MiRNA-34 prevents cancer initiation and progression in a therapeutically resistant K-ras and p53-induced mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, and current therapies fail to treat this disease in the vast majority of cases. The RAS and p53 pathways are two of the most frequently altered pathways in lung cancers, with such alterations resulting in loss of responsiveness to current therapies and decreased patient survival. The microRNA-34 (mir-34) gene family members are downstream transcriptional targets of p53, and miR-34 expression is reduced in p53 mutant tumors; thus, we hypothesized that treating mutant Kras;p53 tumors with miR-34 would represent a powerful new therapeutic to suppress lung tumorigenesis. To this end we examined the therapeutically resistant Kras(LSL-G12D)(/+);Trp53(LSL-R172H)(/+) mouse lung cancer model. We characterized tumor progression in these mice following lung-specific transgene activation and found tumors as early as 10 weeks postactivation, and severe lung inflammation by 22 weeks. Tumors harvested from these lungs have elevated levels of oncogenic miRNAs, miR-21 and miR-155; are deficient for p53-regulated miRNAs; and have heightened expression of miR-34 target genes, such as Met and Bcl-2. In the presence of exogenous miR-34, epithelial cells derived from these tumors show reduced proliferation and invasion. In vivo treatment with miR-34a prevented tumor formation and progression in Kras(LSL-G12D)(/+);Trp53(LSL-R172H)(/+) mice. Animals infected with mir-34a-expressing lentivirus at the same time as transgene activation had little to no evidence of tumorigenesis, and lentivirus-induced miR-34a also prevented further progression of preformed tumors. These data support the use of miR-34 as a lung tumor-preventative and tumor-static agent.
Project description:Tumor genotype can influence the immune microenvironment, which plays a critical role in cancer development and therapy resistance. However, the immune effects of gain-of-function Trp53 mutations have not been defined in pancreatic cancer. We compare the immune profiles generated by Kras<sup>G12D</sup>-mutated mouse pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (PDECs) engineered genetically to express the Trp53<sup>R172H</sup> mutation with their p53 wild-type control. Kras<sup>G12D/+</sup>;Trp53<sup>R172H/+</sup> tumors have a distinct immune profile characterized by an influx of CD11b<sup>+</sup>Ly6G<sup>+</sup> neutrophils and concomitant decreases in CD3<sup>+</sup> T cells, CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells, and CD4<sup>+</sup> T helper 1 cells. Knockdown of CXCL2, a neutrophil chemokine, in the tumor epithelial compartment of CRISPR Kras<sup>G12D/+;</sup>Trp53<sup>R172H/+</sup> PDEC tumors reverses the neutrophil phenotype. Neutrophil depletion of mice bearing CRISPR Kras<sup>G12D/+</sup>;Trp53<sup>R172H/+</sup> tumors augments sensitivity to combined CD40 immunotherapy and chemotherapy. These data link Trp53<sup>R172H</sup> to the presence of intratumoral neutrophils in pancreatic cancer and suggest that tumor genotypes could inform selection of affected individuals for immunotherapy.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and siRNAs have enormous potential as cancer therapeutics, but their effective delivery to most solid tumors has been difficult. Here, we show that a new lung-targeting nanoparticle is capable of delivering miRNA mimics and siRNAs to lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and to tumors in a genetically engineered mouse model of lung cancer based on activation of oncogenic Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Kras) and loss of p53 function. Therapeutic delivery of miR-34a, a p53-regulated tumor suppressor miRNA, restored miR-34a levels in lung tumors, specifically down-regulated miR-34a target genes, and slowed tumor growth. The delivery of siRNAs targeting Kras reduced Kras gene expression and MAPK signaling, increased apoptosis, and inhibited tumor growth. The combination of miR-34a and siRNA targeting Kras improved therapeutic responses over those observed with either small RNA alone, leading to tumor regression. Furthermore, nanoparticle-mediated small RNA delivery plus conventional, cisplatin-based chemotherapy prolonged survival in this model compared with chemotherapy alone. These findings demonstrate that RNA combination therapy is possible in an autochthonous model of lung cancer and provide preclinical support for the use of small RNA therapies in patients who have cancer.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Although clinical studies have shown promise for targeting PD1/PDL1 signaling in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the regulation of PDL1 expression is poorly understood. Here, we show that PDL1 is regulated by p53 via miR-34.<h4>Methods</h4>p53 wild-type and p53-deficient cell lines (p53(-/-) and p53(+/+) HCT116, p53-inducible H1299, and p53-knockdown H460) were used to determine if p53 regulates PDL1 via miR-34. PDL1 and miR-34a expression were analyzed in samples from patients with NSCLC and mutated p53 vs wild-type p53 tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas for Lung Adenocarcinoma (TCGA LUAD). We confirmed that PDL1 is a direct target of miR-34 with western blotting and luciferase assays and used a p53(R172H?)g/+K-ras(LA1/+) syngeneic mouse model (n = 12) to deliver miR-34a-loaded liposomes (MRX34) plus radiotherapy (XRT) and assessed PDL1 expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). A two-sided t test was applied to compare the mean between different treatments.<h4>Results</h4>We found that p53 regulates PDL1 via miR-34, which directly binds to the PDL1 3' untranslated region in models of NSCLC (fold-change luciferase activity to control group, mean for miR-34a = 0.50, SD = 0.2, P < .001; mean for miR-34b = 0.52, SD = 0.2, P = .006; and mean for miR-34c = 0.59, SD = 0.14, and P = .006). Therapeutic delivery of MRX34, currently the subject of a phase I clinical trial, promoted TILs (mean of CD8 expression percentage of control group = 22.5%, SD = 1.9%; mean of CD8 expression percentage of MRX34 = 30.1%, SD = 3.7%, P = .016, n = 4) and reduced CD8(+)PD1(+) cells in vivo (mean of CD8/PD1 expression percentage of control group = 40.2%, SD = 6.2%; mean of CD8/PD1 expression percentage of MRX34 = 20.3%, SD = 5.1%, P = .001, n = 4). Further, MRX34 plus XRT increased CD8(+) cell numbers more than either therapy alone (mean of CD8 expression percentage of MRX34 plus XRT to control group = 44.2%, SD = 8.7%, P = .004, n = 4). Finally, miR-34a delivery reduced the numbers of radiation-induced macrophages (mean of F4-80 expression percentage of control group = 52.4%, SD = 1.7%; mean of F4-80 expression percentage of MRX34 = 40.1%, SD = 3.5%, P = .008, n = 4) and T-regulatory cells.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We identified a novel mechanism by which tumor immune evasion is regulated by p53/miR-34/PDL1 axis. Our results suggest that delivery of miRNAs with standard therapies, such as XRT, may represent a novel therapeutic approach for lung cancer.
Project description:TP53 mutation occurs in 50-75% of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) following an initiating activating mutation in the KRAS gene. These p53 mutations frequently result in expression of a stable protein, p53(R175H), rather than complete loss of protein expression. In this study we elucidate the functions of mutant p53 (Trp53(R172H)), compared to knockout p53 (Trp53(fl)), in a mouse model of PDAC. First we find that although Kras(G12D) is one of the major oncogenic drivers of PDAC, most Kras(G12D)-expressing pancreatic cells are selectively lost from the tissue, and those that remain form premalignant lesions. Loss, or mutation, of Trp53 allows retention of the Kras(G12D)-expressing cells and drives rapid progression of these premalignant lesions to PDAC. This progression is consistent with failed growth arrest and/or senescence of premalignant lesions, since a mutant of p53, p53(R172P), which can still induce p21 and cell cycle arrest, is resistant to PDAC formation. Second, we find that despite similar kinetics of primary tumor formation, mutant p53(R172H), as compared with genetic loss of p53, specifically promotes metastasis. Moreover, only mutant p53(R172H)-expressing tumor cells exhibit invasive activity in an in vitro assay. Importantly, in human PDAC, p53 accumulation significantly correlates with lymph node metastasis. In summary, by using 'knock-in' mutations of Trp53 we have identified two critical acquired functions of a stably expressed mutant form of p53 that drive PDAC; first, an escape from Kras(G12D)-induced senescence/growth arrest and second, the promotion of metastasis.
Project description:Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide and evolves often to lung metastasis. <i>P53<sup>R175H</sup></i> (homologous to <i>Trp53</i> <sup><i>R172H</i></sup> in mice) is a common hot spot mutation. How metastasis is regulated by p53<sup>R175H</sup> in ESCC remains to be investigated. To investigate p53<sup>R175H</sup>-mediated molecular mechanisms, we used a carcinogen-induced approach in <i>Trp53<sup>R172H/-</sup></i> mice to model ESCC. In the primary <i>Trp53<sup>R172H/-</sup></i> tumor cell lines, we depleted Trp53<sup>R172H</sup> (shTrp53) and observed a marked reduction in cell invasion in vitro and lung metastasis burden in a tail-vein injection model in comparing isogenic cells (shCtrl). Furthermore, we performed bulk RNA-seq to compare gene expression profiles of metastatic and primary shCtrl and shTrp53 cells. We identified the YAP-<i>BIRC5</i> axis as a potential mediator of <i>Trp53</i> <sup><i>R172H</i></sup> -mediated metastasis. We demonstrate that expression of Survivin, an antiapoptotic protein encoded by <i>BIRC5</i>, increases in the presence of Trp53<sup>R172H</sup> Furthermore, depletion of Survivin specifically decreases Trp53<sup>R172H</sup>-driven lung metastasis. Mechanistically, Trp53<sup>R172H</sup> but not wild-type Trp53, binds with YAP in ESCC cells, suggesting their cooperation to induce Survivin expression. Furthermore, Survivin high expression level is associated with increased metastasis in several GI cancers. Taken together, this study unravels new insights into how mutant p53 mediates metastasis.
Project description:Ovarian cancer is a complex and deadly disease that remains difficult to detect at an early curable stage. Furthermore, although some oncogenic (Kras, Pten/PI3K and Trp53) pathways that are frequently mutated, deleted or amplified in ovarian cancer are known, how these pathways initiate and drive specific morphological phenotypes and tumor outcomes remain unclear. We recently generated Pten(fl/fl); Kras(G12D); Amhr2-Cre mice to disrupt the Pten gene and express a stable mutant form of Kras(G12D) in ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells. On the basis of histopathologic criteria, the mutant mice developed low-grade ovarian serous papillary adenocarcinomas at an early age and with 100% penetrance. This highly reproducible phenotype provides the first mouse model in which to study this ovarian cancer subtype. OSE cells isolated from ovaries of mutant mice at 5 and 10 weeks of age exhibit temporal changes in the expression of specific Mullerian epithelial marker genes, grow in soft agar and develop ectopic invasive tumors in recipient mice, indicating that the cells are transformed. Gene profiling identified specific mRNAs and microRNAs differentially expressed in purified OSE cells derived from tumors of the mutant mice compared with wild-type OSE cells. Mapping of transcripts or genes between the mouse OSE mutant data sets, the Kras signature from human cancer cell lines and the human ovarian tumor array data sets, documented significant overlap, indicating that KRAS is a key driver of OSE transformation in this context. Two key hallmarks of the mutant OSE cells in these mice are the elevated expression of the tumor-suppressor Trp53 (p53) and its microRNA target, miR-34a-c. We propose that elevated TRP53 and miR-34a-c may exert negatively regulatory effects that reduce the proliferative potential of OSE cells leading to the low-grade serous adenocarcinoma phenotype.
Project description:We wished to investigate the role of E-cadherin loss in our mouse parietal cell/pre-parietal cell E-cadherin knock-out, p53 knock-out, oncogenic Kras induced model of gastric cancer. As such, we isolated RNA from stomach tissue from our E-cadherin knock-out model (Atp4b-Cre;Cdh1(fl/fl);Kras(LSL-G12D/+);Trp53(fl/fl);Rosa26(LSL-YFP/LSL-YFP)) and our E-cadherin heterozygous model (Atp4b-Cre;Cdh1(fl/+);Kras(LSL-G12D/+);Trp53(fl/fl);Rosa26(LSL-YFP/LSL-YFP)). We then performed a microarray on this stomach tissue from four independent mice of each genotype. Differentially expressed genes were identified and gene set overlap analysis was used to identify pathways enriched in one model over the other.
Project description:Catecholamines stimulate epithelial proliferation, but the role of sympathetic nerve signaling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is poorly understood. Catecholamines promoted ADRB2-dependent PDAC development, nerve growth factor (NGF) secretion, and pancreatic nerve density. Pancreatic Ngf overexpression accelerated tumor development in LSL-Kras+/G12D;Pdx1-Cre (KC) mice. ADRB2 blockade together with gemcitabine reduced NGF expression and nerve density, and increased survival of LSL-Kras+/G12D;LSL-Trp53+/R172H;Pdx1-Cre (KPC) mice. Therapy with a Trk inhibitor together with gemcitabine also increased survival of KPC mice. Analysis of PDAC patient cohorts revealed a correlation between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, nerve density, and increased survival of patients on nonselective ?-blockers. These findings suggest that catecholamines drive a feedforward loop, whereby upregulation of neurotrophins increases sympathetic innervation and local norepinephrine accumulation.