The polymorphic pseudokinase ROP5 controls virulence in Toxoplasma gondii by regulating the active kinase ROP18.
ABSTRACT: Secretory polymorphic serine/threonine kinases control pathogenesis of Toxoplasma gondii in the mouse. Genetic studies show that the pseudokinase ROP5 is essential for acute virulence, but do not reveal its mechanism of action. Here we demonstrate that ROP5 controls virulence by blocking IFN-? mediated clearance in activated macrophages. ROP5 was required for the catalytic activity of the active S/T kinase ROP18, which phosphorylates host immunity related GTPases (IRGs) and protects the parasite from clearance. ROP5 directly regulated activity of ROP18 in vitro, and both proteins were necessary to avoid IRG recruitment and clearance in macrophages. Clearance of both the ?rop5 and ?rop18 mutants was reversed in macrophages lacking Irgm3, which is required for IRG function, and the virulence defect was fully restored in Irgm3(-/-) mice. Our findings establish that the pseudokinase ROP5 controls the activity of ROP18, thereby blocking IRG mediated clearance in macrophages. Additionally, ROP5 has other functions that are also Irgm3 and IFN-? dependent, indicting it plays a general role in governing virulence factors that block immunity.
Project description:Polymorphic rhoptry-secreted kinases (ROPs) are essential virulence factors of Toxoplasma gondii. In particular, the pseudokinase ROP5 is the major determinant of acute virulence in mice, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We developed a tandem affinity protein tagging and purification approach in T. gondii and used it to show that ROP5 complexes with the active kinases ROP18 and ROP17. Biochemical analyses indicate that ROP18 and ROP17 have evolved to target adjacent and essential threonine residues in switch region I of immunity-related guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) (IRGs), a family of host defense molecules that function to control intracellular pathogens. The combined activities of ROP17 and ROP18 contribute to avoidance of IRG recruitment to the intracellular T. gondii-containing vacuole, thus protecting the parasite from clearance in interferon-activated macrophages. These studies reveal an intricate, multilayered parasite survival strategy involving pseudokinases that regulate multiple active kinase complexes to synergistically thwart innate immunity.
Project description:The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii secretes effector proteins into the host cell that manipulate the immune response allowing it to establish a chronic infection. Crosses between the types I, II and III strains, which are prevalent in North America and Europe, have identified several secreted effectors that determine strain differences in mouse virulence. The polymorphic rhoptry protein kinase ROP18 was recently shown to determine the difference in virulence between type I and III strains by phosphorylating and inactivating the interferon-? (IFN?)-induced immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) that promote killing by disrupting the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) in murine cells. The polymorphic pseudokinase ROP5 determines strain differences in virulence through an unknown mechanism. Here we report that ROP18 can only inhibit accumulation of the IRGs on the PVM of strains that also express virulent ROP5 alleles. In contrast, specific ROP5 alleles can reduce IRG coating even in the absence of ROP18 expression and can directly interact with one or more IRGs. We further show that the allelic combination of ROP18 and ROP5 also determines IRG evasion and virulence of strains belonging to other lineages besides types I, II and III. However, neither ROP18 nor ROP5 markedly affect survival in IFN?-activated human cells, which lack the multitude of IRGs present in murine cells. These findings suggest that ROP18 and ROP5 have specifically evolved to block the IRGs and are unlikely to have effects in species that do not have the IRG system, such as humans.
Project description:In mice, avirulent strains (e.g. types II and III) of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are restricted by the immunity-related GTPase (IRG) resistance system. Loading of IRG proteins onto the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM) is required for vacuolar rupture resulting in parasite clearance. In virulent strain (e.g. type I) infections, polymorphic effector proteins ROP5 and ROP18 cooperate to phosphorylate and thereby inactivate mouse IRG proteins to preserve PVM integrity. In this study, we confirmed the dense granule protein GRA7 as an additional component of the ROP5/ROP18 kinase complex and identified GRA7 association with the PVM by direct binding to ROP5. The absence of GRA7 results in reduced phosphorylation of Irga6 correlated with increased vacuolar IRG protein amounts and attenuated virulence. Earlier work identified additional IRG proteins as targets of T. gondii ROP18 kinase. We show that the only specific target of ROP18 among IRG proteins is in fact Irga6. Similarly, we demonstrate that GRA7 is strictly an Irga6-specific virulence effector. This identifies T. gondii GRA7 as a regulator for ROP18-specific inactivation of Irga6. The structural diversity of the IRG proteins implies that certain family members constitute additional specific targets for other yet unknown T. gondii virulence effectors.
Project description:The ability of mice to resist infection with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, depends in large part on the function of members of a complex family of atypical large GTPases, the interferon-gamma-inducible immunity-related GTPases (IRG proteins). Nevertheless, some strains of T. gondii are highly virulent for mice because, as recently shown, they secrete a polymorphic protein kinase, ROP18, from the rhoptries into the host cell cytosol at the moment of cell invasion. Depending on the allele, ROP18 can act as a virulence factor for T. gondii by phosphorylating and thereby inactivating mouse IRG proteins. In this article we show that IRG proteins interact not only with ROP18, but also strongly with the products of another polymorphic locus, ROP5, already implicated as a major virulence factor from genetic crosses, but whose function has previously been a complete mystery. ROP5 proteins are members of the same protein family as ROP18 kinases but are pseudokinases by sequence, structure, and function. We show by a combination of genetic and biochemical approaches that ROP5 proteins act as essential co-factors for ROP18 and present evidence that they work by enforcing an inactive GDP-dependent conformation on the IRG target protein. By doing so they prevent GTP-dependent activation and simultaneously expose the target threonines on the switch I loop for phosphorylation by ROP18, resulting in permanent inactivation of the protein. This represents a novel mechanism in which a pseudokinase facilitates the phosphorylation of a target by a partner kinase by preparing the substrate for phosphorylation, rather than by upregulation of the activity of the kinase itself.
Project description:IFN-? activates cells to restrict intracellular pathogens by upregulating cellular effectors including the p65 family of guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs). Here we test the role of Gbp1 in the IFN-?-dependent control of T. gondii in the mouse model. Virulent strains of T. gondii avoided recruitment of Gbp1 to the parasitophorous vacuole in a strain-dependent manner that was mediated by the parasite virulence factors ROP18, an active serine/threonine kinase, and the pseudokinase ROP5. Increased recruitment of Gbp1 to ?rop18 or ?rop5 parasites was associated with clearance in IFN-?-activated macrophages in vitro, a process dependent on the autophagy protein Atg5. The increased susceptibility of ?rop18 mutants in IFN-?-activated macrophages was reverted in Gbp1(-/-) cells, and decreased virulence of this mutant was compensated in Gbp1(-/-) mice, which were also more susceptible to challenge with type II strain parasites of intermediate virulence. These findings demonstrate that Gbp1 plays an important role in the IFN-?-dependent, cell-autonomous control of toxoplasmosis and predict a broader role for this protein in host defense.
Project description:The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects a wide variety of vertebrate species globally. Infection in most hosts causes a lifelong chronic infection and generates immunological memory responses that protect the host against new infections. In regions where the organism is endemic, multiple exposures to T. gondii likely occur with great frequency, yet little is known about the interaction between a chronically infected host and the parasite strains from these areas. A widely used model to explore secondary infection entails challenge of chronically infected or vaccinated mice with the highly virulent type I RH strain. Here, we show that although vaccinated or chronically infected C57BL/6 mice are protected against the type I RH strain, they are not protected against challenge with most strains prevalent in South America or another type I strain, GT1. Genetic and genomic analyses implicated the parasite-secreted rhoptry effectors ROP5 and ROP18, which antagonize the host's gamma interferon-induced immunity-regulated GTPases (IRGs), as primary requirements for virulence during secondary infection. ROP5 and ROP18 promoted parasite superinfection in the brains of challenged survivors. We hypothesize that superinfection may be an important mechanism to generate T. gondii strain diversity, simply because two parasite strains would be present in a single meal consumed by the feline definitive host. Superinfection may drive the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma strains in South America, where most isolates are IRG resistant, compared to North America, where most strains are IRG susceptible and are derived from a few clonal lineages. In summary, ROP5 and ROP18 promote Toxoplasma virulence during reinfection.Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread parasite of warm-blooded animals and currently infects one-third of the human population. A long-standing assumption in the field is that prior exposure to this parasite protects the host from subsequent reexposure, due to the generation of protective immunological memory. However, this assumption is based on clinical data and mouse models that analyze infections with strains common to Europe infections with strains common to Europe and North America. In contrast, we found that the majority of strains sampled from around the world, in particular those from South America, were able to kill or reinfect the brains of hosts previously exposed to T. gondii. The T. gondii virulence factors ROP5 and ROP18, which inhibit key host effectors that mediate parasite killing, were required for these phenotypes. We speculate that these results underpin clinical observations that pregnant women previously exposed to Toxoplasma can develop congenital infection upon reexposure to South American strains.
Project description:The Red Queen hypothesis proposes that there is an evolutionary arms race between host and pathogen. One possible example of such a phenomenon could be the recently discovered interaction between host defense proteins known as immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) and a family of rhoptry pseudokinases (ROP5) expressed by the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Mouse IRGs are encoded by an extensive and rapidly evolving family of over 20 genes. Similarly, the ROP5 family is highly polymorphic and consists of 4-10 genes, depending on the strain of Toxoplasma. IRGs are known to be avidly bound and functionally inactivated by ROP5 proteins, but the molecular basis of this interaction/inactivation has not previously been known. Here we show that ROP5 uses a highly polymorphic surface to bind adjacent to the nucleotide-binding domain of an IRG and that this produces a profound allosteric change in the IRG structure. This has two dramatic effects: 1) it prevents oligomerization of the IRG, and 2) it alters the orientation of two threonine residues that are targeted by the Toxoplasma Ser/Thr kinases, ROP17 and ROP18. ROP5s are highly specific in the IRGs that they will bind, and the fact that it is the most highly polymorphic surface of ROP5 that binds the IRG strongly supports the notion that these two protein families are co-evolving in a way predicted by the Red Queen hypothesis.
Project description:Toxoplasma gondii has evolved a number of strategies to evade immune responses in its many hosts. Previous genetic mapping of crosses between clonal type 1, 2, and 3 strains of T. gondii, which are prevalent in Europe and North America, identified two rhoptry proteins, ROP5 and ROP18, that function together to block innate immune mechanisms activated by interferon gamma (IFNg) in murine hosts. However, the contribution of these and other virulence factors in more genetically divergent South American strains is unknown. Here we utilized a cross between the intermediately virulent North American type 2 ME49 strain and the highly virulent South American type 10 VAND strain to map the genetic basis for differences in virulence in the mouse. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of this new cross identified one peak that spanned the ROP5 locus on chromosome XII. CRISPR-Cas9 mediated deletion of all copies of ROP5 in the VAND strain rendered it avirulent and complementation confirmed that ROP5 is the major virulence factor accounting for differences between type 2 and type 10 strains. To extend these observations to other virulent South American strains representing distinct genetic populations, we knocked out ROP5 in type 8 TgCtBr5 and type 4 TgCtBr18 strains, resulting in complete loss of virulence in both backgrounds. Consistent with this, polymorphisms that show strong signatures of positive selection in ROP5 were shown to correspond to regions known to interface with host immunity factors. Because ROP5 and ROP18 function together to resist innate immune mechanisms, and a significant interaction between them was identified in a two-locus scan, we also assessed the role of ROP18 in the virulence of South American strains. Deletion of ROP18 in South American type 4, 8, and 10 strains resulted in complete attenuation in contrast to a partial loss of virulence seen for ROP18 knockouts in previously described type 1 parasites. These data show that ROP5 and ROP18 are conserved virulence factors in genetically diverse strains from North and South America, suggesting they evolved to resist innate immune defenses in ancestral T. gondii strains, and they have subsequently diversified under positive selection.
Project description:Toxoplasma gondii secretes rhoptry (ROP) and dense granule (GRA) effector proteins to evade host immune clearance mediated by interferon gamma (IFN-γ), immunity-related GTPase (IRG) effectors, and CD8+ T cells. Here, we investigated the role of parasite-secreted effectors in regulating host access to parasitophorous vacuole (PV) localized parasite antigens and their presentation to CD8+ T cells by the major histocompatibility class I (MHC-I) pathway. Antigen presentation of PV localized parasite antigens by MHC-I was significantly increased in macrophages and/or dendritic cells infected with mutant parasites that lacked expression of secreted GRA (GRA2, GRA3, GRA4, GRA5, GRA7, GRA12) or ROP (ROP5, ROP18) effectors. The ability of various secreted GRA or ROP effectors to suppress antigen presentation by MHC-I was dependent on cell type, expression of IFN-γ, or host IRG effectors. The suppression of antigen presentation by ROP5, ROP18, and GRA7 correlated with a role for these molecules in preventing PV disruption by IFN-γ-activated host IRG effectors. However, GRA2 mediated suppression of antigen presentation was not correlated with PV disruption. In addition, the GRA2 antigen presentation phenotypes were strictly co-dependent on the expression of the GRA6 protein. These results show that MHC-I antigen presentation of PV localized parasite antigens was controlled by mechanisms that were dependent or independent of IRG effector mediated PV disruption. Our findings suggest that the GRA6 protein underpins an important mechanism that enhances CD8+ T cell recognition of parasite-infected cells with damaged or ruptured PV membranes. However, in intact PVs, parasite secreted effector proteins that associate with the PV membrane or the intravacuolar network membranes play important roles to actively suppress antigen presentation by MHC-I to reduce CD8+ T cell recognition and clearance of Toxoplasma gondii infected host cells.
Project description:Macrophages are specialized to detect and destroy intracellular microbes and yet a number of pathogens have evolved to exploit this hostile niche. Here we demonstrate that the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii disarms macrophage innate clearance mechanisms by secreting a serine threonine kinase called ROP18, which binds to and phosphorylates immunity-related GTPases (IRGs). Substrate profiling of ROP18 revealed a preference for a conserved motif within switch region I of the GTPase domain, a modification predicted to disrupt IRG function. Consistent with this, expression of ROP18 was both necessary and sufficient to block recruitment of Irgb6, which was in turn required for parasite destruction. ROP18 phosphorylation of IRGs prevented clearance within inflammatory monocytes and IFN-?-activated macrophages, conferring parasite survival in vivo and promoting virulence. IRGs are implicated in clearance of a variety of intracellular pathogens, suggesting that other virulence factors may similarly thwart this innate cellular defense mechanism.