Gastrointestinal manifestations of neurofibromatosis type 1 (Recklinghausen's disease): clinicopathological spectrum with pathogenetic considerations.
ABSTRACT: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1, Recklinghausen disease) is the most common hereditary multitumor syndrome with an incidence at birth of approximately 1:3000. However, the significant variation in the expression of the disease not infrequently precludes early diagnosis. As a consequence of non-familiarity with their frequency and wide clinicopathological spectrum, gastrointestinal manifestations of NF-1 are seldom thought of in routine clinical practice and might thus be significantly under-recognized. Their heterogeneous spectrum ranges from localized microscopic proliferative lesions of autonomic nerves and interstitial cells of Cajal and diffuse microscopic ganglio/neuro/fibromatosis to grossly recognizable mass-forming neurofibromas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Furthermore, neuroendocrine neoplasms, particularly of the periampullary duodenum seem to be quite characteristic of this disease. Based on our own experience and the available literature, this review summarizes and discusses the clinicopathological spectrum of gastrointestinal manifestations of NF-1 including putative proliferative precursor lesions with emphasis on the differential diagnostic aspects of these disorders and their molecular pathogenesis. In addition, this review underlines the great value of specific gastrointestinal findings in uncovering undiagnosed or missed NF-1 cases.
Project description:Approximately 15% of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) in adults and 85% in children lack mutations in KIT and PDGFRA and are known as wild-type GISTs. Wild-type GISTs from adults and children express high levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) and exhibit stable genomes compared to mutant GISTs. Pediatric wild-type GISTs, GISTs from the multitumor Carney-Stratakis syndrome, and the Carney triad share other clinicopathological properties (e.g., early-onset, multifocal GISTs with epitheliod cell morphology), suggesting a common etiology. Carney-Stratakis is an inherited association of GIST and paragangliomas caused by germline mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) genes. The connection between defective cellular respiration and GIST pathology has been strengthened by the utilization of SDHB immunohistochemistry to identify SDH deficiency in pediatric GISTs, syndromic GISTs, and some adult wild-type GISTs. SDHB and IGF1R expression was examined in 12 wild-type and 12 mutant GIST cases. Wild-type GISTs were screened for coding-region alterations in SDH genes and for chromosomal aberrations using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism and MIP arrays. SDHB-deficiency, identified in 11/12 wild-type GIST cases, was tightly associated with overexpression of IGF1R protein and transcript. Biallelic inactivation of the SDHA gene was a surprisingly frequent event, identified in 5 of 11 SDHB-negative cases, generally due to germline point mutations accompanied by somatic SDHA allelic losses. As a novel finding, inactivation of the SDHC gene from a combination of a heterozygous coding-region mutation and hypermethylation of the wild-type allele was found in one SDHB-negative case.
Project description:Von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis is a common autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by benign and malignant tumors of neural crest origin. Significant progress in understanding the pathophysiology of this disease has occurred in recent years, largely aided by the development of relevant animal models. Von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis is caused by mutations in the NF1 gene, which encodes neurofibromin, a large protein that modulates the activity of Ras. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of zebrafish nf1a and nf1b, orthologues of NF1, and show neural crest and cardiovascular defects resulting from morpholino knockdown, including vascular and cardiac valvular abnormalities. Development of a zebrafish model of von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis will allow for structure-function analysis and genetic screens in this tractable vertebrate system.
Project description:Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type VIII (periodontitis type) is a distinct form of EDS characterized by periodontal disease leading to precocious dental loss and a spectrum of joint and skin manifestations. EDS type VIII is transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern; however, the mutated gene has not been identified. There are insufficient data on the spectrum of clinical manifestations and natural history of the disorder, and only a limited number of patients and pedigrees with this condition have been reported. We present a four-generation EDS type VIII kindred and show that EDS VIII is clinically variable and although some cases lack the associated skin and joint manifestations, microscopic evidence of collagen disorganization is detectable.We further propose that the diagnosis of EDS type VIII should be considered in familial forms of periodontitis, even when the associated skin and joint manifestations are unconvincing for the diagnosis of a connective tissue disorder. This novel observation highlights the uncertainty of using connective tissue signs in clinical practice to diagnose EDS type VIII.
Project description:Intrathoracic neurofibromas originating from the vagus nerve in patients without von Recklinghausen disease is rare and poses a problem in etiological diagnosis. Surgical resection is usually necessary for precise diagnosis of such tumors. We report the first case of a neurofibroma originating from the right pulmonary branch of the vagus nerve in a 34-year-old male without von Recklinghausen disease. The diagnosis was suggested by the radiological features and was confirmed histologically after resection.
Project description:Sox10 transcription factor is expressed in schwannian and melanocytic lineages and is important in their development and can be used as a marker for corresponding tumors. In addition, it has been reported in subsets of myoepithelial/basal cell epithelial neoplasms, but its expression remains incompletely characterized. In this study, we examined Sox10 expression in 5134 human neoplasms spanning a wide spectrum of neuroectodermal, mesenchymal, lymphoid, and epithelial tumors. A new rabbit monoclonal antibody (clone EP268) and Leica Bond Max automation were used on multitumor block libraries containing 30 to 70 cases per slide. Sox10 was consistently expressed in benign Schwann cell tumors of soft tissue and the gastrointestinal tract and in metastatic melanoma and was variably present in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. In contrast, Sox10 was absent in many potential mimics of nerve sheath tumors such as cellular neurothekeoma, meningioma, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, perivascular epithelioid cell tumor and a variety of fibroblastic-myofibroblastic tumors. Sox10 was virtually absent in mesenchymal tumors but occasionally seen in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. In epithelial tumors of soft tissue, Sox10 was expressed only in myoepitheliomas, although often absent in malignant variants. Carcinomas, other than basal cell-type breast cancers, were only rarely positive but included 6% of squamous carcinomas of head and neck and 7% of pulmonary small cell carcinomas. Furthermore, Sox10 was often focally expressed in embryonal carcinoma reflecting a primitive Sox10-positive phenotype or neuroectodermal differentiation. Expression of Sox10 in entrapped non-neoplastic Schwann cells or melanocytes in various neoplasms has to be considered in diagnosing Sox10-positive tumors. The Sox10 antibody belongs in a modern immunohistochemical panel for the diagnosis of soft tissue and epithelial tumors.
Project description:Placental sexual dimorphism is of special interest in prenatal programming. Various postnatal diseases with gender dependent incidence, especially neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders, have prenatal risk factors established. However, the functional relevance of placental microarchitecture in prenatal programming is poorly investigated, mainly due to a lack of statistically efficient methods. We hypothesized that the recently established 3D microscopic analysis of villous trees would be able to identify microscopic structural correlates of human placental sexual dimorphism. We analyzed the density of cell nuclei of villous trophoblast, i.e. the materno-fetal exchange barrier, in placentas from term pregnancies. The cell nuclei were grouped into proliferative and non-proliferative nuclei by detection of a proliferation marker (PCNA). Normal female placentas showed a higher density of non-proliferating nuclei (PCNA-negative) in villous trophoblast than normal male placentas. The density of PCNA-negative cell nuclei was higher in placentas of pregnancies with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) than in control placentas. The data of the present study shows that the density of non-proliferative cell nuclei in the syncytial layer of villous trophoblast is influenced by fetal sex and by IUGR, while proliferation remains unchanged. A novel concept of post-fusion regulation of syncytial structure and function is proposed.
Project description:Abstract Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis form a rare but severe disease spectrum characterized by widespread epidermal detachment. Gastrointestinal manifestations of the disease, however, are rarely described in the pediatric literature and have a high mortality among adults. There are limited data on the treatment of these cases, with conflicting evidence regarding the benefit of steroids, IVIG, or other immunosuppressive agents. We review previous instances of gastrointestinal involvement in children and report the case of a previously healthy 13-year-old who presented with the typical ocular and skin findings of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, subsequently developed severe life-threatening diarrhea, and was found to have severe esophagitis, duodenitis, and colitis on endoscopic evaluation. Treatment was initiated with an immediate, short course of steroids along with early introduction of an enteral diet via nasogastric tube, and resulted in full gastrointestinal recovery. This case highlights successful medical treatment of the first reported pediatric case of SJS/TEN with both upper and lower gastrointestinal tract involvement.
Project description:Diverticulosis is one of the most common gastrointestinal conditions affecting the general population in the Western world. It is estimated that over 2.5 million people are affected by diverticular disease in the United States. The spectrum of clinical manifestations of diverticulosis ranges from asymptomatic diverticulosis to complicated diverticulitis. Treatment for symptomatic diverticular disease is largely based on symptoms. Traditional therapy includes fiber, bowel rest, antibiotics, pain control and surgery for selected cases. This review discusses recent advances in the medical treatment of diverticular disease such as the use of mesalamine, rifaximin and probiotics as our understanding of the disease evolves.
Project description:Ferrets have become more popular as household pets and as animal models in biomedical research in the past 2 decades. The average life span of ferrets is about 5-11 years with onset of geriatric diseases between 3-4 years including endocrinopathies, neoplasia, gastrointestinal diseases, cardiomyopathy, splenomegaly, renal diseases, dental diseases, and cataract. Endocrinopathies are the most common noninfectious disease affecting middle-aged and older ferrets. Spontaneous neoplasms affecting the endocrine system of ferrets appear to be increasing in prevalence with a preponderance toward proliferative lesions in the adrenal cortex and pancreatic islet cells. Diet, gonadectomy, and genetics may predispose ferrets to an increased incidence of these endocrinopathies. These functional proliferative lesions cause hypersecretion of hormones that alter the physiology and metabolism of the affected ferrets resulting in a wide range of clinical manifestations. However, there is an apparent dearth of information available in the literature about the causal relationship between aging and neoplasia in ferrets. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the anatomy and physiology of endocrine organs, disease incidence, age at diagnosis, clinical signs, pathology, and molecular markers available for diagnosis of various endocrine disorders in ferrets.
Project description:Somatostatinoma is a tumour mainly originating from pancreas or duodenum; overall with an incidence of 1/40 million persons. We introduce a narrative review of literature of somatostatinoma including the relationship with neurofibromatosis type 1. Clinical presentation includes: Diabetes mellitus, cholelithiasis, steatorrhea, abdominal pain, and obstructive jaundice while papillary tumour may cause acute pancreatitis. The neoplasia may develop completely asymptomatic or it is detected as an incidental finding during an imaging or a surgical procedure. It may be sporadic or associated to genetic backgrounds especially for duodenal localisation as neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 gene with malfunction of RAS/MAPK pathway) or Pacak-Zhuang syndrome (EPAS1 gene encoding HIF). Surgery represents the central approach if feasible but the prognostic depends on location, and grading as indicated by WHO 2017 classification of neuroendocrine tumours. Previously known as Von Recklinghausen disease, neurofibromatosis type 1, the most frequent neurocutaneous syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disorder including: Café-au-lait spot, skin fold freckling on flexural zones, and neurofibromas as well as tumours such as gliomas of optic nerve, gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs), iris hamartomas and brain tumours. Duodenal somatostatinoma is associated with the syndrome which actually involves more often a duodenal tumour of GIST type than a somatostatin secreting neoplasia. Other neuroendocrine tumours are reported: Gastrointestinal NENs at the level of rectum or jejunum and pheocromocytoma. Overall, one quarter of subjects have gastrointestinal tumours of different types. Somatostatinoma, when not located on pancreas but in duodenoum, may be registered in subjects with neurofibromatosis type 1 most probably in addition to other tumours. Overall, this type of neuroendocrine tumour with a challenging presentation has a poor prognosis unless adequate radical surgery is promptly offered to the patient.