Polymorphisms in toll-like receptor 4 underlie susceptibility to tumor induction by the mouse polyomavirus.
ABSTRACT: PERA/Ei (PE) mice are susceptible to tumor induction by polyomavirus (Py), while C57BR/cdJ (BR) mice are resistant. Antigen-presenting cells from BR mice respond to the virus with interleukin-12 (IL-12) and those from PE mice with IL-10. These polarized cytokine responses underlie the development of effective antitumor immunity in BR mice and the lack thereof in PE mice. An ex vivo cytokine production assay using spleen cells from infected [PE × BR] F2 mice together with a genome-wide SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism)-based QTL (quantitative trait locus) analysis was used to map the determinant of cytokine production to a region of chromosome 4 carrying the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene. Genotyping of infected F2 mice showed concordance of TLR4 allele-specific DNA sequences with the cytokine profile. Cytokine responses elicited by Py are MyD88 dependent. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a known TLR4 ligand, induced the same polarized responses as the virus in these host strains. Spleen cells from C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScNJ LPS-nonresponsive mice challenged in vitro with Py showed an impaired IL-12 response but were unaffected in IL-10 production. TLR4s of strains PE and BR differ by 3 amino acid substitutions, 2 in the extracellular domain and 1 in the intracellular domain. cDNAs encoding the TLR4s signaled equally to an NF-κB reporter in 293 cells in a ligand-independent manner. When introduced into TLR2/TLR4 double-knockout macrophages, the TLR4 cDNA from BR mice conferred a robust IL-12 response to Py and no IL-10 response. The TLR4 cDNA from PE mice failed to confer a response with either cytokine. These results establish TLR4 as a key mediator of the cytokine response governing susceptibility to tumor induction by Py.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 promotes joint inflammation in mice. Despite that several studies report a functional link between TLR4 and interleukin-(IL-)1? in arthritis, TLR4-mediated regulation of the complicated cytokine network in arthritis is poorly understood. To address this, we investigated the mechanisms by which TLR4 regulates the cytokine network in antibody-induced arthritis. METHODS: To induce arthritis, we injected mice with K/BxN serum. TLR4-mediated pathogenesis in antibody-induced arthritis was explored by measuring joint inflammation, cytokine levels and histological alteration. RESULTS: Compared to wild type (WT) mice, TLR4-/- mice showed attenuated arthritis and low interferon (IFN)-?, IL-12p35 and IL-1? transcript levels in the joints, but high transforming growth factor (TGF)-? expression. Injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhanced arthritis and exaggerated joint cytokine alterations in WT, but not TLR4-/- or IL-12p35-/- mice. Moreover, STAT4 phosphorylation in joint cells and intracellular IL-12p35 expression in macrophages, mast cells and Gr-1+ cells were detected in WT mice with arthritis and enhanced by LPS injection. Therefore, IL-12p35 appears to act downstream of TLR4 in antibody-induced arthritis. TLR4-mediated IL-12 production enhanced IFN-? and IL-1? production via T-bet and pro-IL-1? production. Recombinant IL-12, IFN-? and IL-1? administration restored arthritis, but reduced joint TGF-? levels in TLR4-/- mice. Moreover, a TGF-? blockade restored arthritis in TLR4-/- mice. Adoptive transfer of TLR4-deficient macrophages and mast cells minimally altered joint inflammation and cytokine levels in macrophage- and mast cell-depleted WT mice, respectively, whereas transfer of WT macrophages or mast cells restored joint inflammation and cytokine expression. Gr-1+ cell-depleted splenocytes partially restored arthritis in TLR4-/- mice. CONCLUSION: TLR4-mediated IL-12 production by joint macrophages, mast cells and Gr-1+ cells enhances IFN-? and IL-1? production, which suppresses TGF-? production, thereby promoting antibody-induced arthritis.
Project description:Allergic contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is a T cell-mediated inflammatory skin disease. Interleukin (IL)-12 is considered to be important in the generation of the allergen-specific T cell response. Loss of IL-12 function in IL-12Rbeta2-deficient mice, however, did not ameliorate the allergic immune response, suggesting alternate IL-12-independent pathways in the induction of CHS. Because exposure to contact allergens always takes place in the presence of microbial skin flora, we investigated the potential role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the induction of CHS. Using mice deficient in TLR4, the receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), IL-12 receptor (R) beta2, or both, we show that the concomitant absence of TLR4 and IL-12Rbeta2, but not the absence of TLR4 or IL-12Rbeta2 alone, prevented DC-mediated sensitization, generation of effector T cells, and the subsequent CHS response to 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chlorobenzene (TNCB), oxazolone, and fluorescein isothiocyanate. Introduction of the TLR4 transgene into the TLR4/IL-12Rbeta2 mutant restored the CHS inducibility, showing a requirement for TLR4 in IL-12-independent CHS induction. Furthermore, the concomitant absence of TLR2 and TLR4 prevented the induction of CHS to TNCB in IL-12-competent mice. Finally, CHS was inducible in germ-free wild-type and IL-12Rbeta2-deficient mice, but not in germ-free TLR4/IL-12Rbeta2 double deficient mice, suggesting that the necessary TLR activation may proceed via endogenous ligands.
Project description:Neuroinflammation is a feature of many classic neurodegenerative diseases. In the healthy brain, microglia cells are distributed throughout the brain and are constantly surveilling the central nervous system (CNS). In response to CNS injury, microglia quickly react by secreting a wide array of apoptotic molecules. Virgin olive oil (VOO) is universally recognized as a symbol of the Mediterranean diet. In the current study, using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia, the anti-inflammatory effects of VOO phenolic extracts from Moraiolo cultivar (MVOO-PE) were investigated. The results showed that low concentration of MVOO-PE prevented microglia cell death and attenuated the LPS-induced activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing-3 (NLRP3) signaling cascade. The levels of TLR4 and NF-kB were diminished, as well as NLRP3 inflammasome and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) production. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) isoenzyme and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) inflammatory mediator were also reduced. By modulating the TLR4/NLRP3 axis, MVOO-PE pretreatment was able to significantly down-regulate the mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators and suppress the cytokine secretion. Finally, we showed protective effect of MVOO-PE in a transwell neuron-microglia co-culture system. In conclusion, these results suggest that MVOO-PE could exerts anti-inflammatory activity on brain cells and become a promising candidate for preventing several neuroinflammatory diseases.
Project description:Exposure of the mammalian host to infective larvae of Schistosoma mansoni causes an acute inflammatory response in the skin and the activation of several cell types of the innate immune response including macrophages. Using an in vitro model of macrophage activation, we show that schistosome larvae possess molecules that directly stimulate both thioglycollate-elicited macrophages (tM) and IFNgamma-activated tM in vitro to produce several cytokines including IL-6, IL-12p40 and IL-10. The parasite-derived molecules are enriched within the material released by the parasite following transformation [0- to 3-h released larval preparation (0-3hRP)] but not within soluble preparations of whole larvae. Cytokine production was maintained in the presence of polymyxin B, confirming that contaminating endotoxin was not responsible. IL-12p40 and IL-10 production was much lower by cells from C3H/HeJ mice, which have defective Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), but IL-6 production was unaffected. Experiments using TLR4-/- mice confirmed that IL-12p40 production by tM in response to 0-3hRP was partly dependent upon functional TLR4, whereas IL-6 production was entirely independent. In contrast, tM from MyD88-/- mice failed to secrete either IL-12p40 or IL-6, underlining a pivotal role of TLR signalling in cytokine production by macrophages in response to stimulation with 0-3hRP. Finally, we show that glycan components of 0-3hRP are required for optimal cytokine production since protease treatment of 0-3hRP had no effect on IL-12p40 production and only a slight effect on IL-6, while sodium meta-periodate treatment almost completely abolished production of both cytokines.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Neonatal mice developed neurological disease and pulmonary dysfunction after an infection with a mouse-adapted human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) strain MP4. However, the hallmark of severe human EV71 infection, pulmonary edema (PE), was not evident. METHODS: To test whether EV71-induced PE required a proinflammatory cytokine response, exogenous pro-inflammatory cytokines were administered to EV71-infected mice during the late stage of infection. RESULTS: After intracranial infection of EV71/MP4, 7-day-old mice developed hind-limb paralysis, pulmonary dysfunction, and emphysema. A transient increase was observed in serum IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, and IFN-?, but not noradrenaline. At day 3 post infection, treatment with IL-6, IL-13, and IFN-? provoked mild PE and severe emphysema that were accompanied by pulmonary dysfunction in EV71-infected, but not herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1)-infected control mice. Adult mice did not develop PE after an intracerebral microinjection of EV71 into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). While viral antigen accumulated in the ventral medulla and the NTS of intracerebrally injected mice, neuronal loss was observed in the ventral medulla only. CONCLUSIONS: Exogenous IL-6, IL-13, and IFN-? treatment could induce mild PE and exacerbate pulmonary abnormality of EV71-infected mice. However, other factors such as over-activation of the sympathetic nervous system may also be required for the development of classic PE symptoms.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Neuraminidase (NA) is a sialidase present, among various locations, in the envelope/membrane of some bacteria/viruses (e.g., influenza virus), and is involved in infectiveness and/or dispersion. The administration of NA within the brain lateral ventricle represents a model of acute sterile inflammation. The relevance of the Toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4 (particularly those in microglial cells) in such process was investigated. METHODS:Mouse strains deficient in either TLR2 (TLR2-/-) or TLR4 (TLR4-/-) were used. NA was injected in the lateral ventricle, and the inflammatory reaction was studied by immunohistochemistry (IBA1 and IL-1?) and qPCR (cytokine response). Also, microglia was isolated from those strains and in vitro stimulated with NA, or with TLR2/TLR4 agonists as positive controls (P3C and LPS respectively). The relevance of the sialidase activity of NA was investigated by stimulating microglia with heat-inactivated NA, or with native NA in the presence of sialidase inhibitors (oseltamivir phosphate and N-acetyl-2,3-dehydro-2-deoxyneuraminic acid). RESULTS:In septofimbria and hypothalamus, IBA1-positive and IL-1?-positive cell counts increased after NA injection in wild type (WT) mice. In TLR4-/- mice, such increases were largely abolished, while were only slightly diminished in TLR2-/- mice. Similarly, the NA-induced expression of IL-1?, TNF?, and IL-6 was completely blocked in TLR4-/- mice, and only partially reduced in TLR2-/- mice. In isolated cultured microglia, NA induced a cytokine response (IL-1?, TNF?, and IL-6) in WT microglia, but was unable to do so in TLR4-/- microglia; TLR2 deficiency partially affected the NA-induced microglial response. When WT microglia was exposed in vitro to heat-inactivated NA or to native NA along with sialidase inhibitors, the NA-induced microglia activation was almost completely abrogated. CONCLUSIONS:NA is able to directly activate microglial cells, and it does so mostly acting through the TLR4 receptor, while TLR2 has a secondary role. Accordingly, the inflammatory reaction induced by NA in vivo is partially dependent on TLR2, while TLR4 plays a crucial role. Also, the sialidase activity of NA is critical for microglial activation. These results highlight the relevance of microbial NA in the neuroinflammation provoked by NA-bearing pathogens and the possibility of targeting its sialidase activity to ameliorate its impact.
Project description:Upon repeated exposure to endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), myeloid cells enter a refractory state called endotoxin tolerance as a homeostatic mechanism. In innate immune cells, LPS is recognized by co-receptors Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD-14 to initiate an inflammatory response for subsequent cytokine production. One such cytokine, interleukin (IL)-27, is produced by myeloid cells in response to bacterial infection. In monocytes, IL-27 has proinflammatory functions such as up-regulating TLR4 expression for enhanced LPS-mediated cytokine production; alternatively, IL-27 induces inhibitory functions in activated macrophages. This study investigated the effects of IL-27 on the induction of endotoxin tolerance in models of human monocytes compared with macrophages. Our data demonstrate that IL-27 inhibits endotoxin tolerance by up-regulating cell surface TLR4 expression and soluble CD14 production to mediate stability of the surface LPS-TLR4-CD14 complex in THP-1 cells. In contrast, elevated basal expression of membrane-bound CD14 in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-THP-1 cells, primary monocytes, and primary macrophages may promote CD14-mediated endocytosis and be responsible for the preservation of an endotoxin-tolerized state in the presence of IL-27. Overall, the efficacy of IL-27 in inhibiting endotoxin tolerance in human THP-1 monocytes and PMA-THP-1 macrophages is affected by membrane-bound and soluble CD14 expression.
Project description:Brucella abortus is a zoonotic Gram-negative pathogen that causes brucelosis in ruminants and humans. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize Brucella abortus and initiate antigen-presenting cell activities that affect both innate and adaptive immunity. In this study, we focused on recombinant Brucella cell-surface protein 31 (rBCSP31) to determine its effects on mouse macrophages. Our results demonstrated that rBCSP31 induced TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-12p40 production, which depended on the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) by stimulating the rapid phosphorylation of p38 and JNK and the activation of transcription factor NF-?B in macrophages. In addition, continuous exposure (>24 h) of RAW264.7 cells to rBCSP31 significantly enhanced IFN-?-induced expression of MHC-II and the ability to present rBCSP31 peptide to CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, we found that rBCSP31 could interact with both TLR2 and TLR4. The rBCSP31-induced cytokine production by macrophages from TLR2(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice was lower than that from C57BL/6 macrophages, and the activation of NF-?B and MAPKs was attenuated in macrophages from TLR2(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice. In addition, CD4(+) T cells from C57BL/6 mice immunized with rBCSP31 produced higher levels of IFN-? and IL-2 compared with CD4(+) T cells from TLR2(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice. Macrophages from immunized C57BL/6 mice produced higher levels of IL-12p40 than those from TLR2(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice. Furthermore, immunization with rBCSP31 provided better protection in C57BL/6 mice than in TLR2(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice after B. abortus 2308 challenge. These results indicate that rBCSP31 is a TLR2 and TLR4 agonist that induces cytokine production, upregulates macrophage function and induces the Th1 immune response.
Project description:Pattern recognition receptors detect microbial products and induce cytokines, which shape the immunological response. IL-12, TNF-?, and IL-1? are proinflammatory cytokines, which are essential for resistance against infection, but when produced at high levels they may contribute to immunopathology. In contrast, IL-10 is an immunosuppressive cytokine, which dampens proinflammatory responses, but it can also lead to defective pathogen clearance. The regulation of these cytokines is therefore central to the generation of an effective but balanced immune response. In this study, we show that macrophages derived from C57BL/6 mice produce low levels of IL-12, TNF-?, and IL-1?, but high levels of IL-10, in response to TLR4 and TLR2 ligands LPS and Pam3CSK4, as well as Burkholderia pseudomallei, a Gram-negative bacterium that activates TLR2/4. In contrast, macrophages derived from BALB/c mice show a reciprocal pattern of cytokine production. Differential production of IL-10 in B. pseudomallei and LPS-stimulated C57BL/6 and BALB/c macrophages was due to a type I IFN and ERK1/2-dependent, but IL-27-independent, mechanism. Enhanced type I IFN expression in LPS-stimulated C57BL/6 macrophages was accompanied by increased STAT1 and IFN regulatory factor 3 activation. Furthermore, type I IFN contributed to differential IL-1? and IL-12 production in B. pseudomallei and LPS-stimulated C57BL/6 and BALB/c macrophages via both IL-10-dependent and -independent mechanisms. These findings highlight key pathways responsible for the regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages and reveal how they may differ according to the genetic background of the host.
Project description:Neonates rely on their innate immune system, and neutrophils in particular, to recognize and combat life-threatening bacterial infections. Pretreatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 agonist, improves survival to polymicrobial sepsis in neonatal mice by enhancing neutrophil recruitment. To understand the response of human neonatal neutrophils to TLR4 stimulation, ex vivo spontaneous neutrophil migration, neutrophil transcriptomics, and cytokine production in the presence and absence of LPS were measured directly from whole blood of adults, term neonates, and preterm neonates. Spontaneous neutrophil migration was measured on novel microfluidic devices with time-lapse imaging for 10 h. Genome-wide neutrophil transcriptomics and plasma cytokine concentrations were also determined. Preterm neonates had significantly fewer spontaneously migrating neutrophils at baseline, and both term and preterm neonates had decreased neutrophil velocity, compared to adults. In the presence of LPS stimulation, the number of spontaneously migrating neutrophils was reduced in preterm neonates compared to term neonates and adults. Neutrophil velocity was not significantly different among groups with LPS stimulation. Preterm neonates upregulated expression of genes associated with the recruitment and response of neutrophils following LPS stimulation, but failed to upregulate the expression of genes associated with antimicrobial and antiviral responses. Plasma levels of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1?, and TNF-? increased in response to LPS stimulation in all groups, but IL-10 was increased only in term and preterm neonates. In conclusion, age-specific changes in spontaneous neutrophil migration counts are not affected by LPS despite changes in gene expression and cytokine production. KEY MESSAGES:Preterm neonates have reduced spontaneous neutrophil migration compared to term neonates and adults in the absence and presence of TLR4 stimulation. Preterm and term neonates have reduced neutrophil velocities compared to adults in the absence of TLR4 stimulation but no difference in the presence of TLR4 stimulation. Unique transcriptomic response to TLR4 stimulation is observed in neutrophils from preterm neonates, term neonates, and adults. TLR4 stimulation produces an age-specific cytokine response.