Preventing acute gut wall damage in infectious diarrhoeas with glycosylated dendrimers.
ABSTRACT: Intestinal pathogens use the host's excessive inflammatory cytokine response, designed to eliminate dangerous bacteria, to disrupt epithelial gut wall integrity and promote their tissue invasion. We sought to develop a non-antibiotic-based approach to prevent this injury. Molecular docking studies suggested that glycosylated dendrimers block the TLR4-MD-2-LPS complex, and a 13.6 kDa polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer glucosamine (DG) reduced the induction of human monocyte interleukin (IL)-6 by Gram-negative bacteria. In a rabbit model of shigellosis, PAMAM-DG prevented epithelial gut wall damage and intestinal villous destruction, reduced local IL-6 and IL-8 expression, and minimized bacterial invasion. Computational modelling studies identified a 3.3 kDa polypropyletherimine (PETIM)-DG as the smallest likely bioactive molecule. In human monocytes, high purity PETIM-DG potently inhibited Shigella Lipid A-induced IL-6 expression. In rabbits, PETIM-DG prevented Shigella-induced epithelial gut wall damage, reduced local IL-6 and IL-8 expression, and minimized bacterial invasion. There was no change in ?-defensin, IL-10, interferon-?, transforming growth factor-?, CD3 or FoxP3 expression. Small and orally delivered DG could be useful for preventing gut wall tissue damage in a wide spectrum of infectious diarrhoeal diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Microbial translocation from the gut to systemic circulation contributes to immune activation during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and is usually assessed by measuring plasma levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Fungal colonization in the gut increases during HIV-infection and people living with HIV (PLWH) have increased plasma levels of fungal polysaccharide (1?3)-?-D-Glucan (?DG). We assessed the contribution of circulating DG to systemic immune activation in PLWH. METHODS:Cross-sectional and longitudinal assessments of plasma ?DG levels were conducted along with markers of HIV disease progression, epithelial gut damage, bacterial translocation, proinflammatory cytokines, and ?DG-specific receptor expression on monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells. RESULTS:Plasma ?DG levels were elevated during early and chronic HIV infection and persisted despite long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART). ?DG increased over 24 months without ART but remained unchanged after 24 months of treatment. ?DG correlated negatively with CD4 T-cell count and positively with time to ART initiation, viral load, intestinal fatty acid-binding protein, LPS, and soluble LPS receptor soluble CD14 (sCD14). Elevated ?DG correlated positively with indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase-1 enzyme activity, regulatory T-cell frequency, activated CD38+Human Leukocyte Antigen - DR isotype (HLA-DR)+ CD4 and CD8 T cells and negatively with Dectin-1 and NKp30 expression on monocytes and NK cells, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:PLWH have elevated plasma ?DG in correlation with markers of disease progression, gut damage, bacterial translocation, and inflammation. Early ART initiation prevents further ?DG increase. This fungal antigen contributes to immune activation and represents a potential therapeutic target to prevent non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome events.
Project description:Shigella species cause diarrheal disease globally. Shigellosis is typically characterized by bloody stools and colitis with mucosal damage and is the leading bacterial cause of diarrheal death worldwide. After the pathogen is orally ingested, it invades and replicates within the colonic epithelium through mechanisms that rely on its type III secretion system (T3SS). Currently, oral infection-based small animal models to study the pathogenesis of shigellosis are lacking. Here, we found that orogastric inoculation of infant rabbits with Shigella flexneri resulted in diarrhea and colonic pathology resembling that found in human shigellosis. Fasting animals prior to S. flexneri inoculation increased the frequency of disease. The pathogen colonized the colon, where both luminal and intraepithelial foci were observed. The intraepithelial foci likely arise through S. flexneri spreading from cell to cell. Robust S. flexneri intestinal colonization, invasion of the colonic epithelium, and epithelial sloughing all required the T3SS as well as IcsA, a factor required for bacterial spreading and adhesion in vitro Expression of the proinflammatory chemokine interleukin 8 (IL-8), detected with in situ mRNA labeling, was higher in animals infected with wild-type S. flexneri versus mutant strains deficient in icsA or T3SS, suggesting that epithelial invasion promotes expression of this chemokine. Collectively, our findings suggest that oral infection of infant rabbits offers a useful experimental model for studies of the pathogenesis of shigellosis and for testing of new therapeutics.IMPORTANCE Shigella species are the leading bacterial cause of diarrheal death globally. The pathogen causes bacillary dysentery, a bloody diarrheal disease characterized by damage to the colonic mucosa and is usually spread through the fecal-oral route. Small animal models of shigellosis that rely on the oral route of infection are lacking. Here, we found that orogastric inoculation of infant rabbits with S. flexneri led to a diarrheal disease and colonic pathology reminiscent of human shigellosis. Diarrhea, intestinal colonization, and pathology in this model were dependent on the S. flexneri type III secretion system and IcsA, canonical Shigella virulence factors. Thus, oral infection of infant rabbits offers a feasible model to study the pathogenesis of shigellosis and to develop and test new therapeutics.
Project description:Modulation of death is a pathogen strategy to establish residence and promote survival in host cells and tissues. Shigella spp. are human pathogens that invade colonic mucosa, where they provoke lesions caused by their ability to manipulate the host cell responses. Shigella spp. induce various types of cell death in different cell populations. However, they are equally able to protect host cells from death. Here, we have investigated on the molecular mechanisms and cell effectors governing the balance between survival and death in epithelial cells infected with Shigella. To explore these aspects, we have exploited both, the HeLa cell invasion assay and a novel ex vivo human colon organ culture model of infection that mimics natural conditions of shigellosis. Our results definitely show that Shigella induces a rapid intrinsic apoptosis of infected cells, via mitochondrial depolarization and the ensuing caspase-9 activation. Moreover, for the first time we identify the eukaryotic stress-response factor growth arrest and DNA damage 45? as a key player in the induction of the apoptotic process elicited by Shigella in epithelial cells, revealing an unexplored role of this molecule in the course of infections sustained by invasive pathogens.
Project description:?-TrCP, the substrate recognition subunit of SCF-type ubiquitin ligases, is ubiquitously expressed from two distinct paralogs, targeting for degradation many regulatory proteins, among which is the NF-?B inhibitor I?B. To appreciate tissue-specific roles of ?-TrCP, we studied the consequences of inducible ablation of three or all four alleles of the E3 in the mouse gut. The ablation resulted in mucositis, a destructive gut mucosal inflammation, which is a common complication of different cancer therapies and represents a major obstacle to successful chemoradiation therapy. We identified epithelial-derived IL-1? as the culprit of mucositis onset, inducing mucosal barrier breach. Surprisingly, epithelial IL-1? is induced by DNA damage via an NF-?B-independent mechanism. Tissue damage caused by gut barrier disruption is exacerbated in the absence of NF-?B, with failure to express the endogenous IL-1? receptor antagonist IL-1Ra upon four-allele loss. Antibody neutralization of IL-1? prevents epithelial tight junction dysfunction and alleviates mucositis in ?-TrCP-deficient mice. IL-1? antagonists should thus be considered for prevention and treatment of severe morbidity associated with mucositis.
Project description:Shigella flexneri, the etiological agent of bacillary dysentery, invades the human colonic epithelium and causes its massive inflammatory destruction. Little is known about the post-translational modifications implicated in regulating the host defense pathway against Shigella. Here, we show that SUMO-2 impairs Shigella invasion of epithelial cells in vitro. Using mice haploinsufficient for the SUMO E2 enzyme, we found that sumoylation regulates intestinal permeability and is required to restrict epithelial invasion and control mucosal inflammation. Quantitative proteomics reveals that Shigella infection alters the sumoylation status of a restricted set of transcriptional regulators involved in intestinal functions and inflammation. Consistent with this, sumoylation restricts the pro-inflammatory transcriptional response of Shigella-infected guts. Altogether, our results show that the SUMO pathway is an essential component of host innate protection, as it reduces the efficiency of two key steps of shigellosis: invasion and inflammatory destruction of the intestinal epithelium.
Project description:We refine and clinically parameterize a mathematical model of the humoral immune response against Shigella, a diarrheal bacteria that infects 80-165 million people and kills an estimated 600,000 people worldwide each year. Using Latin hypercube sampling and Monte Carlo simulations for parameter estimation, we fit our model to human immune data from two Shigella EcSf2a-2 vaccine trials and a rechallenge study in which antibody and B-cell responses against Shigella's lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and O-membrane proteins (OMP) were recorded. The clinically grounded model is used to mathematically investigate which key immune mechanisms and bacterial targets confer immunity against Shigella and to predict which humoral immune components should be elicited to create a protective vaccine against Shigella. The model offers insight into why the EcSf2a-2 vaccine had low efficacy and demonstrates that at a group level a humoral immune response induced by EcSf2a-2 vaccine or wild-type challenge against Shigella's LPS or OMP does not appear sufficient for protection. That is, the model predicts an uncontrolled infection of gut epithelial cells that is present across all best-fit model parameterizations when fit to EcSf2a-2 vaccine or wild-type challenge data. Using sensitivity analysis, we explore which model parameter values must be altered to prevent the destructive epithelial invasion by Shigella bacteria and identify four key parameter groups as potential vaccine targets or immune correlates: 1) the rate that Shigella migrates into the lamina propria or epithelium, 2) the rate that memory B cells (BM) differentiate into antibody-secreting cells (ASC), 3) the rate at which antibodies are produced by activated ASC, and 4) the Shigella-specific BM carrying capacity. This paper underscores the need for a multifaceted approach in ongoing efforts to design an effective Shigella vaccine.
Project description:To test the role of mast cells in gut inflammation and colitis using interleukin (IL)-10-deficient mice as an experimental model.Mast cell-deficient (Kit (W-sh/W-sh) ) mice were crossbred with IL-10-deficient mice to obtain double knockout (DKO) mice. The growth, mucosal damage and colitis status of DKO mice were compared with their IL-10-deficient littermates.DKO mice exhibited exacerbated colitis compared with their IL-10-deficient littermates, as shown by increased pathological score, higher myeloperoxidase content, enhanced Th1 type pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory signaling, elevated oxidative stress, as well as pronounced goblet cell loss. In addition, deficiency in mast cells resulted in enhanced mucosal damage, increased gut permeability, and impaired epithelial tight junctions. Mast cell deficiency was also linked to systemic inflammation, as demonstrated by higher serum levels of tumor necrosis factor ? and interferon ? in DKO mice than that in IL-10-deficient mice.Mast cell deficiency in IL-10-deficient mice resulted in systematic and gut inflammation, impaired gut barrier function, and severer Th1-mediated colitis when compared to mice with only IL-10-deficiency. Inflammation and impaired gut epithelial barrier function likely form a vicious cycle to worsen colitis in the DKO mice.
Project description:Pathogen-induced reorganization of the host cell cytoskeleton is a common strategy utilized in host cell invasion by many facultative intracellular bacteria, such as Shigella, Listeria, enteroinvasive E. coli and Salmonella. Shigella is an enteroinvasive intracellular pathogen that preferentially infects human epithelial cells and causes bacillary dysentery. Invasion of Shigella into intestinal epithelial cells requires extensive remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton with the aid of pathogenic effector proteins injected into the host cell by the activity of the type III secretion system. These so-called Shigella invasins, including IpaA, IpaC, IpgB1, IpgB2 and IpgD, modulate the actin-regulatory system in a concerted manner to guarantee efficient entry of the bacteria into host cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gut microbiota and the tumor microenvironment are thought to be critical factors that modulate the processes of liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Interleukin-25 (IL-25) promotes type 2 immunity via alternative activation of macrophages, and is closely associated with inflammation-related diseases, even malignancies. However, it is not clear which role IL-25 plays in the development of HCC, and whether gut microbiota are involved. METHODS:IL-25 was detected by ELISA, Western blotting (WB), and immunohistochemistry. Chemokines were measured by RT-qPCR and WB. After co-culture with IL-25-stimulated macrophages, the cell growth, migration, invasion and EMT marker of HCC cell lines (MHCC97L and HepG2) were evaluated by Brdu proliferation, Transwell assays and WB. An antibody neutralization assay of chemokine CXCL10 was performed to confirm its role in HCC development. Furthermore, the effects of IL-25 in HCC were investigated in vivo. Dysbiosis of gut microflora was induced by antibiotics (vancomycin, cefoperazone or combination of ampicillin, neomycin, metronidazole, and vancomycin). We used feces suspension to treat colonic epithelial NCM460 cells, and detected IL-25 and tuft cell marker DCLK1 using WB and immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS:We found that the level of IL-25 was significantly elevated in HCC patients, and was negatively correlated with survival rate after hepatectomy. However, IL-25 did not directly promote the development of HCC cells. Then, we observed the significant positive correlation between IL-25 level and M2 percentage (CD206/CD68) in HCC tumors. In vitro and in vivo, IL-25 induced alternative activation of macrophages promoted HCC cell migration, invasion and tumorigenesis, increased the expression of vimentin, Snail and phospho-ERK, and decreased the expression of E-cadherin in HCC cells. After IL-25 treatment, chemokine CXCL10 was increased in macrophages. Neutralizing CXCL10 in macrophage-conditioned medium reversed the IL-25-mediated effect on HCC cells. Vancomycin-induced dysbiosis promoted the growth of orthotopic HCC homograft. Surprisedly, we found the hyperplasia of colonic epithelial tuft cells, from which more IL-25 was secreted . CONCLUSIONS:IL-25 promotes the progression of HCC through inducing alternative activation and CXCL10 secretion of macrophages in tumor microenvironment, and IL-25 secretion may partly result from hyperplastic epithelial tuft cells in colon, induced by gut microbiota dysbiosis.
Project description:l-cysteine (Cys)- and l-serine (Ser)-modified, third-generation polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer with multiple reduced thiols (Ser-PAMAM-Cys) was synthesized as a kidney-targeting reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger to help prevent renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Ser-PAMAM-Cys effectively scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and ROS (hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). In addition, ~64% of 111In-labeled Ser-PAMAM-Cys accumulated in mouse kidney 3 h after intravenous administration. An in vivo imaging system (IVIS) study indicated that near-infrared fluorescence dye (NIR)-labeled Ser-PAMAM-Cys specifically accumulated in the kidney. In a mouse renal ischemia/reperfusion injury model, increases in the kidney damage markers creatinine (Cre) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were significantly inhibited by intravenous Ser-PAMAM-Cys administration. In contrast, Cys injection had no statistically significant effect of preventing Cre or BUN elevation relative to the control. Ser-PAMAM-Cys also effectively downregulated the inflammatory factors NGAL, IL-18, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 in the renal ischemia/reperfusion injury model. These results indicate that Ser-PAMAM-Cys is a promising kidney-targeting ROS scavenger which could prevent ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal failure.