Treatment utilization and unmet treatment need among Hispanics following brief intervention.
ABSTRACT: In a large randomized trial examining ethnic differences in response to a brief alcohol intervention following an alcohol-related injury, we showed that Hispanics, but not non-Hispanics, were more likely to reduce alcohol intake in comparison with treatment as usual (Addiction 105:62, 2010). The current study evaluates whether the observed improvements in drinking outcomes previously reported among Hispanics following brief intervention might be related to prior or subsequent treatment utilization.This study is a secondary analysis of data collected in a randomized clinical trial that evaluated ethnic differences in the effect of a brief motivational intervention (BMI) on alcohol use among medical inpatients admitted for alcohol-related injury. For this study, statistical analyses were carried out to compare alcohol use, alcohol problems, treatment utilization, and unmet treatment need between Hispanic (n = 537) and non-Hispanic White (n = 668) inpatients. In addition, we examined the relationship between prior treatment utilization and unmet treatment need and alcohol use outcomes following brief intervention and the impact of brief intervention on subsequent treatment utilization and unmet treatment need.In comparison with non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics at baseline reported heavier drinking, more alcohol problems, greater unmet treatment need, and lower rates of treatment utilization. Among Hispanics, multilevel analyses showed that prior treatment utilization or unmet treatment need did not moderate the effect of BMI on alcohol outcomes. Furthermore, BMI did not significantly impact subsequent treatment utilization or unmet treatment need among Hispanics. Finally, treatment utilization and unmet treatment need at 6 months were not significant mediators between BMI and alcohol use outcomes at follow-up.The benefits of brief intervention among Hispanics do not appear to be better explained by subsequent engagement in mutual help groups or formal substance abuse treatment. Prior history of treatment, regardless of the severity of alcohol problems, does not appear to influence the impact of brief intervention on alcohol use among Hispanics. These findings support prior results reporting the benefits of brief intervention among Hispanics and demonstrate that these improvements are not related to prior or subsequent treatment utilization.
Project description:Hispanics, particularly men of Mexican origin, are more likely to engage in heavy drinking and experience alcohol-related problems, but less likely to obtain treatment for alcohol problems than non-Hispanic men. Our previous research indicates that heavy-drinking Hispanics who received a brief motivational intervention (BMI) were significantly more likely than Hispanics receiving standard care to reduce subsequent alcohol use. Among Hispanics who drink heavily the BMI effectively reduced alcohol use but did not impact alcohol-related problems or treatment utilization. We hypothesized that an adapted BMI that integrates cultural values and addresses acculturative stress among Hispanics would be more effective.We describe here the protocol for the design and implementation of a randomized (approximately 300 patients per condition) controlled trial evaluating the comparative effectiveness of a culturally adapted (CA) BMI in contrast to a non-adapted BMI (NA-BMI) in a community hospital setting among men of Mexican origin. Study participants will include men who were hospitalized due to an alcohol related injury or screened positive for heavy drinking. By accounting for risk and protective factors of heavy drinking among Hispanics, we hypothesize that CA-BMI will significantly decrease alcohol use and alcohol problems, and increase help-seeking and treatment utilization.This is likely the first study to directly address alcohol related health disparities among non-treatment seeking men of Mexican origin by comparing the benefits of a CA-BMI to a NA-BMI. This study stands to not only inform interventions used in medical settings to reduce alcohol-related health disparities, but may also help reduce the public health burden of heavy alcohol use in the United States.Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02429401; Registration date: April 28, 2015.
Project description:Evaluating the effectiveness of treatments such as brief alcohol interventions among Hispanics is essential to effectively addressing their treatment needs. Clinicians of the same ethnicity as the client may be more likely to understand the culture-specific values, norms, and attitudes and, therefore, the intervention may be more effective. Thus, in cases in which Hispanic patients were provided intervention by a Hispanic clinician improved drinking outcomes were expected.Patients were recruited from an urban Level I Trauma following screening for an alcohol-related injury or alcohol problems. Five hundred thirty-seven Hispanics were randomly assigned to brief intervention or treatment as usual. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to determine the effects of ethnic match on drinking outcomes including volume per week, maximum amount, and frequency of 5 or more drinks per occasion. Analyses controlled for level of acculturation and immigration status.For Hispanics who received brief motivational intervention, an ethnic match between patient and provider resulted in a significant reduction in drinking outcomes at 12-month follow-up. In addition, there was a tendency for ethnic match to be most beneficial to foreign-born Hispanics and less acculturated Hispanics.As hypothesized, an ethnic match between patient and provider significantly enhanced the effectiveness of brief intervention among Hispanics. Ethnic concordance between patient and provider may have impacted the effectiveness of the intervention through several mechanisms including cultural scripts, ethnic-specific perceptions pertaining to substance abuse, and ethnic-specific preferred channels of communication.
Project description:There are limited findings on mental health prevalence and service utilization rates among community college (CC) students. Utilizing a heavy drinking CC sample, the current study examined: 1) prevalence of mental health symptoms, 2) mental health service utilization and perceived unmet service need, and 3) barriers to service utilization. Participants were 142 CC students who were heavy alcohol users (70% female; 59% White) from three public CCs in the Pacific Northwest who were participating in a larger study designed to adapt a brief intervention for high-risk alcohol use. Findings of the current study revealed that 32% of CC students had a positive screen for depression; 25% had a positive screen for anxiety; a total of 28% received mental health services in the past 12 months; a total of 41% reported a perceived unmet need for mental health services at some point in the past 12 months (i.e., needing mental health services but not receiving it). Students with mental health symptoms reported more barriers to receiving services, and were more likely to not receive services due to cost, compared to students without mental health symptoms. There were differences in type of barrier as a function of alcohol use severity, although there was no difference in number of barriers. Campuses may benefit from understanding mental health service utilization barriers their students report and to effectively advertise the services offered. Training of student services personnel staff and faculty in screening for mental health or substance use may be a worthwhile and cost-effective endeavor.
Project description:Most previous brief intervention (BI) studies have focused on alcohol or drug use, instead of both substances. Our primary aim was to determine if an alcohol- and drug-use BI reduced alcohol use and increased alcohol treatment services utilization among adult emergency department (ED) patients who drink alcohol and require an intervention for their drug use. Our secondary aims were to assess when the greatest relative reductions in alcohol use occurred, and which patients (stratified by need for an alcohol use intervention) reduced their alcohol use the most. In this secondary analysis, we studied a sub-sample of participants from the Brief Intervention for Drug Misuse in the Emergency Department (BIDMED) randomized, controlled trial of a BI vs. no BI, whose responses to the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) indicated a need for a BI for any drug use, and who also reported alcohol use. Participants were stratified by their ASSIST alcohol subscore: 1) no BI needed, 2) a BI needed, or 3) an intensive intervention needed for alcohol use. Alcohol use and alcohol treatment services utilization were measured every 3 months for 12 months post-enrollment. Of these 833 participants, median age was 29 years-old, 46% were female; 55% were white/non-Hispanic, 27% black/non-Hispanic, and 15% Hispanic. Although any alcohol use, alcohol use frequency, days of alcohol use, typical drinks consumed/day, and most drinks consumed/day decreased in both the BI and no BI arms, there were no differences between study arms. Few patients sought alcohol use treatment services in follow-up, and utilization also did not differ by study arm. Compared to baseline, alcohol use reduced the most during the first 3 months after enrollment, yet reduced little afterward. Participants whose ASSIST alcohol subscores indicated a need for an intensive intervention generally had the greatest relative decreases in alcohol use. These results indicate that the BI was not efficacious in reducing alcohol use among alcohol- and drug-using adult ED patients than the self-assessments alone, but suggest that self-assessments with or without a BI may confer reductions in alcohol use.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Brief alcohol interventions in medical settings are efficacious in improving self-reported alcohol consumption among those with low-severity alcohol problems. Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment initiatives presume that brief interventions are efficacious in linking patients to higher levels of care, but pertinent evidence has not been evaluated. We estimated main and subgroup effects of brief alcohol interventions, regardless of their inclusion of a referral-specific component, in increasing the utilization of alcohol-related care. METHODS:A systematic review of English language papers published in electronic databases to 2013. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of brief alcohol interventions in general health-care settings with adult and adolescent samples. We excluded studies that lacked alcohol services utilization data. Extractions of study characteristics and outcomes were standardized and conducted independently. The primary outcome was post-treatment alcohol services utilization assessed by self-report or administrative data, which we compared across intervention and control groups. RESULTS:Thirteen RCTs met inclusion criteria and nine were meta-analyzed (n?=?993 and n?=?937 intervention and control group participants, respectively). In our main analyses the pooled risk ratio (RR) was?=?1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.92-1.28. Five studies compared referral-specific interventions with a control condition without such interventions (pooled RR?=?1.08, 95% CI?=?0.81-1.43). Other subgroup analyses of studies with common characteristics (e.g. age, setting, severity, risk of bias) yielded non-statistically significant results. CONCLUSIONS:There is a lack of evidence that brief alcohol interventions have any efficacy for increasing the receipt of alcohol-related services.
Project description:The US Veterans Health Administration [Veterans Affairs (VA)] used performance measures and electronic clinical reminders to implement brief intervention for unhealthy alcohol use. We evaluated whether documented brief intervention was associated with subsequent changes in drinking during early implementation.Observational, retrospective cohort study using secondary clinical and administrative data.Thirty VA facilities.Outpatients who screened positive for unhealthy alcohol use [Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption (AUDIT-C???5)] in the 6 months after the brief intervention performance measure (n?=?22?214) and had follow-up screening 9-15 months later (n?=?6210; 28%).Multi-level logistic regression estimated the adjusted prevalence of resolution of unhealthy alcohol use (follow-up AUDIT-C <5 with ?2 point reduction) for patients with and without documented brief intervention (documented advice to reduce or abstain from drinking).Among 6210 patients with follow-up alcohol screening, 1751 (28%) had brief intervention and 2922 (47%) resolved unhealthy alcohol use at follow-up. Patients with documented brief intervention were older and more likely to have other substance use disorders, mental health conditions, poor health and more severe unhealthy alcohol use than those without (P-values?<?0.05). Adjusted prevalences of resolution were 47% [95% confidence interval (CI)?=?42-52%] and 48% (95% CI?=?42-54%) for patients with and without documented brief intervention, respectively (P?=?0.50).During early implementation of brief intervention in the US Veterans Health Administration, documented brief intervention was not associated with subsequent changes in drinking among outpatients with unhealthy alcohol use and repeat alcohol screening.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is a systematic approach to identification and intervention for individuals at risk for substance use disorders. Prior research indicates that SBIRT is underutilized in pediatric primary care. Yet few studies have examined procedures for identifying and addressing substance use in clinics that serve publicly insured adolescents (i.e., federally qualified health centers [FQHC]). This descriptive, multi-method study assessed adolescent substance use frequency and provider perspectives to inform SBIRT implementation in an urban pediatric FQHC in California.<h4>Methods</h4>A medical record review assessed substance use frequency and correlates among publicly insured adolescents aged 12-17 years who completed a well-child visit in pediatric primary care between 2014 and 2017 (N = 2252). Data on substance use (i.e., alcohol, illicit drugs, and tobacco) were from a health assessment tool mandated by Medicaid. Semi-structured interviews with 12 providers (i.e., pediatricians, nurse practitioners, behavioral health clinicians) elicited information about the current clinic workflow for adolescent substance use and barriers and facilitators to SBIRT implementation.<h4>Results</h4>Of 1588 adolescents who completed the assessment (70.5%), 6.8% reported current substance use. Self-reported use was highest among non-Hispanic Black (15.2%) adolescents and those with co-occurring depressive symptoms (14.4%). Provider-reported challenges to implementing SBIRT included a lack of space for confidential screening and a lack of referral options. Providers favored implementing technology-based tools such as tablets for adolescent pre-visit screening and electronic medical record-based decision support to facilitate brief intervention and treatment referrals.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study fills a substantial research gap by examining factors that impede and support SBIRT implementation in pediatric FQHC settings. Successful SBIRT implementation in these settings could significantly reduce the unmet need for substance use treatment among uninsured and publicly insured adolescents. Pediatric primary care and urgent care providers perceived SBIRT to be feasible, and health information and digital technologies may facilitate the integration of SBIRT into clinic workflows. Ensuring confidentiality for screening and expanding referral options for adolescents in need of community-based addiction treatment are also critical to increasing SBIRT uptake.
Project description:Although brief interventions (BIs) have shown some success for smoking cessation and alcohol misuse, it is not known if they can be applied in the emergency department (ED) to drug use and misuse. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the 3-month efficacy of a BI to reduce drug use and misuse, increase drug treatment services utilization among adult ED patients, and identify subgroups more likely to benefit from the BI.This randomized, controlled trial enrolled 18- to 64-year-old English- or Spanish-speaking patients from two urban, academic EDs whose responses to the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test indicated a need for a brief or intensive intervention. Treatment participants received a tailored BI, while control participants only completed the study questionnaires. At the 3-month follow-up, each participant's past 3-month drug use and misuse and treatment utilization were compared to his or her baseline enrollment data. Regression modeling was used to identify subgroups of patients (per demographic and clinical factors) more likely to stop or reduce their drug use or misuse or engage in drug treatment by the 3-month follow-up assessment.Of the 1,030 participants, the median age was 30 years (interquartile range = 24 to 42 years), and 46% were female; 57% were white/non-Hispanic, 24.9% were black/non-Hispanic, and 15% were Hispanic. The most commonly misused drugs were marijuana, prescription opioids, cocaine/crack, and benzodiazepines. Although at follow-up the proportions of participants reporting any past 3-month drug misuse had decreased in both study arms (control 84% vs. treatment 78%), the decreases were similar between the two study arms (?-6.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -13.0% to 0.0). In addition, at follow-up there were no differences between study arms in those who were currently receiving drug treatment (?1.8; 95% CI = -3.5 to 6.8), who had received treatment during the past 3 months (?-2.0; 95% CI = -6.5 to 2.4), or who at least contacted a treatment program (? 1.7; 95% CI = -2.4 to 6.1). Those whose baseline screening indicated the need for a brief instead of a more intensive intervention, and those currently engaged in drug treatment at the 3-month follow-up, were generally more likely to stop or decrease their drug use/misuse.The BI employed in this study did not reduce drug use and misuse or increase treatment utilization more than the control condition over a 3-month period. Future research should help determine what role, if any, BIs should play in affecting drug use and misuse among ED patients.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate moderators and mediators of brief alcohol interventions conducted in the emergency department. METHODS:Patients (18-24 years; n = 172) in an emergency department received a motivational interview with personalized feedback (MI) or feedback only (FO), with 1- and 3-month booster sessions and 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Gender, alcohol status/severity group [ALC+ only, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT+) only, ALC+/AUDIT+], attribution of alcohol in the medical event, aversiveness of the event, perceived seriousness of the event and baseline readiness to change alcohol use were evaluated as moderators of intervention efficacy. Readiness to change also was evaluated as a mediator of intervention efficacy, as were perceived risks/benefits of alcohol use, self-efficacy and alcohol treatment seeking. RESULTS:Alcohol status, attribution and readiness moderated intervention effects such that patients who had not been drinking prior to their medical event, those who had low or medium attribution for alcohol in the event and those who had low or medium readiness to change showed lower alcohol use 12 months after receiving MI compared to FO. In the AUDIT+ only group those who received MI showed lower rates of alcohol-related injury at follow-up than those who received FO. Patients who had been drinking prior to their precipitating event did not show different outcomes in the two interventions, regardless of AUDIT status. Gender did not moderate intervention efficacy and no significant mediation was found. CONCLUSIONS:Findings may help practitioners target patients for whom brief interventions will be most effective. More research is needed to understand how brief interventions transmit their effects.
Project description:Prior studies on treatment for alcohol-related problems have yielded mixed results with respect to gender and race/ethnicity disparities. Additionally, little is known about gender and racial differences in time to first alcohol-related service contact amongst persons with alcohol dependence. This study explored gender and race/ethnicity differences for first alcohol-related service utilization in a population-based sample.Primary analyses were restricted to Blacks, Whites and Hispanics, ages 18-44, with lifetime alcohol dependence (n=3311) in Wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. We compared time to service use among men and women within and across race/ethnicity strata using multivariable Cox proportional hazard methods.In the sample of individuals age <45 with alcohol dependence, only 19.5% reported alcohol-related service use. Overall, women were less likely than men to receive alcohol-related services in their lifetime. However, women who did receive treatment were younger at first service utilization and had a shorter interval between drinking onset and service use than men. Gender differences were consistent across racial/ethnic groups but only statistically significant for Whites. There were no appreciable race/ethnicity differences in hazard ratios for alcohol-related service use or time from drinking initiation to first service contact. Results of sensitivity analyses for persons ?45 years old are discussed.There are important gender differences in receipt of and time from drinking initiation to service utilization among persons with alcohol dependence. Increased recognition of these differences may promote investigation of factors underlying differences and identification of barriers to services.