Positive outcome of average volume-assured pressure support mode of a Respironics V60 Ventilator in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a case report.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: We were able to treat a patient with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who also suffered from sleep-disordered breathing by using the average volume-assured pressure support mode of a Respironics V60 Ventilator (Philips Respironics: United States). This allows a target tidal volume to be set based on automatic changes in inspiratory positive airway pressure. This removed the need to change the noninvasive positive pressure ventilation settings during the day and during sleep. The Respironics V60 Ventilator, in the average volume-assured pressure support mode, was attached to our patient and improved and stabilized his sleep-related hypoventilation by automatically adjusting force to within an acceptable range. CASE PRESENTATION: Our patient was a 74-year-old Japanese man who was hospitalized for treatment due to worsening of dyspnea and hypoxemia. He was diagnosed with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and full-time biphasic positive airway pressure support ventilation was initiated. Our patient was temporarily provided with portable noninvasive positive pressure ventilation at night-time following an improvement in his condition, but his chronic obstructive pulmonary disease again worsened due to the recurrence of a respiratory infection. During the initial exacerbation, his tidal volume was significantly lower during sleep (378.9 ± 72.9mL) than while awake (446.5 ± 63.3mL). A ventilator that allows ventilation to be maintained by automatically adjusting the inspiratory force to within an acceptable range was attached in average volume-assured pressure support mode, improving his sleep-related hypoventilation, which is often associated with the use of the Respironics V60 Ventilator. Polysomnography performed while our patient was on noninvasive positive pressure ventilation revealed obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (apnea-hypopnea index = 14), suggesting that his chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was complicated by obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. CONCLUSION: In cases such as this, in which patients with severe acute respiratory failure requiring full-time noninvasive positive pressure ventilation therapy also show sleep-disordered breathing, different ventilator settings must be used for waking and sleeping. On such occasions, the Respironics V60 Ventilator, which is equipped with an average volume-assured pressure support mode, may be useful in improving gas exchange and may achieve good patient compliance, because that mode allows ventilation to be maintained by automatically adjusting the inspiratory force to within an acceptable range whenever ventilation falls below target levels.
Project description:Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) ventilation remains a mainstay treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Good pressure stability and pressure reduction during exhalation are of major importance to ensure clinical efficacy and comfort of CPAP therapy. In this study an experimental CPAP ventilator was constructed using an application-specific CPAP blower/motor assembly and a microprocessor. To minimize pressure variations caused by spontaneous breathing as well as the uncomfortable feeling of exhaling against positive pressure, we developed a composite control approach including the feed forward compensator and feedback proportional-integral-derivative (PID) compensator to regulate the pressure delivered to OSAS patients. The Ziegler and Nichols method was used to tune PID controller parameters. And then we used a gas flow analyzer (VT PLUS HF) to test pressure curves, flow curves and pressure-volume loops for the proposed CPAP ventilator. The results showed that it met technical criteria for sleep apnea breathing therapy equipment. Finally, the study made a quantitative comparison of pressure stability between the experimental CPAP ventilator and commercially available CPAP devices.
Project description:Stable severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure treated by nocturnal bi-level positive pressure non-invasive ventilation (NIV) may experience severe morning deventilation dyspnea. We hypothesised that in these patients, progressive hyperinflation, resulting from inappropriate ventilator settings, leads to patient-ventilator asynchrony (PVA) with a high rate of unrewarded inspiratory efforts and morning discomfort.Polysomnography (PSG), diaphragm electromyogram and transcutaneous capnography (PtcCO(2)) under NIV during two consecutive nights using baseline ventilator settings on the first night, then, during the second night, adjustment of ventilator parameters under PSG with assessment of impact of settings changes on sleep, patient-ventilator synchronisation, morning arterial blood gases and morning dyspnea.Eight patients (61?±?8 years, FEV(1) 30?±?8% predicted, residual volume 210?±?30% predicted) were included. In all patients, pressure support was decreased during setting adjustments, as well as tidal volume, while respiratory rate increased without any deleterious effect on nocturnal PtcCO(2) or morning PaCO(2). PVA index, initially high (40?±?30%) during the baseline night, decreased significantly after adjusting ventilator settings (p?=?0.0009), as well as subjective perception of PVA leaks, and morning dyspnea while quality of sleep improved.The subgroup of COPD patients treated by home NIV, who present marked deventilation dyspnea and unrewarded efforts may benefit from adjustment of ventilator settings under PSG or polygraphy.
Project description:This study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic performance of a new auto Servo Ventilation device (Philips Respironics autoSV Advanced) for the treatment of complex central sleep apnea (CompSA). The features of autoSV Advanced include an automatic expiratory pressure (EPAP) adjustment, an advanced algorithm for distinguishing open versus obstructed airway apnea, a modified auto backup rate which is proportional to subject's baseline breathing rate, and a variable inspiratory support. Our primary aim was to compare the performance of the advanced servo-ventilator (BiPAP autoSV Advanced) with conventional servo-ventilator (BiPAP autoSV) in treating central sleep apnea (CSA).A prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial.Five sleep laboratories in the United States.Thirty-seven participants were included.All subjects had full night polysomnography (PSG) followed by a second night continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration. All had a central apnea index ? 5 per hour of sleep on CPAP. Subjects were randomly assigned to 2 full-night PSGs while treated with either the previously marketed autoSV, or the new autoSV Advanced device. The 2 randomized sleep studies were blindly scored centrally. Across the 4 nights (PSG, CPAP, autoSV, and autoSV Advanced), the mean ± 1 SD apnea hypopnea indices were 53 ± 23, 35 ± 20, 10 ± 10, and 6 ± 6, respectively; indices for CSA were 16 ± 19, 19 ± 18, 3 ± 4, and 0.6 ± 1. AutoSV Advanced was more effective than other modes in correcting sleep related breathing disorders.BiPAP autoSV Advanced was more effective than conventional BiPAP autoSV in the treatment of sleep disordered breathing in patients with CSA.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation is an established treatment for chronic respiratory failure due to chest wall deformity. There are few data available to inform the choice between volume and pressure ventilators. The aim of this study was to compare pressure and volume targeted ventilation in terms of diurnal arterial blood gas tensions, lung volumes, hypercapnic ventilatory responses, sleep quality, and effect on daytime function and health status when ventilators were carefully set to provide the same minute ventilation. METHODS: Thirteen patients with chest wall deformity underwent a 4 week single blind randomised crossover study using the Breas PV403 ventilator in either pressure or volume mode with assessments made at the end of each 4 week period. RESULTS: Minute ventilation at night was less than that set during the day with greater leakage for both modes of ventilation. There was more leakage with pressure than volume ventilation (13.8 (1.9) v 5.9 (1.0) l/min, p = 0.01). There were no significant differences in sleep quality, daytime arterial blood gas tensions, lung mechanics, ventilatory drive, health status or daytime functioning. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that pressure and volume ventilation are equivalent in terms of the effect on nocturnal and daytime physiology, and resulting daytime function and health status.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: There are several ventilator modes that are used for maintenance mechanical ventilation but no conclusive evidence that one mode of ventilation is better than another. Vibration response imaging is a novel bedside imaging technique that displays vibration energy of lung sounds generated during the respiratory cycle as a real-time structural and functional image of the respiration process. In this study, we objectively evaluated the differences in regional lung vibration during different modes of mechanical ventilation by means of this new technology. METHODS: Vibration response imaging was performed on 38 patients on assist volume control, assist pressure control, and pressure support modes of mechanical ventilation with constant tidal volumes. Images and vibration intensities of three lung regions at maximal inspiration were analyzed. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in overall geographical area (p < 0.001) and vibration intensity (p < 0.02) in pressure control and pressure support (greatest in pressure support), compared to volume control, when each patient served as his or her own control while targeting the same tidal volume in each mode. This increase in geographical area and vibration intensity occurred primarily in the lower lung regions. The relative percentage increases were 28.5% from volume control to pressure support and 18.8% from volume control to pressure control (p < 0.05). Concomitantly, the areas of the image in the middle lung regions decreased by 3.6% from volume control to pressure support and by 3.7% from volume control to pressure control (p < 0.05). In addition, analysis of regional vibration intensity showed a 35.5% relative percentage increase in the lower region with pressure support versus volume control (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Pressure support and (to a lesser extent) pressure control modes cause a shift of vibration toward lower lung regions compared to volume control when tidal volumes are held constant. Better patient synchronization with the ventilator, greater downward movement of the diaphragm, and decelerating flow waveform are potential physiologic explanations for the redistribution of vibration energy to lower lung regions in pressure-targeted modes of mechanical ventilation.
Project description:Positive-pressure mechanical ventilation is an essential therapeutic intervention, yet it causes the clinical syndrome known as ventilator-induced lung injury. Various lung protective mechanical ventilation strategies have attempted to reduce or prevent ventilator-induced lung injury but few modalities have proven effective. A model that isolates the contribution of mechanical ventilation on the development of acute lung injury is needed to better understand biologic mechanisms that lead to ventilator-induced lung injury.To evaluate the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers in reducing lung injury in a ventilator-induced lung injury murine model in short- and longer-term ventilation.5-12 week-old female BALB/c mice (n = 85) were anesthetized, placed on mechanical ventilation for either 2 hrs or 4 hrs with either low tidal volume (8 ml/kg) or high tidal volume (15 ml/kg) with or without positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers.Alteration of the alveolar-capillary barrier was noted at 2 hrs of high tidal volume ventilation. Standardized histology scores, influx of bronchoalveolar lavage albumin, proinflammatory cytokines, and absolute neutrophils were significantly higher in the high-tidal volume ventilation group at 4 hours of ventilation. Application of positive end-expiratory pressure resulted in significantly decreased standardized histology scores and bronchoalveolar absolute neutrophil counts at low- and high-tidal volume ventilation, respectively. Recruitment maneuvers were essential to maintain pulmonary compliance at both 2 and 4 hrs of ventilation.Signs of ventilator-induced lung injury are evident soon after high tidal volume ventilation (as early as 2 hours) and lung injury worsens with longer-term ventilation (4 hrs). Application of positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers are protective against worsening VILI across all time points. Dynamic compliance can be used guide the frequency of recruitment maneuvers to help ameloriate ventilator-induced lung injury.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hospitalization of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease creates a huge healthcare burden. Positive airway pressure therapy is sometimes used in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but the possible impact on hospitalization risk remains controversial. We studied the hospitalization risk of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease before and after initiation of various positive airway pressure therapies in a "real-world" bioinformatics study. METHODS:We performed a retrospective analysis of administrative claims data of hospitalizations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who received or did not receive positive airway pressure therapy: continuous positive airway pressure, bilevel positive airway pressure, and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation using a home ventilator. RESULTS:The majority of 1,881,652 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (92.5%) were not receiving any form of positive airway pressure therapy. Prescription of bilevel positive airway pressure (1.5%), continuous positive airway pressure (5.6%), and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (<1%) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease demonstrated geographic-, sex-, and age-related variability. After adjusting for confounders and propensity score, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (odds ratio [OR], 0.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-0.27), bilevel positive airway pressure (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.39-0.45), and continuous positive airway pressure (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.67-0.72) were individually associated with lower hospitalization risk in the 6 months post-treatment when compared with the 6 months pretreatment but not when compared with the baseline period between 12 and 6 months before treatment initiation. Stratified analysis suggests that comorbid sleep-disordered breathing, chronic respiratory failure, heart failure, and age less than 65 years were associated with greater benefits from positive airway pressure therapy. CONCLUSION:Initiation of positive airway pressure therapy was associated with reduction in hospitalization among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but the causality needs to be determined by randomized controlled trials.
Project description:Pressure-regulated volume control (PRVC) is a mode of ventilation in which the ventilator attempts to achieve set tidal volume at lowest possible airway pressure. This mode of ventilation is being commonly used as the initial mode of ventilation in many intensive care units. We describe two cases where this adaptive mode of ventilation became maladaptive leading to patient-ventilator dyssynchrony.
Project description:High-intensity (high-pressure and high backup rate) noninvasive ventilation has recently been advocated for the management of stable hypercapnic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the relative contributions of high inspiratory pressure and high backup rate to ventilator adherence and physiological outcome have not been investigated.Patients with stable hypercapnic COPD (daytime PaCO(2) > 6 kPa) and nocturnal hypoventilation were enrolled. Patients were randomly allocated to high-pressure and high backup rate (high-intensity) and high-pressure and low backup rate (high-pressure) for a 6-week period. At the end of the first treatment period, patients were switched to the alternative treatment. The primary outcome measure was mean nightly ventilator usage.Twelve patients were recruited, with seven completing the 12-week trial protocol. The mean patient age was 71 ± 8 years, with a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1))/forced vital capacity (FVC) of 50% ± 13% and FEV(1) of 32% ± 12%. The baseline PaCO(2) and PaO(2) were 8.6 ± 1.7 kPa and 7.3 ± 1.4 kPa, respectively. There was no significant difference demonstrated in mean nightly ventilator usage between the high-intensity and high-pressure groups (difference of 4 minutes; 95% confidence interval -45 to 53; P = 0.9). Furthermore, there were no differences in any of the secondary endpoints, with the exception of the respiratory domain of the Severe Respiratory Insufficiency questionnaire, which was lower in the high-intensity arm than in the high-pressure arm (57 ± 11 versus 69 ± 16; P < 0.05).There was no additional benefit, in terms of night-time ventilator adherence or any of the other measured parameters, demonstrated by addition of a high backup rate to high-pressure noninvasive ventilation. These data suggest that it is the high-pressure component of the high-intensity noninvasive ventilation approach that plays the important therapeutic role in the management of hypercapnic respiratory failure in COPD patients.
Project description:Bordetella pertussis can cause fatal illness with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pulmonary hypertension (PHT). A 6-month-old non-vaccinated boy with B. pertussis infection who developed ARDS was treated by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). During his ECMO support stage, sudden occurred decreasing of ECMO flow implied increasing intrathoracic pressure. The airway spasm followed caused sudden drop of ventilator tidal volume as well as poor lung compliance. Prone position ventilation and bundle care were conducted as lung protection ventilator strategy. After 297-h of ECMO support, the patient was weaned off ECMO, and extubated one week later. In this patient with severe ARDS caused by Bordetella pertussis, ECMO was performed for cardiopulmonary support and rescued the infant with severe pertussis. During ECMO support period, prone position ventilation and care bundle nursing strategy contributed to the relief of continuous airway spasm.