome in human THP-1 monocytes and in PBMCs by V. cholerae varies with the biotype and is mediated by both NLRP3-dependent and -independent pathways.
Project description:Pyrin-Associated Autoinflammation with Neutrophilic Dermatosis (PAAND) is a recently described monogenic autoinflammatory disease. The causal p.S242R MEFV mutation disrupts a binding motif of the regulatory 14-3-3 proteins within pyrin. Here, we investigate a family with clinical features consistent with PAAND in whom the novel p.E244K MEFV mutation, located in the +2?site of the 14-3-3 binding motif in pyrin, has been found.Multiplex cytokine analyses were performed on p.E244K patient and control serum. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated ex vivo with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In vitro, inflammasome complex formation was evaluated by flow cytometry of Apoptosis-associated Speck-like protein containing a Caspase recruitment domain (ASC) specks. Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and IL-18 production was quantified by ELISA. The ability of the p.E244K pyrin mutation to interact with 14-3-3 was assessed by immunoprecipitation.PAAND p.E244K patient serum displayed a different cytokine profile compared with patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF). In overexpression models, p.E244K pyrin was associated with decreased 14-3-3 binding and increased ASC speck formation. THP-1 monocytes expressing PAAND pyrin mutations demonstrated spontaneous caspase-1-dependent IL-1? and IL-18 secretion, as well as cell death, which were significantly greater than those of wild-type and the FMF-associated mutation p.M694V.In PAAND, disruption of the +2?position of a 14-3-3 binding motif in pyrin results in its constitutive activation, with spontaneous production of IL-1? and IL-18, associated with inflammatory cell death. The altered serum cytokine profile may explain the different clinical features exhibited by PAAND patients compared with those with FMF.
Project description:RATIONALE: Activation state-dependent secretion of alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor (A1PI) by monocytes and macrophages was first reported in 1985. Since then, monocytes and tissue macrophages have emerged as key sentinels of infection and tissue damage via activation of self-assembling pattern recognition receptors (inflammasomes), which trigger inflammation and cell death in a caspase-1 dependent process. These studies examine the relationship between A1PI expression in primary monocytes and monocytic cell lines, and inflammatory cytokine expression in response to inflammasome directed stimuli. METHODS: IL-1 ? expression was examined in lung macrophages expressing wild type A1PI (A1PI-M) or disease-associated Z isoform A1PI (A1PI-Z). Inflammatory cytokine release was evaluated in THP-1 monocytic cells or THP-1 cells lacking the inflammasome adaptor ASC, transfected with expression vectors encoding A1PI-M or A1PI-Z. A1PI-M was localized within monocytes by immunoprecipitation in hypotonic cell fractions. Cell-free titration of A1PI-M was performed against recombinant active caspase-1 in vitro. RESULTS: IL-1 ? expression was elevated in lung macrophages expressing A1PI-Z. Overexpression of A1PI-M in THP-1 monocytes reduced secretion of IL-1? and TNF-?. In contrast, overexpression of A1PI-Z enhanced IL-1? and TNF- ? secretion in an ASC dependent manner. A1PI-Z-enhanced cytokine release was inhibited by a small molecule caspase-1 inhibitor but not by high levels of exogenous wtA1PI. Cytosolic localization of A1PI-M in monocytes was not diminished with microtubule-inhibiting agents. A1PI-M co-localized with caspase-1 in gel-filtered cytoplasmic THP-1 preparations, and was co-immunoprecipitated with caspase 1 from nigericin-stimulated THP-1 cell lysate. Plasma-derived A1PI inhibited recombinant caspase-1 mediated conversion of a peptide substrate in a dose dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that monocyte/macrophage-expressed A1PI-M antagonizes IL-1? secretion possibly via caspase-1 inhibition, a function which disease-associated A1PI-Z may lack. Therapeutic approaches which limit inflammasome responses in patients with A1PI deficiency, in combination with A1PI augmentation, may provide additional respiratory tissue-sparing benefits.
Project description:Relative to monocytes, human macrophages are deficient in their ability to process and release IL-1beta. In an effort to explain this difference, we used a model of IL-1beta processing and release that is dependent upon bacterial escape into the cytosol. Fresh human blood monocytes were compared with monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) for their IL-1beta release in response to challenge with Francisella novicida. Although both cell types produced similar levels of IL-1beta mRNA and intracellular pro-IL-1beta, only monocytes readily released processed mature IL-1beta. Baseline mRNA expression profiling of candidate genes revealed a remarkable deficiency in the pyrin gene, MEFV, expression in MDM compared with monocytes. Immunoblots confirmed a corresponding deficit in MDM pyrin protein. To determine whether pyrin levels were responsible for the monocyte/MDM difference in mature IL-1beta release, pyrin expression was knocked down by nucleofecting small interfering RNA against pyrin into monocytes or stably transducing small interfering RNA against pyrin into the monocyte cell line, THP-1. Pyrin knockdown was associated with a significant drop in IL-1beta release in both cell types. Importantly, M-CSF treatment of MDM restored pyrin levels and IL-1beta release. Similarly, the stable expression of pyrin in PMA-stimulated THP-1-derived macrophages induces caspase-1 activation, associated with increased IL-1beta release after infection with F. novicida. In summary, intracellular pyrin levels positively regulate MDM IL-1beta responsiveness to Francisella challenge.
Project description:The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-18 are products of activation of the inflammasome, an innate sensing system, and important in the pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The release of IL-18 and IL-1? from monocytes/macrophages is critical for protection from HSV-1 based on animal models of encephalitis and genital infection, yet if and how HSV-1 activates inflammasomes in human macrophages is unknown. To investigate this, we utilized both primary human monocyte derived macrophages and human monocytic cell lines (THP-1 cells) with various inflammasome components knocked-out. We found that HSV-1 activates inflammasome signaling in proinflammatory primary human macrophages, but not in resting macrophages. Additionally, HSV-1 inflammasome activation in THP-1 cells is dependent on nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing receptor 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like molecule containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), and caspase-1, but not on absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), or gamma interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16). In contrast, HSV-1 activates non-canonical inflammasome signaling in proinflammatory macrophages that results in IL-1?, but not IL-18, release that is independent of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1. Ultraviolet irradiation of HSV-1 enhanced inflammasome activation, demonstrating that viral replication suppresses inflammasome activation. These results confirm that HSV-1 is capable of activating the inflammasome in human macrophages through an NLRP3 dependent process and that the virus has evolved an NLRP3 specific mechanism to inhibit inflammasome activation in macrophages.
Project description:Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a major foodborne pathogen causing hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The role of EHEC O157:H7-enterohemolysin (Ehx) in the pathogenesis of infections remains poorly defined. In this study, we used gene deletion and complement methods to confirm its putative functions. Results demonstrated that, in THP-1 cells, EHEC O157:H7-Ehx is associated with greater production of extracellular interleukin (IL)-1? than other cytokines. The data also showed that EHEC O157:H7-Ehx contributed to cytotoxicity in THP-1 cells, causing the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Although we observed a positive correlation between IL-1? production and cytotoxicity in THP-1 cells infected with different EHEC O157:H7 strains, our immunoblot results showed that the majority of IL-1? in the supernatant was mature IL-1? and not the pro-IL-1? that can be released after cell death. However, EHEC O157:H7-Ehx had no detectable effect on biologically inactive pro-IL-1? at the mRNA or protein synthesis levels. Neither did it affect the expression of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), caspase-1, or NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3). RNA interference experiments showed that EHEC O157:H7-induced IL-1? production required the involvement of ASC, caspase-1, and NLRP3 expression in THP-1 cells. Our results demonstrate that Ehx plays a crucial role in EHEC O157:H7-induced IL-1? production and its cytotoxicity to THP-1 cells. NLRP3 inflammasome activation is also involved in EHEC O157:H7-stimulated IL-1? release.
Project description:The NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is an interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 cytokine processing complex that is activated in inflammatory conditions. The role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction is not fully understood.Atherosclerotic plaques were analyzed for transcripts of the NLRP3 inflammasome, and for IL-1β release. The Swedish First-ever myocardial Infarction study in Ac-county (FIA) cohort consisting of DNA from 555 myocardial infarction patients and 1016 healthy individuals was used to determine the frequency of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the downstream regulatory region of NLRP3. Expression of NLRP3, Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), caspase-1 (CASP1), IL1B, and IL18 mRNA was significantly increased in atherosclerotic plaques compared to normal arteries. The expression of NLRP3 mRNA was significantly higher in plaques of symptomatic patients when compared to asymptomatic ones. CD68-positive macrophages were observed in the same areas of atherosclerotic lesions as NLRP3 and ASC expression. Occasionally, expression of NLRP3 and ASC was also present in smooth muscle cells. Cholesterol crystals and ATP induced IL-1β release from lipopolysaccharide-primed human atherosclerotic lesion plaques. The minor alleles of the variants rs4266924, rs6672995, and rs10733113 were associated with NLRP3 mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells but not with the risk of myocardial infarction.Our results indicate a possible role of the NLRP3 inflammasome and its genetic variants in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
Project description:In response to infections and tissue damage, ASC-containing inflammasome protein complexes are assembled that promote caspase-1 activation, IL-1? and IL-18 processing and release, pyroptosis, and the release of ASC particles. However, excessive or persistent activation of the inflammasome causes inflammatory diseases. Therefore, a well-balanced inflammasome response is crucial for the maintenance of homeostasis. We show that the PYD-only protein POP1 inhibited ASC-dependent inflammasome assembly by preventing inflammasome nucleation, and consequently interfered with caspase-1 activation, IL-1? and IL-18 release, pyroptosis, and the release of ASC particles. There is no mouse ortholog for POP1, but transgenic expression of human POP1 in monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells protected mice from systemic inflammation triggered by molecular PAMPs, inflammasome component NLRP3 mutation, and ASC danger particles. POP1 expression was regulated by TLR and IL-1R signaling, and we propose that POP1 provides a regulatory feedback loop that shuts down excessive inflammatory responses and thereby prevents systemic inflammation.
Project description:Inflammasomes are cytoplasmic sensors that regulate the activity of caspase-1 and the secretion of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) or interleukin-18 (IL-18) in response to foreign molecules, including viral pathogens. They are considered to be an important link between the innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the mechanism by which inflammasome activation occurs during primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection remains unknown. Human B lymphocytes and epithelial cells are major targets of EBV, although it can also infect a variety of other cell types. In this study, we found that EBV could infect primary human monocytes and the monocyte cell line, THP-1, inducing inflammasome activation. We incubated cell-free EBV with THP-1 cells or primary human monocytes, then confirmed EBV infection using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Lytic and latent EBV genes were detected by real-time RT-PCR in EBV-infected monocytes. EBV infection of THP-1 cells and primary human monocytes induced caspase-dependent IL-1? production, while EBV infection of B-cell or T-cell lines did not induce IL-1? production. To identify the sensor molecule responsible for inflammasome activation during EBV infection, we examined the mRNA and the protein levels of NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3), absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), and interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16). Increased AIM2 levels were observed in EBV-infected THP-1 cells and primary human monocytes, whereas levels of IFI16 and NLRP3 did not show remarkable change. Furthermore, knockdown of AIM2 by small interfering RNA attenuated caspase-1 activation. Taken together, our results suggest that EBV infection of human monocytes induces caspase-1-dependent IL-1? production, and that AIM2, acting as an inflammasome, is involved in this response.
Project description:UNLABELLED: Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) functions as a key regulator of inflammation and innate immunity. The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii actively infects human blood monocytes and induces the production of IL-1?; however, the host and parasite factors that mediate IL-1? production during T. gondii infection are poorly understood. We report that T. gondii induces IL-1? transcript, processing/cleavage, and release from infected primary human monocytes and THP-1 cells. Treating monocytes with the caspase-1 inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CMK reduced IL-1? release, suggesting a role for the inflammasome in T. gondii-induced IL-1? production. This was confirmed by performing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown of caspase-1 and of the inflammasome adaptor protein ASC. IL-1? induction required active parasite invasion of monocytes, since heat-killed or mycalolide B-treated parasites did not induce IL-1?. Among the type I, II, and III strains of T. gondii, the type II strain induced substantially more IL-1? mRNA and protein release than did the type I and III strains. Since IL-1? transcript is known to be induced downstream of NF-?B signaling, we investigated a role for the GRA15 protein, which induces sustained NF-?B signaling in a parasite strain-specific manner. By infecting human monocytes with a GRA15-knockout type II strain and a type I strain stably expressing type II GRA15, we determined that GRA15 is responsible for IL-1? induction during T. gondii infection of human monocytes. This research defines a pathway driving human innate immunity by describing a role for the classical inflammasome components caspase-1 and ASC and the parasite GRA15 protein in T. gondii-induced IL-1? production. IMPORTANCE: Monocytes are immune cells that protect against infection by increasing inflammation and antimicrobial activities in the body. Upon infection with the parasitic pathogen Toxoplasma gondii, human monocytes release interleukin-1? (IL-1?), a "master regulator" of inflammation, which amplifies immune responses. Although inflammatory responses are critical for host defense against infection, excessive inflammation can result in tissue damage and pathology. This delicate balance underscores the importance of understanding the mechanisms that regulate IL-1? during infection. We have investigated the molecular pathway by which T. gondii induces the synthesis and release of IL-1? in human monocytes. We found that specific proteins in the parasite and the host cell coordinate to induce IL-1? production. This research is significant because it contributes to a greater understanding of human innate immunity to infection and IL-1? regulation, thereby enhancing our potential to modulate inflammation in the body.