One-pot bioethanol production from cellulose by co-culture of Acremonium cellulolyticus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
ABSTRACT: UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: While the ethanol production from biomass by consolidated bioprocess (CBP) is considered to be the most ideal process, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is the most appropriate strategy in practice. In this study, one-pot bioethanol production, including cellulase production, saccharification of cellulose, and ethanol production, was investigated for the conversion of biomass to biofuel by co-culture of two different microorganisms such as a hyper cellulase producer, Acremonium cellulolyticus C-1 and an ethanol producer Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, the operational conditions of the one-pot process were evaluated for maximizing ethanol concentration from cellulose in a single reactor. RESULTS: Ethanol production from cellulose was carried out in one-pot bioethanol production process. A. cellulolyticus C-1 and S. cerevisiae were co-cultured in a single reactor. Cellulase producing-medium supplemented with 2.5 g/l of yeast extract was used for productions of both cellulase and ethanol. Cellulase production was achieved by A. cellulolyticus C-1 using Solka-Floc (SF) as a cellulase-inducing substrate. Subsequently, ethanol was produced with addition of both 10%(v/v) of S. cerevisiae inoculum and SF at the culture time of 60 h. Dissolved oxygen levels were adjusted at higher than 20% during cellulase producing phase and at lower than 10% during ethanol producing phase. Cellulase activity remained 8-12 FPU/ml throughout the one-pot process. When 50-300 g SF/l was used in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask scale, the ethanol concentration and yield based on initial SF were as 8.7-46.3 g/l and 0.15-0.18 (g ethanol/g SF), respectively. In 3-l fermentor with 50-300 g SF/l, the ethanol concentration and yield were 9.5-35.1 g/l with their yields of 0.12-0.19 (g/g) respectively, demonstrating that the one-pot bioethanol production is a reproducible process in a scale-up bioconversion of cellulose to ethanol. CONCLUSION: A. cellulolyticus cells produce cellulase using SF. Subsequently, the produced cellulase saccharifies the SF, and then liberated reducing sugars are converted to ethanol by S. cerevisiae. These reactions were carried out in the one-pot process with two different microorganisms in a single reactor, which does require neither an addition of extraneous cellulase nor any pretreatment of cellulose. Collectively, the one-pot bioethanol production process with two different microorganisms could be an alternative strategy for a practical bioethanol production using biomass.
Project description:Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the most important processes in bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Acremonium cellulolyticus is a filamentous fungus with high cellulase production but productivity of hemicellulase, especially ?-xylosidase, is lower than other filamentous fungi. We identified 2.4 Kb ?-xylosidase gene in the A. cellulolyticus genome sequence information and it encoded 798 amino acids without introns. To enhance hemicellulase productivity in A. cellulolyticus, we transformed this fungus with the identified ?-xylosidase gene driven by the cellobiohydrolase ? (cbh1) promoter, using the protoplast-polyethyleneglycol (PEG) method, and obtained a transformant, YKX1. Hydrolysis rate of xylooligosaccharides was more than 50-fold higher using culture supernatant from YKX1 than that from the parental strain, Y-94. Total cellulase activity (measured by filter paper assay) in YKX1 was not affected by the cbh1 promoter used for expression of ?-xylosidase, and induced by cellulose. Since YKX1 can produce larger amount of ?-xylosidase without affecting cellulase productivity, it is considered to be beneficial for practical monosaccharide recoveries from lignocellulosic biomass.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Ethanol production from paper sludge (PS) by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is considered to be the most appropriate way to process PS, as it contains negligible lignin. In this study, SSF was conducted using a cellulase produced from PS by the hypercellulase producer, Acremonium cellulolyticus C-1 for PS saccharification, and a thermotolerant ethanol producer Saccharomyces cerevisiae TJ14 for ethanol production. Using cellulase of PS origin minimizes biofuel production costs, because the culture broth containing cellulase can be used directly. RESULTS: When 50 g PS organic material (PSOM)/l was used in SSF, the ethanol yield based on PSOM was 23% (g ethanol/g PSOM) and was two times higher than that obtained by a separate hydrolysis and fermentation process. Cellulase activity throughout SSF remained at around 60% of the initial activity. When 50 to 150 g PSOM/l was used in SSF, the ethanol yield was 21% to 23% (g ethanol/g PSOM) at the 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask scale. Ethanol production and theoretical ethanol yield based on initial hexose was 40 g/l and 66.3% (g ethanol/g hexose) at 80 h, respectively, when 161 g/l of PSOM, 15 filter paper units (FPU)/g PSOM, and 20% inoculum were used for SSF, which was confirmed in the 2 l scale experiment. This indicates that PS is a good raw material for bioethanol production. CONCLUSIONS: Ethanol concentration increased with increasing PSOM concentration. The ethanol yield was stable at PSOM concentrations of up to 150 g/l, but decreased at concentrations higher than 150 g/l because of mass transfer limitations. Based on a 2 l scale experiment, when 1,000 kg PS was used, 3,182 kFPU cellulase was produced from 134.7 kg PS. Produced cellulase was used for SSF with 865.3 kg PS and ethanol production was estimated to be 51.1 kg. Increasing the yeast inoculum or cellulase concentration did not significantly improve the ethanol yield or concentration.
Project description:BACKGROUND:China is the largest sweet potato producer and exporter in the world. Sweet potato residues (SPRs) separated after extracting starch account for more than 10 % of the total dry matter of sweet potatoes. In China, more than 2 million tons of SPRs cannot be utilized, and the unutilized SPRs are perishable and result in environmental pollution. Thus, an environmentally friendly and highly efficient process for bioethanol production from SPRs should be developed. RESULTS:The swelling behaviour of cellulose causes high-gravity sweet potato residues to be recalcitrant to enzymatic hydrolysis. Cellulase plays a major role in viscosity reduction and glucose production. In contrast, pectinase has a minor role in viscosity reduction but acts as a "helper protein" to assist cellulase in liberating glucose, especially at low cellulase activity levels. In total, 153.46 and 168.13 g/L glucose were produced from high-gravity SPRs with cellulase and a mixture of cellulase and pectinase, respectively. These hydrolysates were fermented to form 73.37 and 79.00 g/L ethanol, respectively. Each kilogram of dry SPR was converted to form 209.62 and 225.71 g of ethanol, respectively. CONCLUSION:The processes described in this study have an enormous potential for industrial production of bioethanol because they are environmentally friendly, highly productive, economic with low cost, and can be easily manipulated.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass is an essential process for the production of fermentable sugars for industrial use. A better understanding of fungal cellulase systems will provide clues for maximizing the hydrolysis of target biomass. Talaromyces cellulolyticus is a promising fungus for cellulase production and efficient biomass hydrolysis. Several cellulolytic enzymes purified from T. cellulolyticus were characterized in earlier studies, but the core enzymes critical for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass remain unknown. RESULTS:Six cellulolytic enzymes critical for the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose were purified from T. cellulolyticus culture supernatant using an enzyme assay based on synergistic hydrolysis of Avicel. The purified enzymes were identified by their substrate specificities and analyses of trypsin-digested peptide fragments and were classified into the following glycosyl hydrolase (GH) families: GH3 (?-glucosidase, Bgl3A), GH5 (endoglucanase, Cel5A), GH6 (cellobiohydrolase II, Cel6A), GH7 (cellobiohydrolase I and endoglucanase, Cel7A and Cel7B, respectively), and GH10 (xylanase, Xyl10A). Hydrolysis of dilute acid-pretreated corn stover (PCS) with mixtures of the purified enzymes showed that Cel5A, Cel7B, and Xyl10A each had synergistic effects with a mixture of Cel6A and Cel7A. Cel5A seemed to be more effective in the synergistic hydrolysis of the PCS than Cel7B. The ratio of Cel5A, Cel6A, Cel7A, and Xyl10A was statistically optimized for the hydrolysis of PCS glucan in the presence of Bgl3A. The resultant mixture achieved higher PCS glucan hydrolysis at lower enzyme loading than a culture filtrate from T. cellulolyticus or a commercial enzyme preparation, demonstrating that the five enzymes play a role as core enzymes in the hydrolysis of PCS glucan. CONCLUSIONS:Core cellulolytic enzymes in the T. cellulolyticus cellulase system were identified to Cel5A, Cel6A, Cel7A, Xyl10A, and Bgl3A and characterized. The optimized mixture of these five enzymes was highly effective for the hydrolysis of PCS glucan, providing a foundation for future improvement of the T. cellulolyticus cellulase system.
Project description:Cocultivation of cellulolytic and saccharolytic microbial populations is a promising strategy to improve bioethanol production from the fermentation of recalcitrant cellulosic materials. Earlier studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of cocultivation in enhancing ethanolic fermentation of cellulose in batch fermentation. To further enhance process efficiency, a semicontinuous cyclic fed-batch fermentor configuration was evaluated for its potential in enhancing the efficiency of cellulose fermentation using cocultivation. Cocultures of cellulolytic Clostridium thermocellum LQRI and saccharolytic Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus strain X514 were tested in the semicontinuous fermentor as a model system. Initial cellulose concentration and pH were identified as the key process parameters controlling cellulose fermentation performance in the fixed-volume cyclic fed-batch coculture system. At an initial cellulose concentration of 40 g liter(-1), the concentration of ethanol produced with pH control was 4.5-fold higher than that without pH control. It was also found that efficient cellulosic bioethanol production by cocultivation was sustained in the semicontinuous configuration, with bioethanol production reaching 474 mM in 96 h with an initial cellulose concentration of 80 g liter(-1) and pH controlled at 6.5 to 6.8. These results suggested the advantages of the cyclic fed-batch process for cellulosic bioethanol fermentation by the cocultures.
Project description:Cellulose is one of the most abundant and renewable biomass products used for the production of bioethanol. Cellulose can be efficiently hydrolyzed by Bacillus subtilis VS15, a strain isolate obtained from decomposing logs. A genome shuffling approach was implemented to improve the cellulase activity of Bacillus subtilis VS15. Mutant strains were created using ethyl methyl sulfonate (EMS), N-Methyl-N' nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG), and ultraviolet light (UV) followed by recursive protoplast fusion. After two rounds of shuffling, the mutants Gb2, Gc8, and Gd7 were produced that had an increase in cellulase activity of 128%, 148%, and 167%, respectively, in comparison to the wild type VS15. The genetic diversity of the shuffled strain Gd7 and wild type VS15 was compared at whole genome level. Genomic-level comparisons identified a set of eight genes, consisting of cellulase and regulatory genes, of interest for further analyses. Various genes were identified with insertions and deletions that may be involved in improved celluase production in Gd7.. Strain Gd7 maintained the capability of hydrolyzing wheatbran to glucose and converting glucose to ethanol by fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae of the wild type VS17. This ability was further confirmed by the acidified potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) method.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The recombinant yeast strains displaying the heterologous cellulolytic enzymes on the cell surface using the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring system are considered promising biocatalysts for direct conversion of lignocellulosic materials to ethanol. However, the cellulolytic activities of the conventional cellulase-displaying yeast strains are insufficient for the hydrolysis of cellulose. In this study, we constructed novel gene cassettes for the efficient cellulose utilization by cellulase-displaying yeast strains.<h4>Results</h4>The novel gene cassettes for the cell-surface display of Aspergillus aculeatus ?-glucosidase (BGL1) and Trichoderma reeseii endoglucanase II (EGII) were constructed using the promoter and the GPI anchoring region derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae SED1. The gene cassettes were integrated into the S. cerevisiae genome, then the ?-glucosidase activity of these recombinant strains was evaluated. We revealed that simultaneous utilization of the SED1 promoter and Sed1 anchoring domain in a gene cassette enabled highly-efficient enzyme integration into the cell wall. The ?-glucosidase activity of recombinant yeast cells transduced with the novel gene cassette was 8.4-fold higher than that of a conventional strain. The novel EGII-displaying strain also achieved 106-fold higher hydrolysis activity against the water-insoluble cellulose than a conventional strain. Furthermore, direct ethanol production from hydrothermally processed rice straw was improved by the display of T. reeseii EGII using the novel gene cassette.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We have developed novel gene cassettes for the efficient cell-surface display of exo- and endo-type cellulolytic enzymes. The results suggest that this gene cassette has the wide applicability for cell-surface display and that cellulase-displaying yeasts have significant potential for cost-effective bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass.
Project description:In the last years, the production of ethanol fuel has started to change with the introduction of second-generation ethanol (2?G Ethanol) in the energy sector. However, in Brazil, the process of obtaining 2?G ethanol did not reach a basic standard to achieve relevant and economically viable results. Several studies have currently been addressed to solve these issues. A critical stage in the bioethanol production is the deployment of efficient and stable enzymes to catalyze the saccharification step into the process of biomass conversion. The present study comprises a screening for genes coding for plant biomass degradation enzymes, followed by cloning a selected gene, addressing its heterologous expression, and characterizing enzymatic activity towards cellulose derived substrates, with a view to second-generation ethanol production. A cDNA database of the Cotton Boll Weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), an insect that feeds on cotton plant biomass, was used as a source of plant biomass degradation enzyme genes. A larva and adult midgut-specific ?-1,4-Endoglucanase-coding gene (AgraGH45-1) was cloned and expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Its amino acid sequence, including the two catalytic domains, shares high identity with other Coleoptera Glycosyl Hydrolases from family 45 (GH45). AgraGH45-1 activity was detected in a Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and Hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) degradation assay and the optimal conditions for enzymatic activity was pH 5.0 at 50?°C. When compared to commercial cellulase from Aspergillus niger, Agra GH45-1 was 1.3-fold more efficient to degrade HEC substrate. Together, these results show that AgraGH45-1 is a valid candidate to be engineered and be tested for 2?G ethanol production.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have examined the direct fermentation of cellulosic materials by cellulase-expressing yeast; however, ethanol productivity in these systems has not yet reached an industrial level. Certain microorganisms, such as the cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei, produce expansin-like proteins, which have a cellulose-loosening effect that may increase the breakdown of cellulose. Here, to improve the direct conversion of cellulose to ethanol, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae co-displaying cellulase and expansin-like protein on the cell surface were constructed and examined for direct ethanol fermentation performance. RESULTS: The cellulase and expansin-like protein co-expressing strain showed 246 mU/g-wet cell of phosphoric acid swollen cellulose (PASC) degradation activity, which corresponded to 2.9-fold higher activity than that of a cellulase-expressing strain. This result clearly demonstrated that yeast cell-surface expressed cellulase and expansin-like protein act synergistically to breakdown cellulose. In fermentation experiments examining direct ethanol production from PASC, the cellulase and expansin-like protein co-expressing strain produced 3.4 g/L ethanol after 96 h of fermentation, a concentration that was 1.4-fold higher than that achieved by the cellulase-expressing strain (2.5 g/L). CONCLUSIONS: The PASC degradation and fermentation ability of an engineered yeast strain was markedly improved by co-expressing cellulase and expansin-like protein on the cell surface. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate the synergetic effect of co-expressing cellulase and expansin-like protein on a yeast cell surface, which may be a promising strategy for constructing direct ethanol fermenting yeast from cellulose.
Project description:Background:Bamboo, a lignocellulosic feedstock, is considered as a potentially excellent raw material and evaluated for lignocellulose degradation and bioethanol production, with a focus on using physical and chemical pre-treatment. However, studies reporting the biodegradation of bamboo lignocellulose using microbes such as bacteria and fungi are scarce. Results:In the present study, Bacillus velezensis LC1 was isolated from Cyrtotrachelus buqueti, in which the symbiotic bacteria exhibited lignocellulose degradation ability and cellulase activities. We performed genome sequencing of B. velezensis LC1, which has a 3929,782-bp ring chromosome and 46.5% GC content. The total gene length was 3,502,596 bp using gene prediction, and the GC contents were 47.29% and 40.04% in the gene and intergene regions, respectively. The genome contains 4018 coding DNA sequences, and all have been assigned predicted functions. Carbohydrate-active enzyme annotation identified 136 genes annotated to CAZy families, including GH, GTs, CEs, PLs, AAs and CBMs. Genes involved in lignocellulose degradation were identified. After a 6-day treatment, the bamboo shoot cellulose degradation efficiency reached 39.32%, and the hydrolysate was subjected to ethanol fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli KO11, yielding 7.2 g/L of ethanol at 96 h. Conclusions:These findings provide an insight for B. velezensis strains in converting lignocellulose into ethanol. B. velezensis LC1, a symbiotic bacteria, can potentially degrade bamboo lignocellulose components and further transformation to ethanol, and expand the bamboo lignocellulosic bioethanol production.