The 5-phosphatase OCRL mediates retrograde transport of the mannose 6-phosphate receptor by regulating a Rac1-cofilin signalling module.
ABSTRACT: Mutations in the OCRL gene encoding the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P(2)) 5-phosphatase OCRL cause Lowe syndrome (LS), which is characterized by intellectual disability, cataracts and selective proximal tubulopathy. OCRL localizes membrane-bound compartments and is implicated in intracellular transport. Comprehensive analysis of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in fibroblasts of patients with LS did not reveal any difference in trafficking of epidermal growth factor, low density lipoprotein or transferrin, compared with normal fibroblasts. However, LS fibroblasts displayed reduced mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR)-mediated re-uptake of the lysosomal enzyme arylsulfatase B. In addition, endosome-to-trans Golgi network (TGN) transport of MPRs was decreased significantly, leading to higher levels of cell surface MPRs and their enrichment in enlarged, retromer-positive endosomes in OCRL-depleted HeLa cells. In line with the higher steady-state concentration of MPRs in the endosomal compartment in equilibrium with the cell surface, anterograde transport of the lysosomal enzyme, cathepsin D was impaired. Wild-type OCRL counteracted accumulation of MPR in endosomes in an activity-dependent manner, suggesting that PI(4,5)P(2) modulates the activity state of proteins regulated by this phosphoinositide. Indeed, we detected an increased amount of the inactive, phosphorylated form of cofilin and lower levels of the active form of PAK3 upon OCRL depletion. Levels of active Rac1 and RhoA were reduced or enhanced, respectively. Overexpression of Rac1 rescued both enhanced levels of phosphorylated cofilin and MPR accumulation in enlarged endosomes. Our data suggest that PI(4,5)P(2) dephosphorylation through OCRL regulates a Rac1-cofilin signalling cascade implicated in MPR trafficking from endosomes to the TGN.
Project description:Rab31, a protein that we cloned from an oligodendrocyte cDNA library, is required for transport of mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs) from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to endosomes and for Golgi/TGN organization. Here we extend the knowledge of the mechanism of action of Rab31 by demonstrating its interaction with OCRL-1, a phosphatidylinositol 4,5-diphosphate 5-phosphatase (PI(4,5)P(2) 5-phosphatase) that regulates the levels of PI(4,5)P(2) and PI(4)P, molecules involved in transport and Golgi/TGN organization. We show that Rab31 interacts with OCRL-1 in a yeast two-hybrid system, GST-Rab31 pull-down experiments, and coimmunoprecipitation of OCRL-1 using oligodendrocyte culture lysates. Rab31 and OCRL-1 colocalize in the TGN, post-TGN carriers, and endosomes. Cation-dependent MPR (CD-MPR) is sorted to OCRL-1-containing carriers, but CD63 and vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSVG) are not. siRNA-mediated depletion of endogenous Rab31 causes collapse of the TGN apparatus and markedly decreases the levels of OCRL-1 in the TGN and endosomes. Our observations indicate that the role of Rab31 in the Golgi/TGN structure and transport of MPRs depends on its capability to recruit OCRL-1 to domains of the TGN where the formation of carriers occurs. The importance of our observations is highlighted by the fact that mutation of OCRL-1 causes demyelination in humans.
Project description:Rab31, a protein that we originally cloned from a rat oligodendrocyte cDNA library, localizes in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. However, its function has not yet been established. Here we show the involvement of Rab31 in the transport of mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs) from TGN to endosomes. We demonstrate the specific sorting of cation-dependent-MPR (CD-MPR), but not CD63 and vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSVG) protein, to Rab31-containing trans-Golgi network carriers. CD-MPR and Rab31 containing carriers originate from extending TGN tubules that also contain clathrin and GGA1 coats. Expression of constitutively active Rab31 reduced the content of CD-MPR in the TGN relative to that of endosomes, while expression of dominant negative Rab31 triggered reciprocal changes in CD-MPR distribution. Expression of dominant negative Rab31 also inhibited the formation of carriers containing CD-MPR in the TGN, without affecting the exit of VSVG from this compartment. Importantly, siRNA-mediated depletion of endogenous Rab31 caused the collapse of the Golgi apparatus. Our observations demonstrate that Rab31 is required for transport of MPRs from TGN to endosomes and for the Golgi/TGN organization.
Project description:Mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs) deliver newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes to endosomes and then recycle to the Golgi. MPR recycling requires Rab9 GTPase; Rab9 recruits the cytosolic adaptor TIP47 and enhances its ability to bind to MPR cytoplasmic domains during transport vesicle formation. Rab9-bearing vesicles then fuse with the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in living cells, but nothing is known about how these vesicles identify and dock with their target. We show here that GCC185, a member of the Golgin family of putative tethering proteins, is a Rab9 effector that is required for MPR recycling from endosomes to the TGN in living cells, and in vitro. GCC185 does not rely on Rab9 for its TGN localization; depletion of GCC185 slightly alters the Golgi ribbon but does not interfere with Golgi function. Loss of GCC185 triggers enhanced degradation of mannose 6-phosphate receptors and enhanced secretion of hexosaminidase. These data assign a specific pathway to an interesting, TGN-localized protein and suggest that GCC185 may participate in the docking of late endosome-derived, Rab9-bearing transport vesicles at the TGN.
Project description:The recruitment of inositol phosphatases to endocytic membranes mediates dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2, a phosphoinositide concentrated in the plasma membrane, and prevents its accumulation on endosomes. The importance of the conversion of PI(4,5)P2 to PtdIns during endocytosis is demonstrated by the presence of both a 5-phosphatase and a 4-phosphatase (Sac domain) module in the synaptojanins, endocytic PI(4,5)P2 phosphatases conserved from yeast to humans and the only PI(4,5)P2 phosphatases in yeast. OCRL, another 5-phosphatase that couples endocytosis to PI(4,5)P2 dephosphorylation, lacks a Sac domain. Here we show that Sac2/INPP5F is a PI4P phosphatase that colocalizes with OCRL on endocytic membranes, including vesicles formed by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, macropinosomes, and Rab5 endosomes. An OCRL-Sac2/INPP5F interaction could be demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation and was potentiated by Rab5, whose activity is required to recruit Sac2/INPP5F to endosomes. Sac2/INPP5F and OCRL may cooperate in the sequential dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2 at the 5 and 4 position of inositol in a partnership that mimics that of the two phosphatase modules of synaptojanin.
Project description:DOCK180 is the archetype of the DOCK180-family guanine nucleotide exchange factor for small GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42. DOCK180-family proteins share two conserved domains, called DOCK homology region (DHR)-1 and -2. Although the function of DHR2 is to activate Rac1, DHR1 is required for binding to phosphoinositides. To better understand the function of DHR1, we searched for its binding partners by direct nanoflow liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and we identified sorting nexins (SNX) 1, 2, 5, and 6, which make up a multimeric protein complex mediating endosome-to-trans-Golgi-network (TGN) retrograde transport of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR). Among these SNX proteins, SNX5 was coimmunoprecipitated with DOCK180 most efficiently. In agreement with this observation, DOCK180 colocalized with SNX5 at endosomes. The RNA interference-mediated knockdowns of SNX5 and DOCK180, but not Rac1, resulted in the redistribution of CI-MPR from TGN to endosomes. Furthermore, expression of the DOCK180 DHR1 domain was sufficient to restore the perturbed CI-MPR distribution in DOCK180 knockdown cells. These data suggest that DOCK180 regulates CI-MPR trafficking via SNX5 and that this function is independent of its guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity toward Rac1.
Project description:Oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe is caused by mutation of OCRL1, a phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 5-phosphatase localized at the Golgi apparatus. The cellular role of OCRL1 is unknown, and consequently the mechanism by which loss of OCRL1 function leads to disease is ill defined. Here, we show that OCRL1 is associated with clathrin-coated transport intermediates operating between the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. OCRL1 interacts directly with clathrin heavy chain and promotes clathrin assembly in vitro. Interaction with clathrin is not, however, required for membrane association of OCRL1. Overexpression of OCRL1 results in redistribution of clathrin and the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) to enlarged endosomal structures that are defective in retrograde trafficking to the TGN. Depletion of cellular OCRL1 also causes partial redistribution of a CI-MPR reporter to early endosomes. These findings suggest a role for OCRL1 in clathrin-mediated trafficking of proteins from endosomes to the TGN and that defects in this pathway might contribute to the Lowe syndrome phenotype.
Project description:Mutation of the inositol 5-phosphatase OCRL1 causes Lowe syndrome and Dent-2 disease. Loss of OCRL1 function perturbs several cellular processes, including membrane traffic, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here we show that OCRL1 is part of the membrane-trafficking machinery operating at the trans-Golgi network (TGN)/endosome interface. OCRL1 interacts via IPIP27A with the F-BAR protein pacsin 2. OCRL1 and IPIP27A localize to mannose 6-phosphate receptor (MPR)-containing trafficking intermediates, and loss of either protein leads to defective MPR carrier biogenesis at the TGN and endosomes. OCRL1 5-phosphatase activity, which is membrane curvature sensitive, is stimulated by IPIP27A-mediated engagement of OCRL1 with pacsin 2 and promotes scission of MPR-containing carriers. Our data indicate a role for OCRL1, via IPIP27A, in regulating the formation of pacsin 2-dependent trafficking intermediates and reveal a mechanism for coupling PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis with carrier biogenesis on endomembranes.
Project description:We have stably expressed in HeLa cells a chimeric protein made of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin like growth factor II receptor in order to study its dynamics in living cells. At steady state, the bulk of this chimeric protein (GFP-CI-MPR) localizes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), but significant amounts are also detected in peripheral, tubulo-vesicular structures and early endosomes as well as at the plasma membrane. Time-lapse videomicroscopy shows that the GFP-CI-MPR is ubiquitously detected in tubular elements that detach from the TGN and move toward the cell periphery, sometimes breaking into smaller tubular fragments. The formation of the TGN-derived tubules is temperature dependent, requires the presence of intact microtubule and actin networks, and is regulated by the ARF-1 GTPase. The TGN-derived tubules fuse with peripheral, tubulo-vesicular structures also containing the GFP-CI-MPR. These structures are highly dynamic, fusing with each other as well as with early endosomes. Time-lapse videomicroscopy performed on HeLa cells coexpressing the CFP-CI-MPR and the AP-1 complex whose gamma-subunit was fused to YFP shows that AP-1 is present not only on the TGN and peripheral CFP-CI-MPR containing structures but also on TGN-derived tubules containing the CFP-CI-MPR. The data support the notion that tubular elements can mediate MPR transport from the TGN to a peripheral, tubulo-vesicular network dynamically connected with the endocytic pathway and that the AP-1 coat may facilitate MPR sorting in the TGN and endosomes.
Project description:Mutations in the inositol 5-phosphatase OCRL are responsible for Lowe syndrome, whose manifestations include mental retardation and renal Fanconi syndrome. OCRL has been implicated in membrane trafficking, but disease mechanisms remain unclear. We show that OCRL visits late-stage, endocytic clathrin-coated pits and binds the Rab5 effector APPL1 on peripheral early endosomes. The interaction with APPL1, which is mediated by the ASH-RhoGAP-like domains of OCRL and is abolished by disease mutations, provides a link to protein networks implicated in the reabsorptive function of the kidney and in the trafficking and signaling of growth factor receptors in the brain. Crystallographic studies reveal a role of the ASH-RhoGAP-like domains in positioning the phosphatase domain at the membrane interface and a clathrin box protruding from the RhoGAP-like domain. Our results support a role of OCRL in the early endocytic pathway, consistent with the predominant localization of its preferred substrates, PI(4,5)P(2) and PI(3,4,5)P(3), at the cell surface.
Project description:The cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6-P) receptor (CI-MPR) binds newly synthesized, Man-6-P-containing lysosomal acid hydrolases in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) for clathrin-mediated transport to endosomes. It has remained unresolved, however, whether acid hydrolase binding is required for exit of the CI-MPR from the TGN. To address this question we used a B cell line derived from a Mucolipidosis type II (MLII)/I-cell disease patient. In MLII patients, acid hydrolases do not acquire the Man-6-P recognition marker and as a consequence do not bind to the CI-MPR. This causes secretion of the majority of the acid hydrolases and a decreased lysosomal activity resulting in typical inclusion bodies. In agreement herewith, ultrastructural analysis of the MLII patient derived B cells showed numerous inclusion bodies with undigested material, which we defined as autolysosomes. By quantitative immuno-electron microscopy we then studied the distribution of the CI-MPR in these cells. We found that the level of co-localization of TGN-localized CI-MPR and clathrin was similar in MLII and control B cells. Moreover, the CI-MPR was readily found in endosomes of MLII cells and the TGN-to-early endosome ratio of CI-MPR labeling was unaltered. These data show that there is no block in TGN exit of the CI-MPR in the absence of Man-6-P-modified acid hydrolases. Notably, late endosomes and inclusion bodies in MLII B cells contained increased levels of the CI-MPR, which likely reflects the reduced degradative capacity of these compartments.