Expression, secretion, and glycosylation of the 45- and 47-kDa glycoprotein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Streptomyces lividans.
ABSTRACT: The gene encoding the 45/47 kDa glycoprotein (Rv1860) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was expressed in Streptomyces lividans under its own promoter and under the thiostrepton-inducible Streptomyces promoter PtipA. The recombinant protein was released into the culture medium and, like the native protein, migrated as a double band at 45 and 47 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) gels. However, in contrast to the native protein, only the 47-kDa recombinant protein could be labeled with concanavalin A (ConA). Carbohydrate digestion with jack bean alpha-D-mannosidase resulted in a reduction in the molecular mass of the recombinant protein upper band and completely eliminated ConA binding. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed only one isoelectric point for the recombinant protein. Comparative fingerprinting analysis of the individually purified upper and lower recombinant protein bands, treated under the same conditions with specific proteases, resulted in similar peptide patterns, and the peptides had the same N-terminal sequence, suggesting that migration of the recombinant protein as two bands in SDS-PAGE gels could be due to differences in glycosylation. Mass spectrometry analysis of the recombinant protein indicated that as in native protein, both the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of the recombinant protein are glycosylated. Furthermore, it was determined that antibodies of human tuberculosis patients reacted mainly against the carbohydrate residues of the glycoprotein. Altogether, these observations show that expression of genes for mycobacterial antigens in S. lividans is very useful for elucidation of the functional role and molecular mechanisms of glycosylation in bacteria.
Project description:The gene coding for a beta-mannanase was cloned homologously from Streptomyces lividans and its DNA sequence was determined. The fully secreted enzyme was isolated and purified from culture filtrates of the hyperproducing clone S. lividans IAF36 grown in mineral salt media containing galactomannan as the main carbon source. It had a molecular mass of 36 kDa and a specific activity of 876 i.u./mg of protein. Under the assay conditions used, the optimal enzyme activity was obtained at 58 degrees C and a pH of 6.8. The pI was 3.5. The kinetic constants of this mannanase determined with galactomannan as substrate were a Vmax. of 205 i.u./mg of enzyme and a Km of 0.77 mg/ml. Data from SDS/PAGE and Western blotting show that the cloned enzyme was identical to that of the wild-type strain.
Project description:The gene encoding an alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase (abfA) was homologously cloned in Streptomyces lividans and its DNA sequence was determined. The enzyme was purified from the cytoplasm of the hyperproducing clone S. lividans IAF116. Its M(r) was estimated by gel filtration and found to be approx. 380,000. Since SDS/PAGE indicated a native protein of M(r) 69,000, it can be concluded that the native protein consists of several subunits of that size. The pI value was 4.6. The kinetic constants determined with p-nitrophenyl alpha-L-arabinofuranoside as substrate were a Vmax of 180 units/mg of protein and a Km of 0.6 mM. The specific activity of the purified enzyme on this substrate was 153 units/mg of protein. Optimal enzyme activity was obtained at 60 degrees C and pH 6.0. The enzyme cleaved p-nitrophenyl alpha-L-arabinofuranoside, but had no activity on a variety of other p-nitrophenyl glycosides, except on p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xylopyranoside. The enzyme showed no activity on oat-spelts (Avena sativa) xylan or arabinogalactan, but acted on beet (Beta) arabinan or arabinoxylan. Hydrolysis occurred on arabino-oligoxylosides obtained from oat-splets xylan after digestion with xylanases. Since S. lividans normally does not secrete arabinofuranosidase, this enzyme may play a role in the assimilation of arabinose moieties from arabinose-containing xylo-oligosaccharides generated by beta-xylosidases or xylanases.
Project description:Glucose isomerase (GI), an enzyme with deserved high potential in the world market. GI plays a major role in high Fructose Corn Syrup Production (HFCS). HFCS is used as a sweetener in food and pharmaceutical industries. Streptomyces are well-known producers of various industrially valuable enzymes, including Glucose isomerase. Currently, recombinant strains have been available for the production of various enzymes, but it has limitation in the large scale production. Therefore, identifying effective streptomyces strains have emerged. The current study, the novel S. lividans RSU26 was isolated from a marine source and optimized its potential to produce glucose isomerase at different physical and chemical conditions. The optimum pH and temperature for GI and biomass production were 7.5 and 35 °C, respectively at 96 h. Characterization study revealed that the approximate molar mass of GI was 43 kDa for monomeric and 170 kDa for tetrameric forms. Kinetic behavior exhibits Km, and Vmax values for the conversion of fructose to glucose conversion were 48.8 mM and 2.54 U mg-1 at 50 °C and glucose to fructose were 29.4 mM and 2.38 U mg-1 at 65 °C protein, respectively. Therefore, the present study suggested that the wild-type S. lividans RSU26 has strong potential to produce glucose isomerase for various industrial applications.
Project description:Transglutaminases (TGase), which are synthesized as a zymogen (pro-TGase) in Streptomyces sp., are important enzymes in the food industry. Because this pro-peptide is essential for the correct folding of Streptomyces TGase, TGase is usually expressed in an inactive pro-TGase form, which is then converted to active TGase by the addition of activating proteases in vitro. In this study, Streptomyces hygroscopicus TGase was actively produced by Streptomyces lividans through promoter engineering and codon optimization.A gene fragment (tg1, 2.6 kb) that encoded the pro-TGase and its endogenous promoter region, signal peptide and terminator was amplified from S. hygroscopicus WSH03-13 and cloned into plasmid pIJ86, which resulted in pIJ86/tg1. After fermentation for 2 days, S. lividans TK24 that harbored pIJ86/tg1 produced 1.8 U/mL of TGase, and a clear TGase band (38 kDa) was detected in the culture supernatant. These results indicated that the pro-TGase was successfully expressed and correctly processed into active TGase in S. lividans TK24 by using the TGase promoter. Based on deletion analysis, the complete sequence of the TGase promoter is restricted to the region from -693 to -48. We also identified a negative element (-198 to -148) in the TGase promoter, and the deletion of this element increased the TGase production by 81.3 %, in contrast to the method by which S. lividans expresses pIJ86/tg1. Combining the deletion of the negative element of the promoter and optimization of the gene codons, the yield and productivity of TGase reached 5.73 U/mL and 0.14 U/mL/h in the recombinant S. lividans, respectively.We constructed an active TGase-producing strain that had a high yield and productivity, and the optimized TGase promoter could be a good candidate promoter for the expression of other proteins in Streptomyces.
Project description:The conjugative plasmid pIJ101 of the spore-forming bacterium Streptomyces lividans contains a regulatory gene, korB, whose product is required to repress potentially lethal expression of the pIJ101 kilB gene. The KorB protein also autoregulates korB gene expression and may be involved in control of pIJ101 copy number. KorB (pIJ101) is expressed as a 10-kDa protein in S. lividans that is immediately processed to a mature 6-kDa repressor molecule. The conjugative Streptomyces cyanogenus plasmid pSB24.1 is deleted upon entry into S. lividans to form pSB24.2, a nonconjugative derivative that contains a korB gene nearly identical to that of pIJ101. Previous evidence that korB of pSB24.2 is capable of overriding pIJ101 kilB-associated lethality supported the notion that pIJ101 and pSB24.2 encode highly related, perhaps even identical conjugation systems. Here we show that KorB (pIJ101) and KorB (pSB24.2) repress transcription from the pIJ101 kilB promoter equally well, although differences exist with respect to their interactions with kilB promoter sequences. Despite high sequence and functional similarities, KorB (pSB24.2) was found to exist as multiple stable forms ranging in size from 10 to 6 kDa both in S. lividans and S. cyanogenus. Immediate processing of KorB (pIJ101) exclusively to the 6-kDa repressor form meanwhile was conserved between the two species. A feature common to both proteins was a marked increase in expression or accumulation upon sporulation, an occurrence that may indicate a particular need for increased quantities of this regulatory protein upon spore germination and resumption of active growth of plasmid-containing cells.
Project description:Erythrocytes from the circulation of rats bearing Yoshida ascites sarcoma exhibit higher concanavalin A (ConA)-mediated agglutinability than those from normal animals. A tetrameric glycoprotein of subunit molecular mass 170 kDa, purified from the cell-free ascites fluid, was found to confer higher ConA-mediated agglutinability on erythrocytes in vitro. An antiserum to this tumour-derived protein failed to detect any cross-reactive component in normal rat plasma or in any of the normal tissues examined. An immunoreactive protein was, however, detected in blood plasma when the acute-phase reaction was stimulated by injection of turpentine. The cross-reactive acute-phase protein was purified by ConA-affinity, gel-filtration and ion-exchange chromatography, and identified as alpha2-macroglobulin. The acute-phase protein and the protein obtained from the ascites fluid have identical or very similar native and subunit molecular masses, subunit arrangement and pI. They both are able to inhibit trypsin and, as a consequence, acquire greater mobility in native PAGE. In addition, the two proteins bind to rat erythrocytes non-specifically, and in similar amounts. However, despite these similarities, the acute-phase protein is unable to enhance the agglutinability of erythrocytes. The two proteins differ in their carbohydrate content, but this differential glycosylation is not the cause of the difference in their surface modification activity. The chemically deglycosylated proteins show a small but consistent difference in the size of their polypeptides. Their tryptic peptide maps, although largely similar, show some differences, as do their amino acid compositions. It is probable that the proteins are independent members of the same (alpha-macroglobulin) family. The rat embryo is also found to express a soluble protein consisting of a 170 kDa polypeptide that cross-reacts with the antibody to the tumour-derived protein. The purified embryo protein is able to alter the ConA-mediated agglutinability of erythrocytes in vitro, and also yields a tryptic peptide map that is identical to that of the tumour-derived protein. The modification of the host cell surface in the tumour-bearing rats is thus caused by what appears to be a tumour (oncofetal?) variant of alpha2-macroglobulin.
Project description:A gene, pcbC, encoding the isopenicillin N synthase of Streptomyces griseus NRRL 3851, has been cloned in a 6.4-kb Bg/II DNA fragment and located in an internal 1.55-kb PvuII segment by hybridization with the Penicillium chrysogenum pcbC gene. Hybridization studies revealed the presence of homologous sequences in the DNAs of several Streptomyces strains and Nocardia lactamdurans. The S. griseus pcbC gene was not expressed in Streptomyces lividans but was expressed in Streptomyces clavuligerus and complemented a mutation, nce2, that impaired isopenicillin N synthase and cephamycin biosynthesis. The pcbC gene contained an open reading frame of 990 nucleotides that encodes a protein of 329 amino acids with a deduced Mr of 37,371. The isopenicillin N synthase formed after expression of the pcbC gene in the S. clavuligerus nce2 mutant strain was found to have an Mr of 38,000 by gel filtration. A protein of about 38 kDa was observed in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels of extracts of a transformant of the nce2 mutant strain; this protein was absent from the untransformed mutant strain. The G+C content of the pcbC gene was 63.6%, and the strongly biased codon usage was typical of that of Streptomyces strains. A transcription initiation site was found 44 nucleotides upstream of the ATG translation initiation triplet. A transcript of 1.1 kb was observed in the donor S. griseus strain and also in the S. clavuligerus nce2 mutant strain transformed with the pcbC gene, suggesting that it is transcribed as a monocistronic mRNA.
Project description:delta-Aminolevulinic acid, the biosynthetic precursor of tetrapyrroles, is synthesized from glutamate via the tRNA-dependent five-carbon pathway in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium vibrioforme. The enzyme glutamyl-tRNA reductase (GTR), encoded by the hemA gene, catalyzes the first committed step in this pathway, which is the reduction of tRNA-bound glutamate to produce glutamate 1-semialdehyde. To characterize the GTR protein, the hemA gene from C. vibrioforme was cloned into expression plasmids that added an N-terminal His(6) tag to the expressed protein. The His-tagged GTR protein was purified using Ni affinity column chromatography. GTR was observable as a 49-kDa band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels. The native molecular mass, as determined by gel filtration chromatography, appeared to be approximately 40 kDa, indicating that native GTR is a monomer. However, when the protein was mixed with 5% (vol/vol) glycerol, the product had an apparent molecular mass of 95 kDa, indicating that the protein is a dimer under these conditions. Purified His(6)-GTR was catalytically active in vitro when it was incubated with Escherichia coli glutamyl-tRNA(Glu) and purified recombinant Chlamydomonas reinhardtii glutamate-1-semialdehyde aminotransferase. The expressed GTR contained 1 mol of tightly bound heme per mol of pep tide subunit. The heme remained bound to the protein throughout purification and was not removed by anion- or cation-exchange column chromatography. However, the bound heme was released during SDS-PAGE if the protein was denatured in the presence of beta-mercaptoethanol. Added heme did not inhibit the activity of purified expressed GTR in vitro. However, when the GTR was expressed in the presence of 3-amino-2,3- dihydrobenzoic acid (gabaculine), an inhibitor of heme synthesis, the purified GTR had 60 to 70% less bound heme than control GTR, and it was inhibited by hemin in vitro.
Project description:Bartonella species can be differentiated by microimmunofluorescence assay, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and immunoblotting with murine polyclonal antisera to Bartonella henselae, B. quintana, B. elizabethae, and B. bacilliformis. A pairwise comparison on the basis of SDS-PAGE protein profiles demonstrated similarity values for proteins of different Bartonella species ranging from 28.6 to 86.4%. Antigenic relationships revealed by immunoblotting with murine antisera were equivalent to those of proteins observed by SDS-PAGE. A dendrogram obtained on the basis of protein bands of SDS-polyacrylamide gels showed that Bartonella species could be divided into three groups. B. bacilliformis was distinct from all other Bartonella species; B. grahamii, B. taylorii, B. doshiae, and B. vinsonii formed a cluster, as did B. henselae, B. quintana, B. elizabethae, and B. clarridgeiae. These relationships were consistent with those revealed by parsimony trees derived from 16S rRNA and gltA gene sequencing. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that 120-, 104-, 85-, 71-, 54-, 47-, 40-, 33-, 30-, and 19-kDa proteins were present in all species, with the 54-kDa protein being the most dominant. Proteins with a molecular mass of less than 54 kDa allow the differentiation of species and are a possible target for future species-specific antibodies and antigens.
Project description:Blasticidin S is a peptidyl nucleoside antibiotic produced by Streptomyces griseochromogenes that exhibits strong fungicidal activity. To circumvent an effective DNA uptake barrier system in the native producer and investigate its biosynthesis in vivo, the blasticidin S biosynthetic gene cluster (bls) was engrafted to the chromosome of Streptomyces lividans. However, the resulting mutant, LL2, produced the inactive deaminohydroxyblasticidin S instead of blasticidin S. Subsequently, a blasticidin S deaminase (SLBSD, for S. lividans blasticidin S deaminase) was identified in S. lividans and shown to govern this in vivo conversion. Purified SLBSD was found to be capable of transforming blasticidin S to deaminohydroxyblasticidin S in vitro. It also catalyzed deamination of the cytosine moiety of cytosylglucuronic acid, an intermediate in blasticidin S biosynthesis. Disruption of the SLBSD gene in S. lividans LL2 led to successful production of active blasticidin S in the resultant mutant, S. lividans WJ2. To demonstrate the easy manipulation of the blasticidin S biosynthetic gene cluster, blsE, blsF, and blsL, encoding a predicted radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) protein, an unknown protein, and a guanidino methyltransferase, were individually inactivated to access their role in blasticidin S biosynthesis.